(ca. 1150–1230 A.D.), the great Persian Ṣúfí
‘Aṭṭár was a perfumer before he became a philosopher (‘Aṭṭár: generally translated “the druggist”; one who deals in rose oil and other perfumes).
Among his best-known works are Manṭiqu’ṭ-Ṭayr (“Language of the Birds”); Pand-náma (“Book of Counsels”), and Tadhkiratu’l-Awliyá’ (“Memoirs of the Saints”).
A unit of measurement. Its length differs in different parts of the country according to the nature of the ground, the local interpretation of the term being the distance which a laden mule will walk in the hour, which varies from three to four miles.
Arabicised from the old Persian “parsang,” and supposed to be derived from pieces of stone (sang) placed on the roadside.
The institution of the Bahá’í Fund, of which there are four main funds, operates on the international, continental, national, and local levels.
The Bahá’í International Fund is administered by the Universal House of Justice
and is used to support the work of the Faith at the Bahá’í World Centre
and to sustain national communities unable to meet their own expenses. The International Deputization Fund, a subsidiary of the Bahá’í International Fund, supports the work of pioneers and travelling teachers and is administered by the International Teaching Centre
. The Persian Relief Fund, originally established by the National Spiritual Assembly
of Írán to assist victims of persecution by the Islamic Republic, is also a subsidiary of the Bahá’í International Fund and is administered by the Universal House of Justice.
In its Riḍván
2012 message, the Universal House of Justice announced the formation of the Temples Fund, for the construction of the two national and five local Mashriqu’l-Adhkár
’s announced in that message.
The Continental Bahá’í Fund supports the work of the Continental Boards of Counsellors
and the work of their Auxiliary Boards
Each National Spiritual Assembly and Local Spiritual Assembly administers its own National and Local Fund, respectively.
The funds of the Bahá’í Faith are managed according to principles laid down by Bahá’u’lláh
, and Shoghi Effendi
. Foremost among the principles are:
(1) Except for the portion of the Bahá’í Funds devoted exclusively to charitable, philanthropic, or humanitarian purposes, contributions are accepted only from those who have identified themselves with the Bahá’í Faith and are regarded as its avowed and unreserved supporters.
(2) Contributing to the Funds is both a spiritual privilege and a responsibility.
(3) All contributions to the Bahá’í Funds are voluntary.
(4) The degree of sacrifice and love of the contributor is more important than the amount given.
(5) Appeals for donations must be dignified and general in character.
(6) Confidentiality of contributions is to be strictly preserved.
(7) Receipts are to be issued.
Shoghi Effendi referred to the Funds as “the life-blood” of the Bahá’í institutions.