Arabic & Fársí transcription
list & glossary for Bahá’ís
Contents
Introduction · What is transcription? · Accuracy · Capitalization · Information sources · Hybrid word/names · List arrangement · Searching the list · Phonetic or common spelling · Suffixes
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Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic attributes (“names”) of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots · Underscores · Vowel sounds · Word transcription macros
Introduction.
This document lists the Roman script transcription forms of many of the Arabic and Fársí (including some that are of Turkish origin) names and words used in the Bahá’í Writings, books by Bahá’ís and the Qur’án as a guide to their transcription. Hence, there is no need to include all possible combinations of those words used in the names of people and places. However, additional root words have been added as a guide to an understanding of the meaning of the words.
Additional glossary terms, and information on them, can be found in the Glossary of This Decisive Hour: Messages from Shoghi Effendi to the American Bahá’ís 1932–1946.
What is transcription?
The Romanization of Arabic in Latin script makes use of various diacritics and non-standard Latin characters to represent Arabic letters since most Arabic phonemes do not exist in English. Other issues are the representation of the Arabic definite article, which is always spelled the same way in written Arabic but has numerous pronunciations in the spoken language depending on context; and the representation of short vowels (usually i u or e o, accounting for variations such as Muslim/Moslem or Mohammed/Muhammad/Mohamed), which vary from place to place and are usually not noted (they are in the Qur’án) in written Arabic.
Romanization is often termed “transliteration”, but this is not technically correct. Transliteration is the direct representation of foreign letters using Latin symbols, while most systems for Romanization of Arabic are actually transcription systems, which represent the sound of the language. Technically, transliteration is concerned primarily with accurately representing the graphemes1 of another script, whilst transcription is concerned primarily with representing its phonemes.2 In addition, transliteration is concerned with scripts, whilst transcription is concerned with writing systems (the way a script is applied to a particular language). As an example, مناظرة الحروف العربية is transcripted as munáẓaratu’l-ḥurúfi’l-‘arabíyah, indicating the pronunciation, and an example of transliteration would be mnaẓrḧ alḥrwf al‘rbyḧ.
Regarding the transliteration [sic] of Persian and Arabic words the House of Justice requests that the method adopted by the beloved Guardian, and which is described in the various volumes of The Bahá’í World, be followed, as it permits all languages which use the Roman alphabet to transliterate [sic] such terms in the same way throughout the Bahá’í world.3
Whatever “house styles” Publishing Trusts and other Bahá’í publishers may adopt, transliteration of oriental terms into languages using the Roman alphabet must at present be according to the system chosen by the Guardian and described in volumes of The Bahá’í World4
More detailed information on transcription is given in Muḥammad and the Course of Islám, pp. xiii–xvi.
The terms “Guardian” and “Universal House of Justice” are explained in the alphabetical list below.
1 The smallest meaningful contrastive unit in a writing system.
2 Any of the perceptually distinct units of sound in a specified language that distinguish one word from another.
3 From a letter written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, 16 July 1979.
4 The Universal House of Justice, 21 July 1998, Current Guidance on Baha’i Publishing.
Accuracy
Any variations in transcription by the authors listed under the Information sources heading, and information from all other Bahá’í authors have been subjected to the following progressive checks:
a)Consistency with transcription rules as used by Shoghi Effendi, and similar words.
b)An internet search of transcripted forms of the words.
c)An internet search for the original Arabic of the words that are then manually transcripted.
d)A search for the words in Arabic dictionaries (e.g. The Hans Wehr dictionary of modern written Arabic).
e)Consulting knowledgeable Bahá’ís who are Arabic and/or Fársí speakers. However, this information needs to be cross checked with the above sources.
Entries in this document are amended when new information becomes available, or new names and words are found in relevant publications. Hence, it is recommended that you use the latest available Word copy from www.miscellanie.com/transcription/index.html or https://bahai-library.com/glossary_arabic_persian_transcription.
My thanks go to Romane Takkenberg (www.miscellanie.com) for noting inconsistencies in the list while converting, and regularly updating, this list to HTML.
Corrections, additions and suggested improvements to the list are welcomed.
Capitalization
Arabic and Fársí do not have capital letters. When transcripted, capital letters should only be used for proper names and attributes of God, otherwise, lower case letters should be used. This document uses capital letters for all words/names as if they were proper names—these should be converted to lower case for other uses.
Information sources
Some sources of information are given in brackets. Authors of books, tablets, etc., “(by _____)”. The most reliable sources of information are to be found in documents issued by the Universal House of Justice; and books by Shoghi Effendi, Hasan Balyuzi and Adib Taherzadeh (caution: there are some errors in all published documents). New entries are checked using digital copies of Arabic (Hans Wehr, also a printed copy) and Persian dictionaries—older entries will gradually be updated using these dictionaries. If these sources lack the required information, then information is sought from a few knowledgeable individuals.
Hybrid word/names
Most words (there are some commonly accepted exceptions, e.g. Bahá’ís) that have an English suffix should not be transcripted (e.g. Islamic, Qur’anic, Shi’ite, Shi’ism). Adding an ‘s’ to many words to represent the plural form is more recognizable to the English reader (bábs) than the often very different transcripted Arabic plural word (abváb). These and some other words are often better replaced by an English equivalent, e.g. Gate-hood for Bábíyyat instead of the incorrect hybrid forms: “Bábhood” or “Babhood”, etc.
List arrangement
The first column of the following list contains a form of the words/names without acute accents, initial ‘Ayns or underdots. This makes it possible to make a simple search for a word without having any knowledge of the correct transcription, and it is used to make an alphabetical sort (the sorting used by Word is not the desired order) of the list itself.
Searching the list
It is easier to search for words if you:
a)remove all accents and underdots.
b)Remove the definite article (“al-”, “ul-”, etc.; refer to the entry for “al-” and the description of the sun letters in the Arabic letters & abjad values section at the end of this list.)
c)Remove final letters such as “ah”, “ih”, “yah” and “yih” (usually Persian forms), and “h” and “t” that often represent a tá’ marbúṭa (refer to the tá’ marbúṭa entry).
d)Replace “o” and “e” by “u” and “i” respectively. Then replace double vowels (representing á, í, ú) with á, í and ú respectively. Also try replacing “v” (Persian) with “w”. In some cases “u” following a vowel should also be replaced by “w”.
e)Replace some transcripted Persian letters where single and double (diaeresis below) underdots are used with the letters in the “Plain text” column of the following table. Often the underdots are not given, in which case “z” should be replaced with “d” and then “dh”.
Transliteration Transcription Plain text Transliteration Transcription Plain text
th th d
t z z z
z z dh dh
Phonetic or common spelling
Words in brackets in the third column may indicate an old-style phonetical spelling found in some older Bahá’í publications. Others are variations of place names found in books or on maps—these can be useful to determine correct transcription or to locate the places when searching Google maps.
Roman script transcripted forms of Arabic/Fársí words/names
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Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic attributes (“names”) of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots · Underscores · Vowel sounds · Word transcription macros
Plain text
Transcripted text
Word meanings & comments
Suffixes
-dan
-dán
Pers.   (suffix and prefix) denoting what holds or contains anything (i.e container/box);   know thou;   (in compound) knowing, intelligent.
-hood
-hood
1. A condition or state of being the thing or being in the role denoted by the word it is suffixed to, usually a noun, e.g. childhood.
2. A group sharing a specified condition or state, e.g. brotherhood
-i-, -yi-
-i-, -yi-
Persian –i- (“-e”) sound inserted in pronunciation (not represented in Persian script) at the end of a word to indicate that the following words stands in a possessive or adjectival relation to it;   equivalent to “of” in English.   If the noun ends in a long vowel (not a y) or a silent h, the suffix -iy- (“-ey”) is used, e.g. Ághá-yi-Karand (formal) and Ághá Karand (informal).
-istan
-istán
home or place
-parast, -parastan
-parast, pl. parastán
Pers.   a non-joining suffix roughly equivalent to -ist, frequently denoting a worshiper or follower of, but often with unpredictable meanings. Example: átish-parast, a fire-worshipper;   a physician.
-ship
-ship
English suffix of nouns denoting condition, character, office, skill, etc.
-stan
-stán
Pers. “place of” or “country”
-un, -an, -in
-un, -an, -in
subjective/nominative, objective/accusative and possessive/genetive singular noun case endings (respectively) where they exist.
-yy-, -yya (-iya), -yyih
-yy-, -yya(t or h) fem., Pers. –yyih
nisba, a suffix used to form adjectives in Arabic grammar. Sometimes –íya is used. Often denotes either a group of people who follow a certain person, or a group with a certain ideological system. The feminine nisbah is often used as a noun relating to concepts, most frequently to ones ending in -ism, with the m. and fem. nisbah being used as adjectival forms of the concept-noun (e.g. -ist) depending on agreement. Thus al-ishtirákiyyah “socialism”, and ishtirákiyy (m.) and ishtirákiyyah (fem.) socialist.
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Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic attributes (“names”) of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots · Underscores · Vowel sounds · Word transcription macros
Plain text
Transcripted text
Word meanings & comments
A
A last (A lastu, Alast)
’A last (’A lastu), Pers. Alast
“Am I not?”   Cycle of ’a last is a reference to a pre historic Covenant between God and man. According to Qur’án 7:172, God called all the men in his presence before their creation and asked them ’a lastu bi-rabbikum?  “Am I not your Lord?” and all the men confirmed that by saying “yes, yes, thou art our Lord”. This demonstrates the total and inherent essential dependence of man to the continuous grace of God. So ’a last and the cycle of ’a last is a reference to this Covenant.
A'isha, 'A'ishih
‘Á’isha(h or t), Pers. also ‘Á’ishih
wife of Muḥammad and daughter of Abú-Bakr.   Also written as Aisyah, Ayesha, Aishat, Aishah, or Aisha.
A'la, Ulya, Ulan, A'alin, A'lahu
A‘lá, f. ‘Ulyá, pl. ‘Ulan, A‘álin
higher, highest;   upper, uppermost;   ‘Álin the highest portion of something;   heights, peaks (fig.).   A‘láhu further up, above.   “The Most Exalted One” is a title of the Báb.
A'rabi, A'rab
A‘rábí, pl. A‘ráb
an Arab of the desert, a Bedouin
A'raj, 'Arja, 'Urj, 'Urjan
A‘raj, fem. ‘Arjá, pl. ‘Urj, ‘Urján
lame, limping;—jack (in a deck of cards)
A'war, 'Aura'. 'Ur
A‘war, fem. ‘Aurá’, pl. ‘Úr
one-eyed
A'zam,   (see Azim)
A‘ẓam, f. ‘Uẓmá, pl. A‘áẓim
greater, bigger;   more significant, more important;   greatest, major, supreme;   most significant, paramount.   Comparative form of ‘aẓuma’ (to make great)
A'zami
A‘ẓamí
Ghulám Ḥusayn A‘ẓamí
Ab
Áb
August (month;   Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Írán).   Father (in parts of Írán).
Ab-Gusht, Abi-Gusht, Abi-Gosht
Áb-Gúsht
Pers. gravy, broth
Ab, Aba', Abu, Abi
Ab, Abí, Abú, pl. Ábá’
father (also ecclesiastical): ancestor, forefather.   Abú (father of), Abu’l (the father of) and Abí (partial names) must be followed by another name.
Ab, Aban
Áb, pl. Ábán
Pers.   water;   river;   largesse, gift, price.   Name of eighth month of Persian solar year
Aba-Basir
‘Abá-Baṣír
Áqá Naqd-‘Alí, blind martyr from Zanján, given the name Abú-Baṣír (father of insight) by Bahá’u’lláh
Aba, A'bi'a
‘Abá’, pl. A‘bi’a
loose outer garment, cloak, mantle.   In Writings translated from Persian, ‘Abá is used.   English aba or abba
Aba’a, ‘Aba’at
fem.   ‘Abá’a(h), pl. ‘Abá’át
loose outer garment, cloak, mantle.   English aba or abba
Abad
Abad, pl. Ábád
Ar.   endless, eternal, eternity.   Pers.   populous, thriving, prosperous, developed, inhabited.   ábád suffix used in compound Persian names of towns and populated or inhabited areas
Abad
Ábád
Pers.   a city, building, habitation;   cultivated, peopled, full of buildings and inhabitants;   replenished, well filled (treasury);   an open plain;   good, elegant, fair, beautiful, convenient;   salutation, congratulation;   praise, eulogium, well done!
Abada, 'Ibada, 'Ubuda, 'Ubadiya
‘Abada (‘Ibada, ‘Ubúda, ‘Ubádíya)
to serve, worship (a god), adore, venerate (someone, a god or human being), idolize, deify (someone);   form II to enslave, enthral, subjugate, subject (someone);   to improve, develop, make serviceable, make passable for traffic (a road);   form V to devote oneself to the service of God;   form X to enslave, enthral, subjugate (someone)
Abadan
Ábádán
Pers.   nearly synonymous with but more emphatic than ábád, and never used in forming compounds. City in Írán to the north of Kuwait City
Abadi
Ábádí
Pers.   pleasantness;   a follower of Ábád or Mahábád, the first prophet sent to Persia, and alleged author of the Dasátír.
Abadih
Ábádih
“Abadeh” city in Fars Province, Írán.   170 km north of Shíráz, 185 km sw Yazd and 200 km sse Iṣfahán.
Abadih'i
Ábádih’í
Layla Ábádih’í, Mírzá Ḥusayn Khán Ábádih’í
Abahab, 'Adhabat, A'dhiba
‘Adháb, pl. ‘Adhábát, A‘dhiba
pain, torment, suffering, agony, torture;   punishment, chastisement, castigation
Abarkuh (Abarqu, Abarquh, Abargu)
Abarkúh (Abar-Kúh)
village between Yazd and Shíráz
Abasa, 'Abs, 'Ubs
‘Abasa (‘Abs, ‘Ubs)
to frown, knit one’s brows;   to glower, lower, scowl, look sternly
Abbas
‘Abbás
The lion, also stern looking, formidable, stentorian.   Derived from ‘abasa, originally meaning a furious lion, hence with a lion’s characteristics.
Abbas Abad, Abbas-Abad, Abbasabad
‘Abbás Ábád, ‘Abbás-Ábád, ‘Abbásábád
villages in Írán: Caspian Sea, part of Ṭihrán.
Abbas-'Ali
‘Abbás-‘Alí
Abbas-i-Nuri
‘Abbás-i-Núrí
Mírzá Buzurg-i-Vazír
Abbas-Quli-i-Larijani
‘Abbás-Qulí-i-Laríjání
Abbasi, Abbasyun
‘Abbásí, pl. ‘Abbásyún
Abbaside, descendant of al-‘Abbás, uncle of the Prophet Muḥammad.   Abbasid (Abbaside) Caliphs (750–861).
Abbasiyan
‘Abbásíyán
Pers.   The princes of the house of ‘Abbás, the Abbasides.
Abbasiyya
‘Abbásiyya
al-‘Abbásiyya(h), formerly al-Yahúdiya(h), former Palestinian village, now Israeli city of Yehud.
Abbud
‘Abbúd, Ilyás
devoted or obedient worshipper of God.   Derived from ‘abada.   Ilyás ‘Abbúd was a christian merchant of ‘Akká. His house in ‘Akká is joined on the eastern side to the smaller house of ‘Údí Khammár. The common wall has been opened. Both are now known as the House of ‘Abbúd.   Grid co-ordinates 32.921563, 35.067297
Abd-i-Hadir
‘Abd-i-Ḥáḍir
“Servant in Attendance”
Abd, 'Abid, 'Ubdan, 'Ibad
‘Abd, pl. ‘Abíd, ‘Ubdán, ‘Ibád
slave, serf;   bondsman, servant, worshipper;—(pl. ‘ibád) servant (of God), human being, man.   al-‘ibád humanity, mankind
Abda, 'Abdat
‘Abda, pl. ‘Abdát
woman slave, slave girl, bondwoman
Abda'
Abda‘
more amazing, more exceptional;   of even greater originality.   See Badí‘
Abdar
Ábdár
Pers.   watery, moist, juicy;   of a good water (as a diamond or a sword);   a keeper of water, a servant whose office is to keep water cool (hence water-carrier or butler);   keen, sharp;   glancing, dazzling, resplendent;   flowing (verse);   a sociable and convivial man;   a man of understanding, reflection or wealth;   a species of plant resembling the fibres of a palm-tree
Abdi'llah
‘Abdi’lláh
variation of ‘Abdu’lláh (servant of God)
Abdu Manaf, Abd-i-Manaf
‘Abdu Manáf, Pers. ‘Abd-i-Manáf
name of an Arabian tribe
Abdu'dh-Dhikr
‘Abdu’dh-Dhikr
“the Servant of Remembrance”—a designation of the Báb
Abdu’l Baghi
‘Abdu’l Baghí
Mírzá ‘Abdu’l Baghí, father of Mírzá Aḥmad Suhráb (known as Mirza Ahmad Sohrab)
Abdu'l- (“Abdil”, “Abdul”)
‘Abdu’l-
partial name [Abd (slave or servant) + u’l (the) = slave of the …] followed by a name (of God).
Abdu'l-'Ali
‘Abdu’l-‘Alí
Abdu'l-'Aliy-i-Harati
‘Abdu’l-‘Alíy-i-Harátí
Abdu'l-'Azim
‘Abdu’l-‘Aẓím
Abdu'l-'Azim-i-Khu'i
‘Abdu’l-‘Aẓím-i-Khu’í
Abdu'l-'Aziz
‘Abdu’l-‘Azíz
Sulṭán
Abdu'l-Baghi
‘Abdu’l-Baghí
Mírzá ‘Abdu’l-Baghí, father of Mírzá Aḥmad Suhráb (known as Mirza Ahmad Sohrab)
Abdu'l-Baha
‘Abdu’l-Bahá
“The Servant of Glory” (of Bahá).   ‘Abbás Afandí (Effendi).   Wife Munírih Khánum.   4 daughters: Ḍíyá’íyyih (mother of Shoghi Effendi), Ṭúbá, Rúḥá and Munavvar.
Abdu'l-Baqi
‘Abdu’l-Báqí
“servant of the everlasting”
Abdu'l-Baqir
‘Abdu’l-Báqir
Abdu'l-Fattah
‘Abdu’l-Faṭṭáḥ
Abdu'l-Ghaffar
‘Abdu’l-Ghaffár
(MF)
Abdu'l-Ghani
‘Abdu’l-Ghaní
Abdu'l-Ghani Baydun
‘Abdu’l-Ghaní Bayḍún
Abdu'l-Hadi
‘Abdu’l-Hádí
Abdu'l-Hamid
‘Abdu’l-Ḥamíd
Sulṭán ‘Abdu’l-Ḥamíd Khán
Abdu'l-Haqq
‘Abdu’l-Ḥaqq
Abdu'l-Husayn
‘Abdu’l-Ḥusayn
Abdu'l-Husayn-i-Avarih
‘Abdu’l-Ḥusayn-i-Ávárih
Abdu'l-Husayn-i-Shushtari
‘Abdu’l-Ḥusayn-i-Shushtarí
Abdu'l-Jalil
‘Abdu’l-Jalíl
Abdu'l-Javad
‘Abdu’l-Javád
Abdu'l-Karim
‘Abdu’l-Karím
Abdu'l-Karim-i-Iravani
‘Abdu’l-Karím-i-Íravání
Abdu'l-Karim-i-Qazvini
‘Abdu’l-Karím-i-Qazvíní
Abdu'l-Karim-i-Tihrani
‘Abdu’l-Karím-i-Ṭihrání
Abdu'l-Khaliq
‘Abdu’l-Kháliq
“Servant of the Creator”
Abdu'l-Khaliq-i-Isfahani
‘Abdu’l-Kháliq-i-Iṣfahání
Abdu'l-Khaliq-i-Yazdi
‘Abdu’l-Kháliq-i-Yazdí
Abdu'l-Majid
‘Abdu’l-Majíd
Abdu'l-Majid-i-Nishaburi
‘Abdu’l-Majíd-i-Níshábúrí
Abdu'l-Majid-i-Shirazi
‘Abdu’l-Majíd-i-Shírází
Abdu'l-Malik
‘Abdu’l-Malik
Fifth Umayyad Caliph
Abdu'l-Muhammad
‘Abdu’l-Muḥammad
Abdu'l-Muttalib
‘Abdu’l-Muṭṭalib
Abdu'l-Qadir
‘Abdu’l-Qádir
BKG 124
Abdu'l-Vahhab
‘Abdu’l-Vahháb
Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Qazvini
‘Abdu’l-Vahháb-i-Qazvíní
Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Sha'rani
‘Abdu’l-Vahháb-i-Sha‘rání
Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Shirazi
‘Abdu’l-Vahháb-i-Shírází
Pers.   ‘Abdu’l Wahab
Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Turshizi
‘Abdu’l-Vahháb-i-Turshízí
Abdu'l-Vasi'
‘Abdu’l-Vási‘
Abdu’llah
‘Abdu’lláh
servant of God
Abdu'llah Pasha
‘Abdu’lláh Páshá
his house in ‘Akká is now a Bahá’í centre.   Grid co-ordinates 32.923799, 35.068098
Abdu’llah-i-Ghawgha'
‘Abdu’lláh-i-Ghawghá’
Final hamza omitted in The Dawn-Breakers 182, BKG 132
Abdu'llah-i-Qazvini
‘Abdu’lláh-i-Qazvíní
Abdu'llah-i-Ubayy
‘Abdu’lláh-i-Ubayy
Abdu'r-Rahim-i-Qannad
‘Abdu’r-Raḥím-i-Qannád
Abdu'r-Rahim-i-Yazdi
‘Abdu’r-Raḥím-i-Yazdí
(MF)
Abdu'r-Rahman Afandi Alusi
‘Abdu’r-Raḥmán Afandí Álúsí
Abdu'r-Rahman-i-Karkuti
‘Abdu’r-Raḥmán-i-Kárkútí
Abdu'r-Rasul-i-Qumi
‘Abdu’r-Rasúl-i-Qumí
Abdu’r-Razzaq (“ ‘Abdu’l-Razzak ”)
‘Abdu’r-Razzáq
The “l” of “al” is not pronounced when it comes in front of letters called “solar letters” such as letters r, t, d, z, etc.
Abdu's-Sahib
‘Abdu’ṣ-Ṣáḥib
Abdu's-Salam
‘Abdu’s-Salám
Abdu's-Salih
‘Abdu’ṣ-Ṣáliḥ
the Gardener of the Riḍván Garden, ‘Akká
Abdu's-Samad
‘Abdu’ṣ-Ṣamad
(Sammad)
Abdu's-Samad-i-Hamadani
‘Abdu’ṣ-Ṣamad-i-Hamadání
Abdu'sh-Shams
‘Abdu’sh-Shams
Abduhu ('Abduh)
‘Abduhu
(from aná ‘abdu-hu) (I am) his servant or slave. Muḥammad ‘Abduh (1849–1905) an Egyptian Islamic jurist, religious scholar and liberal reformer, a key founding figure of Islamic Modernism, sometimes called Neo-Mu’tazilism after the medieval Islamic school of theology based on rationalism, Mu’tazila. He broke the rigidity of the Muslim ritual, dogma and family ties. He was a Freemason and had a close relationship with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and the Bahá’í Faith. See Salafíya
Abdus, 'Ubdus
‘Abdús, ‘Ubdús
‘abdús = ‘abd aws (gift) alláh (ú from w). This is a theophoric name (from Greek: “bearing or carrying a god”) where the final sound(s) (the apocopate) are omitted. ‘Abdús ibn Abí ‘Uthmán
Abgusht
Ábgúsht
stew
Abha
Abhá
more splendid, more brilliant.   “Most Glorious”
  · al-Abhá (El-Abha)   “The Most Glorious”
  · Abhá Beauty—Jamál-i-Abhá—a title of Bahá’u’lláh
  · Abhá Kingdom—The Most Glorious Kingdom (also Abhá Paradise)   See Alláh-u-Abhá and Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá
Abhar
Abhar
(Ar.)   more brilliant, more magnificent.   Ḥájí Mírzá Muḥammad-Taqí-i-Abharí is known as Ibn-i-Abhar.
Abhar
Abhar
Pers.   a water-mill;   a vein in the back, the jugular vein;   the back of a bow
Abi-'Abdi'llah
Abí-‘Abdi’lláh
Arabic term used in reference to Imám Ja‘far Ṣádiq
Abi-Ghafray-i-Ta’i
Abí-Ghafráy-i-Ṭá’í
Pers.   (see Ṭayy’).   See SDC 48.
Abi-Quhafih
Abí-Quḥáfih
The Dawn-Breakers liv
Abid, Abidin
‘Ábid, ‘Ábidín
an adorer, or servant of God;   worshipper—see as used in conjunction with Zayn.
Abid, Abidun, 'Ubbad, 'Abada
‘Ábid, pl. ‘Ábidún, ‘Ubbád, ‘Abada
worshipper, adorer
Abidu'l-'Ulama
Abídu’l-‘Ulamá
literary man of the ‘Ulamá.   Title given to Mírzá Muḥammad Ḥasan, known as Adíb, Hand of the Cause of God.
Abir
‘Ábir, pl. ‘Ábirún
passing;   crossing, traversing, etc.;   fleeting (smile);   transient, transitory, ephemeral;   bygone, past, elapsed (time);—pl. passerby.   ‘ábir ṭaríq wanderer, wayfarer.   See Áwárih
Abiward, Abivard
Abíward, Abívard
Pers.   now Dargaz, Raḍawí Khurásán Province, Írán
Abjad
Abjad
Derives from the Arabic word for “Alphabet”: A (Alíf), B (Bá’), J (Jím), D (Dál)—first four consonant letters of the alphabet (ignoring those with the same base)
Abraha al-Ashram
’Abraha(h) al-’Ashram
(“Abraha al-Ashram”) an Abyssinian prince, who built a Christian church in Ṣaná‘ to rival the Ka‘ba at Mecca. According to traditional Arab belief, he made an unsuccessful attack with his forces of elephants to destroy the Ka‘ba ad 570 (known as the year of the elephant and date of the birth of Muḥammad).
Abtar
Abtar
curtailed, docked, clipped, trimmed;   imperfect, defective, incomplete;   without offspring.   See root batara.
Abu 'Abdu'llah ash-Shi'i
Abú ‘Abdu’lláh ash-Shí’í
Abu 'Ali
Abú ‘Alí
Abu 'Amir al-Ashari
Abú ‘Ámir al-Asharí
father of Ḥanẓala
Abu 'Imran Musa ibn Maymun
Abú ‘Imrán Músá ibn Maymún
Maimonides (originally Moshe ben Maimon)
Abu al-Dawahi
Abú al-Dawáhí
“Father of Iniquities”, Abú Bakr.   See Dáhiya
Abu al-Fida’, Abu’l-Fida’
Abú al-Fidá’, Pers. Abu’l-Fidá’
Abú al-Fidá’ Ismá‘íl ibn ‘Alí ibn Maḥmud al-Malik al-Mu’ayyad 'Imád ad-Dín (1273–1331), better known in English as Abulfeda, was a Kurdish historian, geographer and local governor of Hama. He was a prince of the Ayyubid dynasty and the author of The memoirs of a Syrian prince: Abu’l-Fidáʼ, Sulṭán of Ḥamáh. The moon crater, Abulfeda, is named after him.
Abu Dhar
Abú Dhar
(Abouzar)
Abu Dhar al-Ghifari al-Kinani
Abú Dhar al-Ghifárí al-Kinání
(Dhar‘ or Dharr?)   illiterate shepherd (of the Banú Ghifár, a Jewish tribe) who became a disciple of Muḥammad (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf p. 183)   (Abu-Dhar Ghefan)
Abu Sinan (Abu-Sinan)
Abú Sinán (Abú-Sinán)
a Druze village (Hebrew Abu Snan) about 7.5 km east of Bahjí and 4 km west the Druze village of Yarká (Yirká)
Abu-'Umar-'Uthman
Abú-‘Umar-‘Uthmán
Abu-Bakr
Abú-Bakr
Abu-Bakri's-Siddiq
Abú-Bakri’ṣ-Ṣiddíq
The Dawn-Breakers liv
Abu-Hanifa, Abu-Hanifih
Abú-Ḥanífa (or Ḥanífih) al-Nuʿmán
famous Persian theologian and jurist
Abu-Ja'far-i-Tusi
Abú-Ja‘far-i-Ṭúsí
follower of Imám Ṣádiq who handed down his traditions
Abu-Jahl
Abú-Jahl
(Abudjahl) (“father of ignorance”)   Abu’l-Ḥakam ‘Amr Ibn Hishám
Abu-Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi
Abú-Naṣr Muḥammad al-Fárábí
(Alpharabius in the West)   Persian philosopher and writer (c. 872–between 14 December 950 and 12 January 951)
Abu-Rahim
Abú-Raḥím
Abu-Sufyan
Abú-Sufyán
Ṣakhr ibn Ḥarb, more commonly known as Abú Sufyán (580–640), was the leader of the Quraysh of Mecca, the most powerful tribe of pre-Islamic Arabia. He was a staunch opponent of Muḥammad, until later accepting Islám and becoming a warrior later in his life during the early Muslim conquests.
Abu-Talib
Abú-Ṭálib
Abú-Ṭálib, Mullá   sons ‘Alí-Ashraf and Áqá Bálá
Abu-Talib-i-Sang-Sari
Abú-Ṭálib-i-Sang-Sarí
Siyyid Abú-Ṭálib-i-Sang-Sarí (The Dawn-Breakers, p. 426)
Abu-Talib-i-Shahmirzadi
Abú-Ṭálib-i-Shahmírzádí
Abu-Turab
Abú-Turáb
Abu-Turab-i-Qazvini
Abú-Turáb-i-Qazvíní
Abu’d-Dawahi
Abu’d-Dawáhí
Father of Misfortunes
Abu'l-Bashar
Abu’l-Bashar
“the father of man”—one of the titles given by Muslims to Adam
Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpaygani
Abu’l-Faḍl-i-Gulpáygání, Mírzá
Abu'l-Fath-i-Shahristani
Abu’l-Fatḥ-i-Shahristání
Abu'l-Fida
Abu’l-Fidá’
Abu'l-Futuh
Abu’l-Futúḥ
(“the Father of Victories”) name given to Enoch Olinga by Shoghi Effendi
Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani
Abu’l-Ḥasan-i-Ardikání, Mullá
Hájí Amín, Amín-i-Iláhí (“Trustee of God”) (Trustee of Ḥuqúqu’lláh)
Abu'l-Hasan-i-Bazzaz
Abu’l-Ḥasan-i-Bazzáz
Abu'l-Hikam
Abu’l-Ḥikam
“the Father of Wisdoms”.   See Ḥikma
Abu'l-Huda
Abu’l-Hudá, Shaykh
Abu'l-Qasim-i-Hamadani
Abu’l-Qásim-i-Hamadání
Abu'l-Qasim-i-Kashi
Abu’l-Qásim-i-Káshí
a learned Bábí from Káshán (Abu’l Káẓim)
Abu'l-Qasim-i-Khurasani
Abu’l-Qásim-i-Khurásání
Abu'l-Qasim-i-Mazkani
Abu’l-Qásim-i-Mazkání
Abu'l-Qasim-i-Qa'im-Maqam
Abu’l-Qásim-i-Qá’im-Maqám
Abu'l-Qasim-i-Shirazi
Abu’l-Qásim-i-Shírází
Abu'l-Qasim-ibn-i-Haji-Zayna
Abu’l-Qásim-ibn-i-Ḥájí-Zayná
Abu'sh-Shurur
Abu’sh-Shurúr
“the father of iniquities or wickedness”   (EGB, Balyuzi)
Abuqir
Abúqír
Abú Qír is a village NE of Alexandria, Egypt
Abwab al-Arba'ah, Abwab-i-Arba'ih
al-Abwáb al-Arba‘a(h)
Pers.   Abwáb-i-Arba‘ih.   “the Four Gates” DB 178.   Persian sometimes written Abváb-i-Arba‘ih.   See Arba‘
Abyad (“Abiyad”), Baida, Bid
Abyaḍ, fem. Baiḍá’, pl. Bíḍ
white;   bright;   clean, shiny, polished;   blameless, noble, sincere (character);   empty, blank (sheet of paper);—pl. al-bíḍán the white race.   al-abyaḍ egg white
Abyan
Abyan
clearer, more distinct, more obvious.   Root bána, bayán
Ad
‘Ád
Traditionally, a fourth generation descendent of Noah;   an ancient Arabian tribe
Ad'iyyih va Munajat
Ad‘iyyih (or Ad‘íyih) va Munáját
“Prayers and Supplications” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Ada, 'Adat, 'Awa'id, 'Adatan
‘Áda(t), pl. ‘Ádát, ‘Awá’id
habit, wont, custom, usage, practice;   ‘Ádatan usually, customarily, ordinarily, habitually;—pl. ‘Awá’id taxes, duties;   charges, fees, rates
Ada’
‘Adá’
enmity, hostility, antagonism, animosity;   aggression
Adab
‘Adab
good manners, as in etiquette
Adall
Aḍall
more or most astray;   more or most tending to lead astray
Adalla
Aḍalla
“to leave in error or lead astray”
Adam
Ádam
Adam
Adasi
‘Adasí
lenticular
Adasiyah, Adasiyyih
‘Adasíya(h), Pers. ‘Adasíyyih
(Adassiya)—a town in Jordan 17 km se of Tiberias. This is the resting place of a half brother of Bahá’u’lláh, and one of three villages where ‘Abdu’l-Bahá grew corn and wheat during the First World War.
Adha
Aḍḥá
‘Íd al-Aḍḥá   Festival of Sacrifice
Adhab-i-Qabr
‘Adháb-i-Qabr
chastisement in the grave
Adham, Dahma', Duhm
Adham, fem. Dahmá’, pl. Duhm
black, deep-black
Adhan
Adhán
Muslim announcement or call to prayer
Adhan, Adhah
Aḍḥan
(collective; nomen unitatis Aḍḥáh)   slaughter animal, blood sacrifice, immolation
Adhar (Azar), Adhur (Azur)
Ádhar, Ádhur
Pers.   fire;   name of the angel presiding over fire, and the day ádhar;   affairs of the month and day ádhar, the former being the ninth solar month, the latter being the ninth day of any month, but particularly of the fourth month
Adharbayjan, Adhirbayjan
Ádharbayján, (Ázarbayján)
Pers.   Azerbaijan or Azerbayjan, country, and a province in nw Írán.   Also Ádhirbayján, Ázarbayján Ázarbaygān
Adhari
Ádharí
native of Ádharbayján
Adi
‘Ádí
customary, usual, common, ordinary, normal, regular;   undistinguished, run-of-the-mill;   ordinary, regular (e.g., meeting, as opposed to extraordinary, special, emergency);   simple, plain, ordinary (man);   old, ancient, antique
Adi-Ghazal (Adi-Guzal)
‘Ádí-Ghazáll
Mírzá ‘Alíy-i-Sayyáḥ-i-Marághih'í
Adib
Ádib
host
Adib, Adiba, Udaba'
Adíb, fem. Adíba, pl. Udabá’
cultured, refined, educated;   well-bred, well-mannered, civil, urbane;   a man of culture and refined tastes;   man of letters, writer, author (superlative form of ‘Aduba’ [to learn])
Adibu'l-'Ulama
Adíbu’l-‘Ulamá
littérateur or literary man of the ‘Ulamá
Adil ('Adilih)
‘Ádil, fem. ‘Ádila
just, fair, equitable;   upright, honest, straightforward, righteous.   Persian also ‘Ádilih
Adirna, Adirnih
Adirna, Pers. Adirnih
Hadrianopolis (Adrianople in English), now known as Edirne.   Same numerical value, 260, as Sirr (Mystery)
Adiya, ‘Adiyat, ‘Awadin
‘Ádiya, pl. ‘Ádiyát, ‘Awádin
wrong, offense, misdeed, outrage;   adversity, misfortune, reverse;   obstacle, impediment, obstruction;—pl. vicissitudes.   Root ‘adá’
Adja'
Adjá’
father of Qarád   SDC 49
Adl, 'Udul
‘Adl, pl. ‘Udúl
straightness, straightforwardness;   justice, impartiality;   fairness, equitableness, probity, honesty, uprightness;   equitable composition, just compromise;—(pl.) just, equitable, fair, upright, honest;   person of good reputation, person with an honourable record (Islamic Law);   juristic adjunct assigned to a cadi (Maghrib)
Adliya
‘Adlíya
justice, administration of justice, jurisprudence
Adna, Dunya, Adanin, Adnun, Dunan
Adná, f. Dunyá
(pl. m. Adánin, Adnún pl. f. Dunan) nearer, closer;   situated lower down, nether;   lower, inferior;   lowlier;   smaller, of less significance;   more appropriate, better suited, more suitable
Adrianople
Adrianople
(now Edirne)
Adu'dh-Dhikr
‘Adu’dh-Dhikr
Ar.   Servant of the Remembrance. A designation of the Báb.
Adud, A’dad
‘Aḍud, pl. A’ḍád
help, aid, assistance, support, backing;   helper, aide, assistant, supporter, backer.   (pl.) upper arm;   strength, power, vigour, force
Adudu'd-Dawlih
‘Aḍudu’d-Dawlih
(ad 978–983)
Afandi (Effendi)
Afandí, pl. Afandíyá
Effendi in English.   Gentleman (when referring to non-Europeans wearing Western clothes and the tarboosh);   (after the name) a title of respect.   Efendi (pronounced effendi), Turkish title of nobility meaning a lord, master or gentleman.   It designates a higher rank than Big.
Afaqi
Áfáqí
coming from a distant country or region.   See ufq
Afchih
Afchih or Afjih
A village northeast of Ṭihrán in Lavásán District, TN p. 31
Affa, Iffa
‘Affa (‘Iffa(t), ‘Afáf)
to refrain, abstain (from something forbidden or indecent);   to be abstinent, continent, virtuous, chaste, modest, decent, pure.   ‘Iffat, a daughter of Badí‘u’lláh
Affan
‘Affán
Pers.   name of the father of the caliph ‘Usmán (Othmán or ‘Uthmán)
Afghani
Afghán, Afghání
adjective and noun.   al-afghán (the Afghans; Afghanistan)
Afghanistan
Afghánistán
Afghanistan
Afifi
‘Afífí
Muḥammad al-‘Afífí, Persian Consul in ‘Akká
Aflatun
Afláṭún
Plato, from the Greek name
Afnan-i-Kabir
Afnán-i-Kabír
Afranj
Afranj
Pers.   Elegance, dignity, grace;   magnificence, grandeur, power;   maguitude;   a throne;   a crown;   provisions, necessaries.   The Franks, French;   the crusaders;   all Europeans.   Khán-i-Afranj in ‘Akká.
Afrasiyab (“Afrasyab”)
Afrásiyáb
Pers.   name of an ancient king celebrated in Persian poetry, sovereign of Túrán, and a Scythian or Turk by birth;   one who moves leisurely on the road;   a travelling companion
Afrukhta (Afrokhta)
Afrúkhta(h)
Pers.   inflamed, lighted;   shining, radiant;   polished, furbished
Afruz (Afroz)
Afrúz
Pers.   burning;   illuminating, dazzling, animating.   Feminine name.
Afsah, Fusha
Afṣaḥ, fem. Fuṣḥá
of purer language;   more eloquent
Afshar
Afshár
a branch of the Turkic Oghuz people
Afshin
Afshín
Pers.   name of a person known for his liberality
Aftab
Áftáb
Pers.   masc. name, sunlight or sunshine;   the sun;   a day;   wine;   the soul.   See Khurshíd
Aftab-parast
Áftáb-Parast
Pers.   a worshipper of the sun;   sun-flower;   a chameleon (or iguana);   a water-lily;   in India, any blue flower
Aftabah (Aftabih)
Áftábah
Pers.   a ewer, water-pot, or kettle
Aftah, Mufattah
Afṭaḥ and Mufaṭṭaḥ
broad-headed, broad-nosed
Afus
Afús
village near Iṣfahán
Afw, 'Afuw
‘Afw
effacement, obliteration, elimination;   pardon, forgiveness;   waiver of punishment (Islamic Law);   amnesty (for);   boon, kindness, favour;   surplus.   al-‘Afuw, name of God, The Pardoner, The Effacer, The Forgiver
Agah
Ágáh
Pers.   aware, wary;   intelligent, knowing, acquainted with;   prudent;   vigilant, attentive;   notice, news, indication, information
Agahu'llah
Ágáhu’lláh
Ágáhu’lláh Tízfahm, executed May 1982
Agar, Ar
Agar, Ar
Pers.   if;   although
Agha, Aghawat
Ághá, pl. Aghawát
(Ar.)   lord, master, sir;   eunuch, harem chamberlain
AH
ah—Anno Hejirae
(in the year of the Hijira—small caps and precedes the date)
Ahad
Aḥad
fem.   one: somebody, someone, anybody, anyone (esp. in negative sentences and questions)
Ahad
Ahad
one, unique or matchless.   al-Ahad, an attribute of God.
Ahadiya (Ahadiyya)
Aḥadíya(h or t)
unity, oneness (also absolute unity), singularity;   concord, alliance
Ahamid (Ahamed)
Aḥamid
highly praised (?)
Ahang
Áhang aḥám
Pers.   concord, symphony, harmony, modulation, melody, pitch, tune;   design, institution, purpose, intention;   canon, regulation;   rule, custom, manner of proceeding;   a row, a series;   the side (of a cistern);   the curve or arch of a cupola or dome;   a tether, stable, stall;   haste, expedition;   behold!
Ahangar
Áhangar
Pers.   blacksmith, a dealer in iron
Ahd, ‘Uhud
‘Ahd, pl. ‘Uhúd
translated as Covenant in Bahá’í Writings.   Knowledge;   acquaintance, contact (with);   the well-known, familiar nature (of something);   close observance, strict adherence (to), keeping, fulfilment (of a promise);   delegation, assignment, committing (of something to someone), vesting (in someone of something), commissioning, charging, entrusting (of someone with something);   commission;   (pl.) commitment, obligation, liability;   responsibility;   pledge, vow;   promise; oath;   contract, compact, covenant, pact, treaty, agreement;   time, epoch, era.
Ahda
Ahdá
better guided;   more correct, more proper, better.   Qur’án 28:49: Qur’án gives ahdá, “clearer” guidance; not afṣáḥ, “eloquent” language—this is the criterion for judging the inimitability (i‘jáz) of the Qur’án: “its ability to guide humanity to the truth, to Allah and to salvation, its ability to inspire people with devotion and to constrain people to act in ways that are moral and righteous.” Islam and the Bahá’í Faith, p. 230.
Ahdiyih (Ahdieh)
‘Ahdiyih
Pers.   the one who keeps his covenant or word, a faithful one.   Hushang Ahdieh
Ahi
Áhí
Pers.   a fawn
Ahkam
Aḥkam
wiser, stronger, strongest;   very firm;   more, most, or very stable;   most able to decide
Ahl al-Kisa’
Ahl al-Kisa’
people of the cloak: Muḥammad;   his daughter, Fáṭima;   his cousin and son-in-law ‘Alí;   and his two grandsons Ḥassan and Ḥusayn.
Ahl-i-Baha
Ahl-i-Bahá
“people of Bahá”
Ahl-i-Bayan
Ahl-i-Bayán
“people of the Bayán”
Ahl-i-Haqq
Ahl-i-Ḥaqq
lit. people of the truth
Ahl, Ahlun, Ahalin
Ahl, pl. Ahlún, Ahálin
relatives, folks, family;   kin, kinfolk;   wife;   (with following genitive) people, members, followers, adherents, possessors, etc.;   inhabitants;   deserving, worthy (of something);   fit, suited, qualified (for);—pl. the natives, the native population
Ahli
Ahli
(the) people or (of the) people
Ahlu'l-Kitab
Ahlu’l-Kitáb
“people of the Book”
Ahmad
Aḥmad
more laudable, more commendable, more praised [comparative form of ‘ḥamida’ (to praise)]—one of five names of Muḥammad
Ahmad Big Tawfiq
Aḥmad Big Tawfíq
Ahmad Sohrab
Ahmad Sohrab
Mírzá Aḥmad-i-Iṣfahání (1893–1958). Later adopted the name Ahmad Sohrab. Was declared a Covenant-breaker by Shoghi Effendi in 1939.
Ahmad-i-'Allaf
Aḥmad-i-‘Alláf
Ahmad-i-Ahsa'i, Shaykh
Aḥmad-i-Aḥsá’í, Shaykh
Shaykh Aḥmad al-Aḥsá’í
Ahmad-i-Azghandi
Aḥmad-i-Azghandí
Ahmad-i-Bahrayni
Aḥmad-i-Baḥrayní
Ahmad-i-Ibdal
Aḥmad-i-Ibdál
Ahmad-i-Ibdal-i-Maraghi'i
Aḥmad-i-Ibdál-i-Marághi’í
Ahmad-i-Kashani
Aḥmad-i-Káshání
Ahmad-i-Katib
Aḥmad-i-Kátib
Ahmad-i-Khurasani
Aḥmad-i-Khurásání
Ahmad-i-Kirmani
Aḥmad-i-Kirmání
Ahmad-i-Mu'allim
Aḥmad-i-Mu‘allim
Ahmad-i-Nukhud-Biriz
Aḥmad-i-Nukhud-Biríz
Ahmad-i-Payvandi
Aḥmad-i-Payvandí
Ahmad-i-Qazvini
Aḥmad-i-Qazvíní
Ahmad-i-Ruhi
Aḥmad-i-Rúḥí
Ahmad-i-Saffar
Aḥmad-i-Ṣaffár
Ahmad-i-Yazdi
Aḥmad-i-Yazdí
Ahmad-ibn-i-Abi-Talib-i-Tabarsi
Aḥmad-ibn-i-Abí-Ṭálib-i-Ṭabarsí
Ahmadiy, Ahmadi
Aḥmadíy, Aḥmadí
belonging to Aḥmad;   a Muslim;   name of a gold coin
Ahmadiyya
Aḥmadiyya(h)
al-Jamá‘ah al-Islámiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah (the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community), founded by Mírzá Ghulám Aḥmad in Qádiyán, Punjab, India
Ahmar, Hamra, Humr
Aḥmar, f. Ḥamrá, pl. Ḥumr
red, red-coloured, ruddy;   rosy, pink.   Alhambra (Spanish), the Citadel of Granada, (“the Red Palace”;   al-Ḥamrá, lit. “the red one”)
Ahrari
Aḥrárí
Ḍíyá’u’lláh Aḥrárí executed 1982.   Aḥrár is pl. of Ḥurr
Ahsa
Aḥsá
al-Aḥsá, al-Ḥasá, or Ḥadjár (locally al-Aḥasá) is a traditional oasis region in eastern Saudi Arabia whose name is used by the Al-Aḥsá Governorate, which makes up much of that country's Eastern Province. The al-Ḥasá or al-Aḥsá Oasis is located about 60 km inland from the coast of the Persian Gulf. al-Hufúf is the major urban center in the oasis.   Birthplace of Shaykh Aḥmad al-Aḥsá’í.
Ahsa'i
Aḥsá’í
of or from al-Aḥsá
Ahsanu'l-Qisas
Aḥsanu’l-Qiṣaṣ
The Best of Stories [Ar.]: a name for the Surih of Joseph.—Tafsír-i-Aḥsanu’l-Qiṣaṣ: the Báb’s commentary on the Súrih of Joseph, the Qayyúmu’l-Asmá’, called the Qur’án of the Bábís. Translated into Persian by Ṭáhirih.
Ahu
Áhú
Pers.   a vice, fault, defect, stain, spot, villainy;   flight, escape;   an exclamation, cry for help;   an asthma ;   a deer, roe, gazelle ;   any object of pursuit or chase;   a beautiful eye;   a mistress
Ahvaz
Ahváz
a city in south-west Írán
Aja'ibu'l-Makhluqat
‘Ajá’ibu’l-Makhlúqat
“The marvels of creation” by Qazwíní
Ajab, A'jab
‘Ajab, pl. A‘jáb
astonishment, amazement;—(pl.) wonder, marvel
Ajal
Ajal, pl. Ájál
appointed time, date, deadline;   instant of death;   respite, delay
Ajam
‘Ajam
(collective) barbarians, non-Arabs, Persians.   (collective;   noun denoting an individual) stone kernel, pit, pip, seed (of fruit)
Ajami, A’jam
‘Ajamí, pl. A‘jám
barbarian, non-Arab;   Persian (adj. and n.)
Ajda'
Ajda‘
mutilated (by having the nose, or the like cut off).   SDC p. 49.
Ajiba, 'Aja’ib
‘Ajíba, pl. ‘Ajá’ib
wondrous thing, unheard of thing, prodigy, marvel, miracle, wonder;—pl. remarkable things, curiosities, oddities
Ajja, Ajij
Ajja, Ajíj
to burn, blaze, flame (fire).   e.g. Má’ ujáj bitter, salty water.
Ajudan
Ájúdán
Pers.   aide-de-camp, adjutant
Ajudan-Bashi
Ájúdán-Báshí
Pers.   chief adjutant
Ajuz, 'Ajz, A'jaz
‘Ajuz, ‘Ajz, pl. A‘jáz
backside, rump, posteriors.   Also stem, stump, trunk (of palm tree)   Qur’án 54:20 & 69:7
Ajwibatu'l-Masá'il, Ajwibatu'l-Masa'il
Ajwibat al-Masá’il
“Answers to some questions”, book by Shaykh Aḥmad.   Pers.   Ajwibatu’l-Masá’il (Ajvibatu’l-Masa’il).   See Jawáb
Ajz
‘Ajz
weakness, incapacity, disability, failure, impotence (for, to do something);   deficit
Akbar-ibn-i-'Abid
Akbar-ibn-i-‘Ábid
Akbar, Akbarun, Akabir
Akbar, pl. Akbarún, Akábir
greater, bigger, larger;   older;   senior-ranking [comparative form of ‘kabura’ (to elevate)].   Note: akbar, اكبر, consists of four consonants: ر ب ك ا (right to left in Arabic, or Alif, Káf, Bá’ and Rá’ in English)—the first a is an Alif.
Akh, Ikhwa, Ikhwan
Akh, pl. Ikhwa, Ikhwán
brother;   fellow man, neighbour;   friend;—pl. ikhwán specifically, brethren or members of an order;   al-ikhwán religious brotherhood of the Wahabi sect, militant in character, established by Ibn Sa‘úd in 1910
Akhar
Ákhar
another, different, second
Akhbari
Akhbárí
school, founded by Mullá Muḥammad-Amír of Astarábád, in opposition to the mujtahids or the Uṣúlís.   Akhbár (pl. of Khabar) means ‘news’ or ‘traditions’, and uṣúl means ‘principles’.   The Akhbárí followers only accept the traditions ascribed to the Prophet and the Imáms;   whereas the Uṣúlís (they constitute the vast majority of the Twelvers), maintain that the mujtahid has the right, as the deputy of the Hidden Imám, to deduce principles from the Qur’án as well as the traditions, and to use qiyás or ‘analogy’ to make an authoritative statement.
Akhdar (Akhzar), Khadra', Khudr
Akhḍar (f.), Khaḍrá’, pl. Khuḍr
green.   al-Khaḍrá’ “the Verdant” (epithet of Tunis);   the sky.   Persian forms are similar and the ḍ is replaced by a ẓ.   Khaḍrá’—final Hamza is left out in some books.
Akhir
Akhír
last;   latest;   rearmost;   the second of two
Akhir, Akhirun, Akhirat, Awakhir
Ákhir, pl. Ákhirún, Ákhirát, Awákhir
last, ultimate, utmost, extreme;   end, close, conclusion;   foot, bottom (of a paper).   ‘Abdu’l-Bahá substituted ákhur on a number of occasions when referring to the ‘ulamá—see akhúr. “They have held to this stable (stability?) but they have not seen the ultimate of things.” Diary of Juliet Thompson, p. 102.
Akhirah
Ákhira(h)
afterlife.   See dunyá and awwal
Akhtar-Khawari (Akhtar-Khavari)
Akhtar-Kháwarí
Akhtar, Akhtaran
Akhtar, pl. Akhtarán
Pers.   a star;   horoscope, predominant star at anyone’s nativity;   an omen, augury;   an ensign, standard;   name of an angel.   Name of a newspaper
Akhtaran Taban
Akhtarán-i-Tábán
Pers.   brilliant stars
Akhu’th-Thamarah
Akhu’th-Thamarah
“the Brother of the Fruit”.   Báb: “Akhu’th-Thamarah, 238”—The fruit is Mírzá Yaḥyá and 238 equals Ḥusayn-‘Alí (Bahá’u’lláh)
Akhund
Ákhúnd
Muslim priest [akhond]   See ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí
Akhur
Ar. Akhúr, Pers. Ákhur
a stall, stable or barn for horses;   the collar-bone.   See Ákhir
Akif, Akifan
‘Ákif, pl. ‘Ákifán
Pers.   assiduous, diligent;   constantly staying in the mosque and employed in devotion
Akk
‘Akk
sultry, muggy, sweltering
Akka, 'Akk
‘Akka (‘Akk)
to be sultry, muggy (day)
Akka, 'Akka'
‘Akka(h), ‘Akká’ and ‘Akká
‘Ako (Hebrew, more commonly spelt Akko) or Acre (seaport in Israel).   ‘Akká is Arabic form used by Bahá’ís.   Houses in ‘Akká used by the Bahá’ís: Malik, Khavvám and Rábi’ih, ‘Údí Khammár and ‘Abbúd.   Bahá’u’lláh’s family left 1877 for Mazra‘ih
Akthar
Akthar
more;   oftener, more frequently;   more numerous;   longer;   most;   major portion, greater part, majority
Al
Ál
family, relatives, kinsfolk, clan;   companions, partisans, people;   mirage, fatamorgana.   Not the Arabic definite article al-
Al-
al-
the definite article in Arabic, often translated as “the” in English.   The letter “l” is replaced by a sun letter if the following word starts with one of the 14 sun letters—refer to the Arabic letters & abjad values section at the end of this list.
Al-i-Muhammad
Ál-i-Muḥammad
children (or family) of Muḥammad
Ala
‘Alá
(preposition) on, upon, on top of, above, over (place, rank);   at, on, by;   in, in the state of, in the manner of, in possession of;   to, toward, for;   in addition to;   to the debit of, to the disadvantage of;   against, in spite of, despite;   on the basis of, on the strength of, by virtue of, due to, upon;   by, through;   according to, in accordance with, pursuant to;   to (one’s taste, one’s mind, one’s liking, etc.);   during
Ala
‘Alá’
high rank, high standing, nobility;   loftiness
Ala, Uluw
‘Alá, ‘Ulúw
to be high, elevated, rise high, loom, tower up;   to rise, ascend;   to ring out (voice);   etc.
Ala'
Álá’ alá
Pers.   benefits, favours, kindnesses
Ala'i
‘Alá’í
Shu‘á‘u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Hand of the Cause of God
Ala'u'd-Dawlih
‘Alá’u’d-Dawlih, Yúsúf
Alam
Alam, pl. Álám
pain, ache, suffering, agony
Alam al-Hayawan
‘Álam al-Ḥayawán
the animal kingdom
Alam al-Ma'adin
‘Álam al-Ma‘ádin
the mineral kingdom
Alam an-Nabat
‘Álam an-Nabát
the vegetable kingdom
Alam, A'lam
‘Alam, pl. A‘lám
sign, token, mark, badge, distinguishing mark, characteristic;   harelip;   road sign, signpost, guidepost;   flag, banner, standard, ensign, streamer, pennants;   mountain (Qur’án 55:24);   a distinguished, outstanding man;   an eminent personality, an authority, a star, a luminary;   proper name
Alam, Alamun, Awalim
‘Álam, pl. ‘Álamún, ‘Awálim
world;   universe, cosmos.   Pl. ‘Álamún—inhabitants of the world, specifically human beings.   al-‘álamán the two worlds = Europe and America.
Alama, Alamat, Ala'im
‘Aláma, pl. ‘Alámát, ‘Alá’im
mark, sign, token;   badge, emblem;   distinguishing mark, characteristic
Alami
‘Álami
worldly, secular, world (adj.);   international;   world-wide, world-famous, enjoying world-wide renown
Alamu'l-amr
‘Álamu’l-Amr
(lower) world of creation
Alamu'l-Haqq
‘Álamu’l-Ḥaqq
(upper) eternally inaccessible world of God that is exalted beyond the grasp of the minds of men
Alamu'l-Huda
‘Alamu’l-Hudá
“distinguished guide”
Alamu'l-Khalq
‘Álamu’l-Khalq
(intermediate) world of the revelation of the divine command
Alamut
Alamút
eagle-nest.   Name of a region in Írán on the western edge of the Alborz (Elburz) range and a ruined fortress (55 km NE of Qazvín and 110 km NW of Ṭihrán.
Alaniya
‘Aláníya
openness, overtness, publicness, publicity (as opposed to secrecy)
Alaq, 'Alaqun, 'Alaqat
‘Alaq(at), ‘Alaqun, pl. ‘Alaqát
medicinal leech;   leech;   (coagulated) blood, blood clot.   Note: the tá’ marbúṭa here is represented by ‘at’.
Alawi (Pers. Alavi)
‘Alawí
upper;   heavenly, celestial;   Alawi (adj. and n.);—pl. the Alawis (official name of the Nusairis inhabiting the coastal district of Latakia in NW Syria)
Alawiyan (Alaviyan)
‘Alawiyán
princes, lords (descendants of ‘Alí)
Alayhi ('Alaihi)
‘Alayhi
upon, against, with him (or it);—‘alayhi’s-salám, Peace be upon him! (formula of reverence added after the name of any prophet). Abbreviation in English pbuh.
Alburz
Alburz, Alborz
the principal mountain range in northern Írán
Alf, Uluf
Alf, pl. Ulúf, Áláf
thousand;   millennium
Alfi, 'Id
Alfí, ‘Íd
millennial celebration, millenary
Alfiyyih
Alfíya, Pers. Alfíyyih
al-Khulása al-Alfíyya by Ibn-i-Malik
Ali
‘Alí
High, eminent.   ‘Alí was the first Imám, the fourth Caliph and the son-in-law of Muḥammad.   al-‘Alí, the divine name for the All-Knowing.
Ali
‘Álí
high, sublime, eminent, excellent, grand;   the upper part;   above
Ali an-Naqi, Ali-Naqi
‘Alí an-Naqí, ‘Alí-Naqí
‘Alí ibn Muḥammad ibn ‘Alí, commonly known as ‘Alí al-Hádí and ‘Alí an-Naqí, 10th Imám
Ali Big Yuz-Bashi
‘Alí Big Yúz-Báshí
Ali ibn Abi Talib
‘Alí ibn Abí Ṭálib
Cousin and son-in-law of Muḥammad
Ali Pasha
‘Álí Páshá
‘Álí Páshá, Muḥammad Amín
Ali-'Askar-i-Tabrizi
‘Alí-‘Askar-i-Tabrízí
Merchant from Tabríz
Ali-Abad (Aliabad)
‘Alí-Ábád
a village 35 km sw of Ṭihrán
Ali-Ahmad
‘Alí-Aḥmad
Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani
‘Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání
Ali-Akbar-i-Mazgani
‘Alí-Akbar-i-Mázgání
(MF)
Ali-Akbar-i-Najjar
‘Alí-Akbar-i-Najjár
(MF)
Ali-Akbar-i-Quchani
‘Alí-Akbar-i-Qúchání
Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi
‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí
Hájí Ákhúnd, a Hand of the Cause
Ali-Asghar
‘Alí-Aṣghar
(MF)
Ali-Baba
‘Alí-Bábá
Ali-Hamzih
‘Alí-Ḥamzih
Ali-ibn-i-Abi-Talib
‘Alí-ibn-i-Abí-Ṭálib
Ali-ibn-i-Muhammad
‘Alí-ibn-i-Muḥammad
Ali-ibn-i-Musa'r-Rida
‘Alí-ibn-i-Músá’r-Riḍá
Ali-Jan
‘Alí-Ján
Ali-Khan
‘Alí-Khán
Ali-Mardan
‘Alí-Mardán
Ali-Mirzay-i-Shirazi
‘Alí-Mírzáy-i-Shírází
Ali-Muhammad
‘Alí-Muḥammad
Ali-Murad ('Alimurad)
‘Alí-Murád
(Sometimes shortened to ‘Alímurád)
Ali-Qabl-i-Muhammad
‘Alí-Qabl-i-Muḥammad
Ali-Quli Khan (Ali-Kuli Khan)
‘Alí-Qulí Khán
Better known as Ali-Kuli Khan, married Florence Breed (parents of Marzieh Gail)
Ali-Rida
‘Alí-Riḍá
Ali-Shawkat
‘Alí-Shawkat
(GPB 241)
Alid
‘Alid or Alid
Eng. (from mid 18th century) descendents of ‘Alí ibn Abí Ṭálib
Alif
Alif
consonant
Alil, A'illa'
‘Alíl, pl. A‘illa’
sick, ill, ailing;   sick person, patient;   soft, gentle, mild, pleasant.   meaning with place names: “lower”
Alim, Ulama
‘Álim, pl. ‘Ulamá’ (Pers. ‘Ulamá)
(adj. or noun)   knowing;   familiar, acquainted (with), cognizant (of);   expert, connoisseur, professional.—pl. learned, erudite;   scholar, savant, scientist.   al-‘Alím, the omniscient (one of the attributes of God).   The ‘Ulamá’ is a body of Muslim scholars who are recognized as having specialist knowledge of Islamic sacred law and theology. The ‘ulamá are collectively known in Persian society as the Jámi‘a-i Rúḥáníyat (the spiritual concourse).
Alima
‘Álima fem.
woman of learning, woman scholar, e.g. singer, chanteuse
Alima ('Ilm)
‘Alima (‘Ilm)
to know;   teach;   tell, notify;   to learn, study;   to inquire, ask
Alin
‘Álin
high, tall, elevated;   loud, strong (voice);   higher (as opposed to elementary);   lofty, exalted, sublime, high-ranking, of high standing;   excellent, first-class, first-rate, outstanding, of top quality (commodity)
Alipur
‘Alípúr
village in Razavi Khorasan Province, Írán
Aliy-i-Baraqani
‘Alíy-i-Baraqání
Aliy-i-Barfurushi
‘Alíy-i-Bárfurúshí
entitled Quddús
Aliy-i-Bastami
‘Alíy-i-Basṭámí
‘Alíy-i-Basṭámí, Mullá   A Letter of the Living
Aliy-i-Kani
‘Alíy-i-Kání
Aliy-i-Kirmanshahi
‘Alíy-i-Kirmánsháhí
Aliy-i-Las-Furush
‘Alíy-i-Lás-Furúsh
Aliy-i-Miri
‘Alíy-i-Mírí
Aliy-i-Mudhahhib
‘Alíy-i-Mudhahhib
Aliy-i-Qazvini
‘Alíy-i-Qazvíní
Aliy-i-Sabzivari
‘Alíy-i-Sabzivárí
Aliy-i-Salmani
‘Alíy-i-Salmání
Aliy-i-Sardar
‘Alíy-i-Sardár
Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghih'i
‘Alíy-i-Sayyáḥ-i-Maraghih’í
Aliy-i-Tabib-i-Zanjani
‘Alíy-i-Ṭabíb-i-Zanjání
Aliy-i-Tafrishi
‘Alíy-i-Tafríshí
Aliy-i-Turshizi
‘Alíy-i-Turshízí
Mullá Shaykh ‘Alíy-i-Turshízí, surnamed ‘Aẓím
Aliy-i-Zanjani
‘Alíy-i-Zanjání
Aliy-i-Zargar
‘Alíy-i-Zargar
Aliy-i-Zunuzi
‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí
Aliy, 'Aliya, 'Ilya
‘Alíy, fem. ‘Alíya(h), pl. ‘Ilya
high, tall, elevated: exalted, sublime, lofty, august, excellent.   (pl.) upper class, people of distinction, prominent people.   Pers. fem. also ‘Alíyyih.
Aliyu'llah
‘Alíyu’lláh
‘Alí is chosen by, or from God
Aliyu'llahi
‘Alíyu’lláhí
Sect of Islám
Aliyyu'l-'Ala
‘Alíyyu’l-‘Alá
Alizadih
‘Alízádih
Maqṣúd ‘Alízádih
Alladhi, Allati, Alladhina
Alladhí, fem. Allatí
(relative pronoun) he who, that which;   who, which, that.   Plurals: m. alladhína, fem. allátí, allawátí (“allawati”), allá’í (“alla’i”)
Allaf
‘Alláf
seller of provender (dry food such as hay and oats for livestock)
Allah
Alláh
God
Allah-Vardi, Allah-Virdi
Alláh-Vardí, Alláh-Virdí
Allah-Yar
Alláh-Yár
Ḥájj Alláh-Yár.   A village in Kirmánsháh Province.
Allahu-‘Azam, Allah-u-‘Azam
Alláhu-‘Aẓam, Pers. Alláh-u-‘Aẓam
God is great
Allahu-A’zam, Allah-u-A’zam
Alláhu-A‘ẓam, Pers. Alláh-u-A‘ẓam
(greeting response to Alláh-u-Akbar—men)   God is the Most Mighty
Allahu-Abha, Allah-u-Abha
Alláhu-Abhá, Pers. Alláh-u-Abhá
(greeting response to Alláh-u-Ajmal—women)   God is Most Glorious, God is All-Glorious.   A form of the Greatest Name.   Bahá, or any of its derivatives such as Abhá, Yá Bahá’u’lláh, or Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá, are all referred to as the Greatest name.Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá (O Glory of Glories or O Glory of the All-Glorious) is an invocation used in the calligraphy designed by Mishkín-Qalam.
Allahu-Ajmal, Allah-u-Ajmal
Alláhu-Ajmal, Pers. Alláh-u-Ajmal
(greeting response to Alláh-u-Abhá—women)   God is the Most Beautiful.
Allahu-Akbar, Allah-u-Akbar
Alláhu-Akbar, Pers. Alláh-u-Akbar
greeting by a man to a man.   God is the Most Great or God is the Greatest.   See Alláh-u-A‘ẓam above
Allahu-Aqdam, Allah-u-Aqdam
Alláhu-Aqdam, Pers. Alláh-u-Aqdam
God is the Most Ancient
Allahu-Athar, Allah-u-Athar
Alláhu-Aṭhar, Pers. Alláh-u-Aṭhar
God the Most Pure
Allahu-Azhar, Allah-u-Azhar
Alláhu-Aẓhar, Pers. Alláh-u-Aẓhar
God is Most Manifest
Allahumma
Alláhumma
“O Thou My God”.   Permitted by the Báb to be tattooed on chest of men, in the most beautiful calligraphy.
Allam
‘Allám
knowing thoroughly
Allama
‘Alláma
most erudite, very learned (of the ulama);   learned in every branch of the Islamic sciences
Allamiy-i-Hilli
‘Allámiy-i-Ḥillí
“the very erudite Doctor”, a title of the famed Shí’ih theologian, Jamálu’d-Dín Ḥasan ibn-i-Yúsuf ibn-i-‘Alí of Hilla (ad 1250–1325) (MF p. 169)
Allamiy-i-Nuri
‘Allámiy-i-Núrí
Alliyu'llahi
‘Allíyu‘lláhí
a sect
Alus
Álús
Pers.   amorous or angry side-glance
Alusi
Álúsí
(Alossy) Ibn-i-Álúsí, Muftí of Baghdád
Alvah-i-Laylatu'l-Quds
Alváḥ-i-Laylatu’l-Quds
Tablets of the Holy Night (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Alvah-i-Salatin
Alváḥ-i-Saláṭín
Tablets of the Sultans
Alvah-i-Tablighi-i-Amrika
Alváḥ-i-Tablíghí-i-Amríká
Pers.   collection of Tablets by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá to America, translated as Tablets of the Divine Plan.   Amríká also given as Imríká
Alvah-i-Vasaya
Alváḥ-i-Vaṣáyá
Tablets of Commandments by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Alwai, Alawiyyah
‘Alwaí, pl. ‘Alawíyyah
upper;   heavenly, celestial;   Alawi or Alawite (Eng.);—pl. Alawis (Eng., official name of the Nusayris (Nuṣayríyyah), Islamic sect in Syria founded by Ibn Nuṣayr)
Ama
‘Amá’
Ar.   heavy clouds.   [Pers.   deviation, aberration, loss of the way;   contention, litigation;   a cloud, high, dense, rainy, thin;   a black or white cloud;   a cloud which has shed rain;   blindness.]   See root word ‘amiya.   Hence, ‘Amá’ can be translated as blindness, secrecy, obscurity, etc.;   though it also has the sense of “cloud”, possibly “heavy and thick clouds (which hide and obscure) or (the opposite!) light diaphanous clouds.   See http://hurqalya.ucmerced.edu/node/428
Ama, Ima, Amawat
Ama, pl. Imá’, Amawát
Ar.   bondmaid, slave girl
Amad
Ámad
Pers.   he came;   arrival
Amada
‘Amada
to baptize, christen
Amadan
Ámadan
Pers.   to come, to arrive;   to exist, to be found;   to become
Amadan az fawq
Ámadan az fawq
Pers.   “come from on high” or “come down from on high”
Amal, A'mal
‘Amal, pl. ‘A‘mál
doing, acting, action, activity;   work, labour;   course of action, way of acting, practice;   achievement, accomplishment;   activity (for), work (in the service of something);   making, production, manufacture, fabrication;   performance, execution;   make, workmanship;   practical work, practice;—(pl.) act, action;   operation (military);   work, job, chore, labour;   deed, feat, achievement, exploit;   occupation, business;   trade, craft, handicraft;   vicegerency, province, district;   administrative district
Aman
Amán
Ar.   Security, safety;   peace;   shelter, protection;   clemency, quarter (mil.);   safeguarding, assurance of protection;   indemnity, immunity from punishment
Aman'u'llah
Amán’u’lláh
the protection of God
Amanat
Amánat
Per.   A deposit, charge, anything given in trust;   security, safety, protection;   safe-guard, safe-conduct;   sincerity, faith, religion.
Amara, Amr, Awamir, Umur
Amara, Amr, pl. Awámir, Umúr
to order, command, bid, instruct (someone to do something), commission, charge, entrust (someone with something or to do something);—pl. Awámir order, command, instruction (to do something);   ordinance, decree;   power, authority;   (grammar) imperative;—pl. Umúr matter, affair, concern, business.   Hence, can be defined as “divine order” and “acts of obedience and pious deeds that are ordained” by God.
Amasiya
Amásiyá
(Amasya) city in Turkey, 84 km sw of Samsun
Amat, Amih
Amat, Amih
Pers.   A female servant, a handmaid.   Ar. Ama
Amatu'l-A'la
Amatu’l-A‘lá
(“the Handmaid of the Most High”)   Title given to Dr Susan Moody by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Amatu'l-Baha
Amatu’l-Bahá
Hand of the Cause of God, Amatu’l-Bahá Rúḥíyyih Khánum Rabbani (née Mary Sutherland Maxwell) (08-08-1910–19-01-2000).   [“It was Amatu'l-Bahá’s preference that Rabbani not be” transcripted. Letter from her Literary Executors, 9 January 2007 to M.W.T.]   “The Handmaiden of the Glory”, “Spiritual” and “Lady”
Amatu'llah
Amatu’lláh
(The Handmaiden of God)
Amid, 'Umada
‘Amíd, pl. ‘Umadá’
support;   head, chief;   dean (of a faculty);   principal, headmaster, director (of a secondary school);   doyen, dean (as, of a diplomatic corps;   high commissioner
Amil, Awamil, Ummal
‘Ámil, pl. ‘Awámil, ‘Ummál
active;   effective;   (pl. ‘Awámil) factor, constituent, element, (causative) agent, motive power;   word governing another in syntactical regimen, regent (gram.);   (pl. ‘Ummál) maker, producer, manufacturer;   doer, perpetrator, author;   worker, workman, workingman, labourer;   wage earner, employee;   governor.
Amin-i-Halabi
Amín-i-Ḥalabí, Shaykh
[Amín Ḥalabí]
Amin-i-Ilahi
Amín-i-Iláhí
Trusted of God
Amin, Amina
Ámin, fem. Ámina(h)
peaceful.   Áminah bint Wahb, mother of Muḥammad; died ad 577
Amin, Umana
Amín, pl. Umaná’
reliable, trustworthy, loyal, faithful, upright, honest;   safe, secure;   authorized representative or agent;   trustee;   guarantor (of);   chief, head;   superintendent, curator, custodian, guardian, keeper;   chamberlain;   master of a guild   [Superlative form of amuna or amána (to be faithful, reliable, trustworthy)]
Amini
Amíní
Persian name.   Office of amín;   trust, guardianship, custody;   security;   commission, deputation;   secure, safe.
Aminu'd-Dawlih
Amínu’d-Dawlih
Aminu'l-'Ulama
Amínu’l-‘Ulamá
Aminu'l-Bayan
Amínu’l-Bayán
“Trusted of the Bayán”
Aminu'llah
Amínu’lláh
“Trust of God”
Aminu's-Sultan
Amínu’s-Sulṭán
(MF)
Amir
‘Ámir
inhabited;   peopled, populated, populous;   full, filled, filled up;   jammed, crowded, filled to capacity (with);   amply provided, splendidly furnished;   civilized; cultivated (land);   flourishing, thriving, prosperous
Amir
Ámir
commander;   lord, master;   orderer, purchaser, customer, client
Amir al-Mu'minin
Amír al-Mu’minín
Commander of the Faithful, Caliph. Sunnis believe the first to hold the title was ‘Umar ibn al-Khaṭṭáb, and Shí‘i believe the title applies exclusively to ‘Imám ‘Alí.
Amir-Divan
Amír-Díván
Amir-i-Kabir
Amír-i-Kabír
Great Prince
Amir-Kiya
Amír-Kíyá
Amir-Nizam
Amír-Niẓám
Grand Vizir or General of the Army
Amir-Tuman
Amír-Túmán
Amir-Zadih
Amír-Zádih or Amírzádih
Pers.   see Mírzá
Amir, Umara, Amirat
Amír, pl. Umará’, pl. fem. Amírát
commander, governor, lord;   prince, emir;   title of princes of a ruling house;   tribal chief
Amira'l-Mu'minin
Amíra’l-Mu’minín
Commander of the Faithful
Amiru’l-Kuttab
Amíru’l-Kuttáb
Prince of Calligraphers
Amiru'sh-Shu'ara'
Amíru’sh-Shu‘ará’
(The Emir of Poets) (sing. shá‘ir)
Amiya, ‘Aman
‘Amiya (‘Aman)
to be or become blind, lose one’s eyesight;   to be blind (to something);   to be obscure (to someone);   form II to blind, render blind (someone);   to blindfold (someone);   to obscure, render cryptic, enigmatic or mysterious, mystify (something);   form IV to blind, render blind (someone);   to blindfold (someone);   to make (someone) blind (to a fact);   form V to be or become blind, lose one’s eyesight;   form VI to shut one’s eyes (on something), pretend not to see (something);   to be blind (to). That is, ‘to become blind, to be obscure’
Amma, 'Ammatan, 'Awamm
‘Ámma, pl. ‘Awámm
singular: (noun) generality;   commonalty;   the masses, the people;—‘ámmatan (adverb) in general;   generally;   commonly, altogether, in the aggregate, collectively.   Plural: al-‘Awámm the common people, the populace;   the laity (Christian)
Amman
‘Ammán
Ancient Philadelphia, capital city of Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Ammar
Ammár
constantly urging, always demanding (to do something);   inciting, instigating
Amr va Khalq
Amr va Khalq
Revelation and creation, compilation by Fáḍil Mázandarání
Amr-i-Abda'
Amr-i-Abda‘
(the Most Wondrous New Cause)
Amr-i-Badi'
Amr-i-Badí‘
(the Wondrous New Cause)
Amrika
Amríká
America
Amru'llah
Amru’lláh
“command of God”, “House of God’s command” or “cause of God”
Amu
‘Amú
Mullá Ḥasan ‘Amú (SAQ 34–5) (Ámú?)
Amu
Ámú
Pers.   a tumour, swelling, inflation;   name of Oxus River
Amud, A'mida, Umud
‘Amúd, pl. A‘mida, ‘Umud
flagpole, shaft (of a standard);   pale, post, prop, shore, pier, buttress;   lamppost;   (telephone, telegraph) pole;   column, pillar, pilaster;   stem (of a glass);   (pl.) column (of a newspaper)
Amud, Awamid (Avamid)
‘Ámúd, pl. ‘Awámíd
column, pillar.   See ‘Amúd.
Amul
Ámul
companion.   A town in Mázindarán province, on the Haraz River, near the Caspian Sea.
An
‘An
(preposition) off, away from;   from (designating the source);   out of (a feeling);   about, on (a topic);   according to, as attested or declared by, from what … says, on the authority of;   on the basis of, on the strength of;   for, in defence of;   as a substitute for
Anahita
Anáhítá
Old Pers.   immaculate, undefiled.   Venus, Aphrodite (Greek) and Venus Erucina (Roman).   See modern form Náhíd
Anbar, 'Anabir
‘Anbar, pl. ‘Anábir
ambergris;—pl. sperm whale
Anbar, Nibr, Anabir
Anbár, Nibr, pl. Anábir, Anábír
barn, shed, granary, storeroom, storehouse, warehouse
Andalib, 'Anadil
‘Andalíb, pl. ‘Anádil
Pers.   a nightingale
Andar
Andar
Pers.   in, into, within;   added to the words
Andarun
Andarún
Pers.   within;   the inside;   the heart, bowels;   intrinsic, interior, internal.   Village 190 km ESE Ahváz, Írán
Andaruni
Andarúní
interior;   inner women’s apartments.   See bírúní
Andirmani (Andarmani)
Andirmání
probably Andarmání.   Andarmán is a village on the south side of Ṭihŕan.
Andulus
al-Andalus
Spain
Anfusihim
Anfusihim
themselves
Angiz
Ángiz
Pers.   raised, elevated;   (in compounds) exciting, raising.   village 84 km SW Ardabíl, and 95 km east of Tabríz, Írán
Angur
Angúr
Pers.   a grape, a raisin;   granulations in a healing sore [angoor]
Anis, Anisa
Anís, fem. Anísá
close, intimate;   close friend;   friendly, kind, affable, civil, polite, courteous.   Close Companion is the title of Muḥammad-‘Alí-i-Zunúzí, the companion of the Báb in martyrdom, and Ḥájí Muḥammad-Ismá‘íl (referred to as Anís in Súriy-i-Ra’ís).   ‘Abdu’l-Bahá: By the symbolic Tree of Anísá is meant the divine Lote-Tree, the Tree of Life (Bahá’u’lláh)—see The Hidden Words, Persian 19 and Qur’án 24:35
Anjuman
Ánjuman
Pers.   a company, assembly, society, banquet, congregation, synagogue, congress, any place where people meet and converse;   a multitude
Ankabut, Anakib
‘Ankabút, pl. ‘Anákib
spider
Anqurah
Ánqurah
(modern Ankara)
Ansari, Ansariyyah
Anṣárí, pl. Anṣaríyyah
Related to Anṣár, the Helpers.   Those who rallied around Muḥammad after His flight from Mecca to Medina.   Anṣaríyyah is believed to be a mistranscription of Nuṣayríyyah.   See ‘Alwaí
Anton Haddad
Anṭún Ḥaddád
known in the West as Anton Haddad
Anud
‘Anúd
(“anoud”, not ánúd)   contumacious (stubbornly or wilfully disobedient to authority), refractory, wayward;   a cloud big with rain
Anushirwan (Anushirvan, Nushirvan)
Anúshírwán (Núshírván)
Sásáníyán king of Persia known for his just rule (AD 531–578).   The Prophet Muḥammad was born in Arabia at the time of his reign (about 570-1).—SDC p. 68.   Persians some times use Anúshírván or even Núshírván.   There are instances of Núshíraván, Núshíruván and Nawshíraván (MF 20).
Anwari (Avari)
Anwárí (Anvárí)
Name of a famous Persian poet, who died ah 586/ad 1190.   See núr
Anyabuli
Anyábulí
now Inebolu.   A Black Sea port in Turkey, 225 km wnw of Sámsún
Anzali
Anzalí
Bandar-i-Anzali, Port of Enzeli, sw end of Caspian Sea, Írán.
Aqa Fatu'llah
Áqá Fatu’lláh
(Fatollah)
Aqa Ghulamu'llah Ahmaduff
Áqá Ghulámu’lláh Áhmadúff
Aqa Jan
Áqá Ján
Mírzá Áqá Ján, Bahá’u’lláh’s amanuensis, later known as Khádimu’lláh (“Servant of God”)
Aqa Mirza 'Abdu'-r-Rahim-i-Burujirdi
Áqá Mírzá ‘Abdu’-r-Raḥím-i-Burújirdí
(Boroodjerdy)
Aqa Najaf-'Aliy-i-Zanjani
Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání
Aqa Siyyid
Áqá Siyyid
[Asseyid is an abbreviation]
Aqa-Baba
Áqá-Bábá
Aqa, Aqayan
Áqá, pl. Áqáyán
Pers.   master, sir, gentleman;   when affixed to a name means Mr   (A male honorific title—‘the Master’ was given to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá by Bahá’u’lláh)
Aqasi
Áqásí
Turkish proper name, e.g. Ḥájí Mírzá Áqásí (Grand Vizier of Persia)
Aqay-i-Kalim
Áqáy-i-Kalím
(MF)
Aqay-i-Munir
Áqáy-i-Munír
Aqay-i-Rikab-Saz
Áqáy-i-Rikáb-Sáz
Aqay-i-Tabrizi
Áqáy-i-Tabrízí
(MF)
Aqdas
Aqdas
more hallowed, more sacred, holier.   The Most holy.   See Quds
Aqida, Aqa'id
‘Aqída, pl. ‘Aqá’id
article of faith, tenet, doctrine;   dogma;   creed, faith, belief;   conviction;   ideology (modern)
Aqil, 'Uqala'
‘Aqil, pl. ‘Uqalá’
intelligent, wise, judicious (persons)
Aql al-Awwal
al-‘Aql al-Awwal
first intellect
Aql, 'Uqul
‘Aql, pl. ‘Uqúl
intellect, intelligence, reason, insight, mind, rationality and wisdom;—(pl.) sense, sentience, reason, understanding, comprehension, discernment, insight, rationality, mind, intellect, intelligence
Aqli, 'Aqliyun
‘Aqlí, pl. ‘Aqlíyún
reasonable, rational;   ratiocinative;   mental;   intellectual;—pl. rationalist;   an intellectual
Aqliya
‘Aqlíya
mentality, mental attitude
Aqsa, Quswa, Aqasin
Aqṣá, fem. Quṣwá, pl. Aqáṣin
more distant, remoter, farther (away);   “The Most Remote”.   al-Masjid al-Aqṣá—Aqṣá Mosque at southern end of the Temple Mount, Jerusalem. Name by which the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem is referred to in the Qur’án and in the Writings.   See aṣ-Ṣakhrah
Ara
Árá
Pers.   (in compound, from árástan), embellishing, adorning;   ornament (e.g. majlis-árá, gracing the banquet, etc.)
Arab, Urab, A’rub, Urban
‘Arab (coll.), pl. ‘Urúb, A‘rub
Arabs;   true Arabs, Arabs of the desert, Bedouins.   Other plurals: ‘Urbán, A‘ráb.
Arabi, al-'Arabiya
‘Arabí
Arab, Arabic, Arabian;   truly Arabic;   an Arab.   al-‘Arabíya, the language of the ancient Arabs;   classical, or literary, Arabic.   ibn ‘Arabí (26 July 1165–16 November 1240), full name Abú ‘Abd Alláh Muḥammad ibn ‘Alí ibn Muḥammad ibn ‘Arabí al-Ḥátimí aṭ-Ṭá’í, was an Arab Andalusian Muslim scholar, mystic, poet, and philosopher.
Arabistan
‘Arabistán
the land of Arabia
Arad, A'rad
‘Araḍ, pl. A‘ráḍ
accident (philosophy);   contingent, non-essential characteristic;   something non-essential, a contingent, something accidental;   symptom, manifestation of disease
Arafa, Ma'rifa, 'Irfan
‘Arafa (Ma‘rifa, ‘irfán)
to know (someone, something);   to recognize, perceive (someone, something);   to be cognizant, be aware (of something), be acquainted (with something), to discover, experience, find out (something)
Arafat
‘Arafát
Jabal ‘Arafát (Moun Arafat) is a granite hill east of Makkah
Arafih
‘Arafih
The day before the festival of Immolation of ‘Ídu’l-Aḍḥá (vigil of the Feast of Sacrifice, when Mecca pilgrims proceed to Mount ‘Arafát.   The ninth day of the month of Dhi’l-Ḥijjih).
Araja, 'Uruj
‘Araja, ‘Urúj
to ascend, mount, rise
Arak
Arák
capital of Markazi Province, Írán (formerly Sulṭánábád)
Aramram
‘Aramram
strong, violent, vehement
Aran
Árán
now Aran va Bidgol, 9 km ne of Káshán
Aras
Aras
name of a river near Tiflís, the Araxes of the ancients.   See Ras and Rass
Arastan
Árástan
Pers.   to adorn, decorate, embellish;   to set in order
Arastu
Arastú
Pers.   a swallow;   swallow-wort.   Dr Arastú Khán Ḥakím.
Arba'a, Arba'
Arba‘a(h or t) (fem. Arba‘)
four.   Pers. also Arba‘ih
Arba'un
Arbá‘ún, Pers. Arbá‘úna, Arbá‘ína
forty;   a ceremony held on the 40th day after someones death.   “Arba‘in” in The Kitáb-i-Íqán p. 242.
Arbil
Arbíl
(Erbil, Irbil) city 80 km ese of Mosul, ‘Iráq
Ard al-Muqaddasa
al-Arḍ al-Muqaddasa
the Holy Land, Palestine.   Shoghi Effendi stated it became the Most Holy Land (al-Arḍ al-Aqdas) after the arrival of Bahá’u’lláh.
Ard wa Sama'
Arḍ wa Samá’
earth and heaven.   ‘Earth’ is the earth of knowledge and understanding, the earth of new insight, etc. ‘Heaven’ is the heaven of new teachings and religion. By the shattering of the heaven (sky) on the day of resurrection, is meant that the heaven of the old religion is removed and a new one is raised through the Advent of a new Manifestation and the earth of recognition of God is decorated with Faith.
Ard-i-A'la
Arḍ-i-A‘lá
the Exalted Spot, the Shrine of the Báb and Zanján
Ard-i-Jannat
Arḍ-i-Jannat
the Land of Paradise, Mílán
Ard-i-Sirr
Arḍ-i-Sirr
the Land of Mystery, Adrianople
Ard, Arz, Aradin, Aradun, Arazi
Arḍ fem., pl. Aráḍín, Aráḍún
earth;   land, country, region, area;   terrain, ground, soil.   Pers.   arẓ, pl. aráẓí
Ardabil
Ardabíl or Ardibíl
city 175 km east of Tabirz,in the province of Ádhirbáyján, near the Caspian Sea
Ardakan
Ardakán or Ardikán
city 55 km nw of Yazd
Ardakani
Ardakání
Ardashir, Ardishir
Ardashír, Ardishír
Pers.   name of Persian rulers (Ardshír and Ardashír are derived from Middle Persian Artakhishatr, which was derived from the Greek Artaxerxes) and a village in East Azerbaijan Province, Írán.
Ardibili
Ardibíl
city on west side of Caspian Sea, Írán
Ardikan (Ardakan)
Ardikán
city 55 km nw of Yazd
Ardistan
Ardistán
Province in Írán
Ardshir
Ardshír
Pers.   intrepid, courageous
Arf
‘Arf
fragrance, perfume, scent, aroma
Arg
Arg
Pers.   the inner fortress or citadel of a walled city
Arghun
Arghún
an organ;   a wild horse
Arid, Irad
‘Aríḍ, pl. ‘Iráḍ
broad, wide;   extensive, vast
Arif
‘Áríf
Pers.   one who knows;   an acquaintance ;   the next man to a chief or general, a deputy, lieutenant;   an usher at a school.
Arif, 'Urafa'
‘Aríf, pl. ‘Urafá’
knowing (something), cognizant, aware (of something);   expert, authority, specialist;   teaching assistant, monitor (an older pupil assisting the teacher of a Qur’anic school)
Aristu, Arasta, Arastu
Arisṭú, Pers. Arasṭá, Arasṭú
Aristotle.   Dr Arisṭú Khán, brother of Dr Luṭfu’lláh Ḥakím
Arjmand (Arjumand)
Arjmand
Pers.   rare, excellent, worthy of great price, valuable, exquisite, beloved, dear, brave, generous, noble, distinguished;   wise
Arjumand, Arjmand, Arzaman
Arjumand, Arjmand, Arzamán
Pers.   town, formerly Arzamán, in and the capital of Arjumand District, in Fírúzkúh County, Ṭihrán Province, Írán.   Also written “Arjomand”.
Arjumandi
Arjumandí
of, from Arjumand
Arman
Ármán
Pers.   desire;   a sigh;   grief, sorrow;   remorse
Arsh, Urush, A'rash
‘Arsh, pl. ‘Urúsh, A‘rásh
a throne, chair of state;   the throne of God;   the empyrean (heaven);   a palace, citadel;   roof of a house;   a canopy;   a tent;   a prop, buttress, stay, support;   a leader or chief of the people
Arshin
Árshín
Russian cubit (арши́н)
Arshiyyih
‘Arshíyyih
followers of Mullá Ṣadrá, DB, p. 207.   See ‘Arsh
Arslan
Árslán, Arslán
Pers.   from Turkish.   A lion;   surname adopted by several kings of Persia
Arus, 'Urus, 'Ara'is, 'Arusan
‘Arús, pl. ‘Urus
bridegroom;   f. (pl. ‘ará’is) bride;   doll;   al-‘arúsán bride and groom, the newlyweds
As
‘Áṣ
‘Amr ibn al-‘Áṣ (c. 585–6 January 664) was an Arab military commander who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640. He was a contemporary of Muḥammad and one of the Ṣaḥába (“Companions”).
As'ilah wa Ajwiba
As’ilah wa Ajwiba
Questions and Answers
Asad, Usud, Usd
Asad, pl. Usud, Usd, Usúd, Ásád
lion;   Leo (astron.)
Asadu'llah
Asadu’lláh
Lion of God.   Compound proper name
Asadu'llah-i-Isfahani
Asadu’lláh-i-Iṣfahání
Asadu'llah-i-Mazandarani
Asadu’lláh-i-Mázandarání
(MF, p. 4)
Asadu'llah-i-Sabbagh
Asadu’lláh-i-Ṣabbágh
(GPB 297)
Asadu'llahzadih
Asadu’lláh-i-Zádih, Ḥusayn
Ḥusayn Asadu’lláhzádih
Asadyari
Asadyárí, ‘Abdu’l-‘Alí
Asafu'd-Dawla
Áṣafu’d-Dawla
Asala, Asalatan
Aṣála(t)
firmness, steadfastness, strength of character;   nobility of descent, purity of origin (originality);   aṣálatan immediately, directly, personally
Asalat-i-Naw'
Aṣálat-i-Naw‘
originality of species
Asara, 'Asr
‘Aṣara (‘Aṣr)
to press (out), squeeze (out) (something, e.g., grapes, olives, etc.);   to wring (something, especially wet clothes);   to compress (something).   See ‘Aṣr listing for other Forms.
Asas, Usus
Asás, pl. Usus
foundation (also, of a building), fundament, groundwork, ground, basis;   keynote, tonic (music)
Asaturiyan Marcard
Ásátúriyán Márcárd
(Dr Marcard Assadorian)
Asbah, Asbahi
Aṣbaḥ
Pers.   Of a handsome face;   a tearing lion;   red-coloured;   name of a king of Yemen.   [Aṣbahí (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, p. 158) Aṣbaḥí (Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh, 4:438)
Asbaq
Aasbaq
earlier, antecedent;   preceding, previous, prior;   former, ex‑;   foremost, more or most excellent;   surpassing;   previous;   past times
Asdaq
Aṣdaq
Ibn-i-Aṣdaq   (Mírzá ‘Alí-Muḥammad).   Designated by Bahá’u’lláh as Shahíd Ibn-i-Shahíh (Martyr, son of the Martyr). Son of Mullá Ṣádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání
Asdaqi
Aṣdaqí
Asfal, Sufla, Asafil
Asfal, fem. Suflá, pl. Asáfil
lower;   lowest;   lower or lowest part, bottom
Asfiya', 'Asfiyyih
Aṣfiyá’, Pers. Aṣfiyyih
Druse village of ‘Isfiya, east side Mt Carmel.   See Ṣafíy
Asghar, Sughra, Asaghir
Aṣghar, fem. Ṣughra, pl. m. Aṣághir
smaller, younger [Comparative form of ṣaghíra (to belittle)].   Ṣughra is the name of a half-sister of Bahá’u’lláh and mother of ‘Alí Akbar Furútan.
Asgharzadih
Aṣgharzádih
Pers.   surname, e.g. Ḍíyá’u’lláh Aṣgharzádih
Ash-i-kashk
Ásh-i-kashk
(MF p. 68) barley soup with whey
Ash'ar
Ash‘ar
hairy, hirsute, long-haired, shaggy
Ash'ari
Ash‘arí
Abú al-Ḥasan ‘Alí ibn Ismá‘íl ibn Isḥáq al-Ash‘arí (c. 874—936)
Ash'ariyya, 'Asha'ira
al-‘Ash‘aríyya(h) or al-‘Ashá‘ira(h)
Ash‘arism or Ash‘ari theology—a foremost theological school of Sunni Islam founded by Abú al-Ḥasan ‘Alí ibn Ismá‘íl ibn Isḥáq al-Ash‘arí.   Followers: Ash‘arites.   See Sha‘r
Ash'ath
Ash‘ath
Pers.   one whose hair is dishevelled and soiled with dust
Ashab al-Aykah
Aṣḥáb al-Aykah
“Companions of the Wood”, a name given to the Midians
Ashab al-Kahf
Aṣḥáb al-Kahf
“Companions of the cave”, a Christian and Islamic tradition (Qur’án 18:9–26) that tells the story of the ‘Seven Sleepers’ (unknown number of youths according to Qur’án 18:22) who hide in a cave near a city around AD 250 to escape religious persecution and to emerge 300 years later. Identified as a cave 1 km east of Ephesus by Christians, and as a south facing (Qur’án 18:17) cave 7 km SE of Amman (31.898860, 35.973800) by Muslims.   See ṣáḥib.
Ashab, Sahba', Suhb
Aṣhab, f. Ṣahbá’, pl. Ṣuhb
reddish;   wine
Ashar
Ashar
liveliness, high spirits, exuberance;   wildness;   insolence, impertinence
Ashiq, Ushshaq, Awashiq (Avashiq)
‘Áshiq, pl. ‘Ushsháq, ‘Awáshiq
lover;   fancier, fan;—pl. knucklebone;   (game of) knucklebones.   ‘Aváshiq is a village near Baghdád.
Ashiqa, Ishq
‘Ashiqa, ‘Ishq
to love passionately (someone, something), be passionately in love (with someone, with something)
Ashjari
Ashjárí
‘Azízu’lláh Ashjárí
Ashraf, Sharfa'
Ashraf, fem. Sharfá’
more or most noble;   eminent;   a person of noble birth, nobleman;   gentleman.   City in Írán, see Bihshahr.   ‘Alí Ashraf Garden—a large garden on the west side of the Riḍván Garden (se east of ‘Akká), with the Firdaws (Paradise) Garden to its north. Original owner Mullá Abú-Ṭálib. ‘Alí-Ashraf, his son, later donated it to the Faith.   Áqá Siyyid Ashraf-i-Zanjání (mother: Umm-i-Ashraf).
Ashrafi
Áshrafí, Ashrafí
Pers.   a gold coin
Ashtiyan (Ashtian)
Áshtiyán
Pers.   capital city of Áshtiyán County, Markazí Province, Írán.   81 km wsw of Qum.
Ashu (Asho)
Ashu
Pers.   heavenly Ashu Zarathushtra
Ashura
Áshúrá
the tenth day of the Muslim month Muḥarram—Shí‘ih Muslims observe the first 10 days of the month as a period of mourning for the Imáms, ending with the Áshúrá, the commemoration of the martyrdom of the Imám Ḥusayn
Ashyab, Shaiba, Shib
Ashyab, fem. Shaibá, pl. Shíb
Ar.   white, grey (hair);   white-haired, grey-haired (person);   old, aged;   old man.
Asi, Asiyih
Ásí, fem. Ásíyih
Pers. Melancholy, solicitous, sorrowful;   a physician, surgeon.   Ásíyih is the name of Pharaoh’s daughter who rescued Moses.   See Navváb, title given to Bahá’u’lláh’s wife (Ásíyih Khánum)
Asif
‘Áṣif
blowing violently
Asifu'd-Dawlih
Áṣifu’d-Dawlih
Asiya
Ásiyá
Asia
Asiyah (Asiyih, Asiya)
Ásiyah (آسیه) (Ar.), Ásíya (Pers.)
Pers.   Ásiya name of Pharaoh’s wife who educated Moses.   Ásíyih Khánum (1820–1886, née Ásíyih Yalrúdí) was the wife of Bahá’u’lláh. She is also know also known by her titles of Navváb, the Most Exalted Leaf, Búyúk Khánum or Ḥaḍrat-i-Khánum.
Askar, Asakir
‘Askar, pl. ‘Asákir
army, host, troops
Askari
‘Askarí, pl. ‘Askariyún, ‘Asákir
military, army- (in compounds);—(pl. al-‘askariyún) the military;—(pl. ‘asákir) soldier;   private (military);   policeman;—pl. enlisted men, ranks.   The hidden Imám Mahdí, Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-‘Askarí (disappeared ad 874)
Asl-i-Qullu'l-Khayr
Aṣl-i-Qullu’l-Khayr
“Words of Wisdom” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Asl, Usul
Aṣl, pl. Uṣúl
root;   trunk (of a tree);   origin, source;   cause, reason;   descent, lineage, stock (esp., one of a noble character);   foundation, fundament, basis;   the origins!;—pl. principles, fundamentals, rudiments, elements (e.g., of a science)
Aslam
Aslam
(adj. of salím)   safer;   freer;   sounder;   healthier (“most peaceful”)
Aslas
Aslas
more tractable, more pliable, more obedient;   more flexible, smoother, more fluent.   See salis
Asli
Aṣlí
Pers.   original, primary, primal, initial;   genuine, authentic, pure;   basic, fundamental, principal, chief, main
Asliyat (Asliyah)
Aṣlíyat
Pers.   originality;   genuineness;   nobleness.   Variation of aṣála.
Asma'u'l-Husna
Asmá’u’l-Ḥusná
Most Beauteous Names (of God)
Asman
Ásmán
Pers.   heaven, the celestial orb;   the ceiling of a house;   name of the angel of death
Asmar, Samra', Sumr, Samrawat
Asmar, f. Samrá’, pl. Sumr
brown;   tawny;—pl. Samráwát brown-skinned women
Aspa
Aspa
Pers.   a cold, a horse nearing two years old
Asqalan, Ashkelon, Ashqelon, Ascalon
‘Asqalán, Heb. Ashkelon
city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, 50 km south of Tel Aviv
Asr, 'Asar, 'Usur
‘Aṣr, ‘Aṣar, pl. ‘Uṣúr
(fem.) afternoon;   afternoon prayer (Islamic Law
Asr, A'sur, 'Usur, A'sar
‘Aṣr, pl. A‘ṣur, ‘Uṣúr, A‘ṣár
(act of) pressing (out), squeezing (out); (act of) wringing (out);—pl. age, era, time; period; epoch; afternoon
Asrar-i-Shihadat-i-Imam
Asrár-i-Shihádat-i-Imám
Ast
Ast
Pers.  is (from búdan, to be);   he willeth, he seeketh
Astan
Ástán
Pers.   the place where the shoes or slippers are pulled off;   a threshold;   lying supine;   a king’s court, royal palace;   the Ottoman Porte;   the tombs of prophets and other holy men
Astani
Ástání
Yadu’lláh Ástání
Astar
Astar
Pers.   a mule;   a bone;   a seed, a kernel
Astarabad (Gurgan, Gurgin or Gorgan)
Astarábád
“City of Mules”, on south eastern Caspian Sea border of Írán.   Since 1937 called Gúrgán (Gorgán).
Aswad, Sawda (Sauda), Sud, Sudan
Aswad, fem. Sawdá, pl. Súd
black;   dark-coloured;—pl. súdán a black, Negro
Ata, A'tiys, Ata'atat
‘Aṭá’, pl. A‘tiys
gift, present;   (pl. ‘Aṭá’át) offer, tender.   Pers.   ‘Atá’íyyih, “Ataieh”.   ‘Alí Akbar Furútan married ‘Aṭá’íyyih ‘Azíz-Khurásání in 1931.
Ata'u'llah
‘Aṭá’u’lláh
Gift of God
Ataba, 'Atab, A'tab
‘Ataba(h), pl. ‘Atab, A‘táb
doorstep, threshold;   (door) lintel;   also al-‘Ataba(h) al-‘ulyá step, stair;   ‘Utbah masc. name
Atabak
Atábak
Pers.   (from atá, a father, and bak, a lord), the lord father (a title given to the governors of Shíráz);   a guardian, preceptor, teacher;   the prime minister, or vizír;   honorary title of an ámir
Atabak-i-A’zam (Atabik-i-A’zam)
Atábak-i-A‘ẓam
Title of Mírzá ‘Alí-Asghar Khán
Atabat
‘Atabat, pl. ‘Atabát
Pers.   A gate, a port;   the threshold;   the lintel of a door;   the round of a ladder, a step;   a royal court;   anything adverse or disagreeable.   Plural: Steps, thresholds.   The Shi‘ite holy shrines in ‘Iráq and the cities of their location: Karbalá’, Najaf, Káẓimayn, and Sámarrá—locations of the tombs of the first six Imams.
Atabat-i-Aliyat
‘Atabát-i-‘Álíyát
(lit. Supreme Shrines) applied by Shí’ih Muslims to cities of Karbalá’, Najaf, Káẓimayn, and Sámarrá.   Bahá’í Shrines of Báb and Bahá’u’lláh.
Athar
Aṭhar
Pers.   more or most pure
Athar
Athar, pl. Áthár
track, trace, vestige;   sign, mark;   touch;   impression, effect, action, influence (on);   tradition (relating the deeds and utterances of Muḥammad and his Companions);   work (of art, especially of literature);   ancient monument;—pl. also: antiquities;   remnants, vestiges;   (religious) relics
Athari
Atharí, Áthárí
archaeologic(al);   archaeologist;   old, ancient, antique
Athim, Athama, Uthama'
Áthim, pl. Athama, Athím, Uthamá’
sinful, criminal, wicked, evil;   sinner
Athir
Athír
marking;   marked, chosen, selected;—(from Greek αίθήρ) sky, ether;   fire as an element.   Pers.   the sphere of fire;   the sun;   tears
Athiriy
Athíriy
ethereal
Atifi
‘Áṭifí
sentimental;   emotional;   emotive, feeling;   tender, affectionate, loving
Atish
Átish
Pers.   fire;   light, splendour;   rage;   levity, fickleness;   valour, value, dignity;   dearness, scarceness;   (metaphorically) the Devil;   a courageous man, bold, brave;   a lover;   fire of Jove;   desire, appetite, greed;   digestive heat;   sulphur.   ‘Abdu’l-Bahá said Marzieh Gale had átish and namak.  Arches of the years, p. 87.
Atish-Parast (Atishparast, Atishparastan)
Átish-Parast, pl. Átish-Parastán
fire-worshippers
Atiya, 'Ataya
‘Aṭíya(h or t), pl. ‘Aṭáyá
(Pers. also ‘Atíyya(h)) gift, present
Atqan
Atqan
more perfect, more thorough
Atri
‘Aṭrí
distiller of ‘Aṭṭár according to Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh, vol. IV
Attar
‘Aṭṭár
perfumer, perfume vendor;   druggist;   sweet-smelling, fragrant, aromatic
Attari
‘Aṭṭárí
Pers.   of or relating to a druggist;   the business of a perfumer or druggist
Avih, Aveh, Awah
Ávih
villages in the provinces of Fárs, Markazí and Qazvín.   The village mentioned in God Passes By, p. 298, is 26 km sse Sávih (Sáveh) and 45 km nw of Qum.
Aw (Au)
Aw
or (with following subjunctive) unless, except that
Awamid (Avamid)
‘Awámíd
Awarih (Awarah), Avarih (Avareh)
Áwárih, Ávárih
Pers.   straggler, gadabout, immigrant, runabout, wanderer.   After the death of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, a prominent Iranian Bahá’í, Mírzá ‘Abdu’l-Ḥusayn Áyatí (1290/1873–1953), titled Ávárih (wanderer) by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, pressed for a position of leadership in the Bahá’í community. When he failed, he withdrew from the Bahá’í Faith and began to publicly denounce it and published Kashfu’l-Hiyal (The Uncovering of Trickery) in three volumes.   See Ṭaríq
Awj (“Auj”), Awji
Awj
noun.   highest point, acme, pinnacle;   culmination, climax;   apogee (astron.);   peak (fig.;   of power. of fame).   Adj. Awjí
Awrang (Aurang)
Awrang
Pers.   a throne;   wisdom, understanding;   beauty, gracefulness;   life;   a manufacturing village;   fraud, deceit;   mirth;   a worm which eats into wood;   a line whereon things are hung to dry;   glory, honour;   a man's name;   (metaphorically) heaven.   A low mountain near the village of Tákur, in the province of Núr, Persia, the summer residence of Bahá’u’lláh.
Awraq-i-Nariyyih
Awráq-i-Náríyyih
Pers.   form “the Infernal Letters”   See waraq (paper) and nárí
Aws (Aus)
Aws
giving in exchange or return, requiting, repaying;   a gift;   name of an Arab tribe (Banú Aws)
Awsat (“Ausat”), Awasit, Wusta, Wusat
Awsaṭ, pl. Awsaṭ
middle, central;   the middle finger
Awtad
Awtád
pegs or tent stakes.   See Watad/Autád
Awwal, Ula, Awwalun, Awa'il
Awwal, f. Úlá, pl. m. Awwalún, Awá’il
first;   foremost, most important, principal, chief, main;   first part, beginning;   (with def. article also) earlier, previous, former.   al-úlá “pre-existence”—ad-dunyá (earthly life) and al-Ákhirah (afterlife)
Ay
Ay
that is (to say), i.e.;   namely, to wit
Aya, Ay, Ayat
Áya(h or t), collective Áy, pl. Áyát
sign, token, mark;   miracle;   wonder, marvel, prodigy;   model, exemplar, paragon, masterpiece.   Commonly used to refer to each of the 6,236 verses in the Qur’án (6,348 áyát if all the Bismi’lláh [no plural] verses are included).   Muslims regard each áya of the Qur’án as a sign from Alláh. (The Bahá’í Proofs).
Ayadiyi-Amru'llah
Ayádiyi-Ámru’lláh
Pers.   Hands of the Cause of God   (Cause or Command)
Ayatu'l-Kursi
Áyatu’l-Kursí
verse of the throne Qur’án 2:255
Ayatu'llah
Áyatu’lláh
“sign of God”   A Shí‘ih religious leader in Írán and a title given to Shoghi Effendi by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in His Will and Testament
Ayatu'llah al-'Uzma'
Áyatu’lláh al-‘Uzmá
the greatest sign of God, a Marja‘ at-taqlíd
Ayatu'llah-i-Khurasani
Áyatu’lláh-i-Khurásání
(MF)
Ayaz
Áyáz and Ayáz
Pers.   name of a favourite of Sulṭán Maḥmúd of Ghaznah;   name of one of the Emirs of Sulṭān Ibrahím bin Mas‘úd bin Maḥmúd Ghaznawí.
Aydil-Khani
Aydil-Khání
Ayk (Aik)
Ayk, Ayka(h)
(collective;   nomen unitatis ة) thicket, jungle
Aykatun
’Aykatun
thicket, clump of trees, forest, the dwellers of woods (an epithet for the people of Midian to whom the Prophet Shu‘ayb was sent)
Ayn ('Ain), 'Uyun, A'yun
‘Ayn fem., pl. ‘Uyún, A‘yun, A‘yán
eye;   evil eye;   spring, source, fountainhead (of water);   scout, reconnoiterer;   hole;   mesh;   flower, choice, prime (of something);—(pl. a‘yán) an eminent, important man, used especially in plural: people of distinction, important people, leading personalities, leaders, notables, prominent persons;   substance, essence;   self, individuality;—chattel, object of material value, (corporeal or personal) property, personality, capital asset (Islamic Law);—ready money, cash;   name of the letter ع (18th in Arabic and 21st in Persian alphabets—see hijá’í)
Ayn-'Ayn
‘Ayn-‘Ayn
= ‘Abdu’l-Bahá ‘Abbás
Aynu'l-Baghar
‘Aynu’l-Baghar
[ain o’lbagar]—a well outside ‘Akká
Aynu'l-Baqar
‘Aynu’l-Baqar
an ancient spring (“The spring of the cow”) between the moat around ‘Akká and Tel ‘Akká
Aynu'l-Sitt
‘Aynu’l-Sitt
“Spring of the woman”—about 200 m south of ‘Aynu’l-Baqar
Aynu'llah ('Ainullah)
‘Aynu’lláh
Eye of God.   Brothers Sulaymán and Raḥmán ‘Aynu’lláhí, guards in the Disciplinary Forces (NAFA).
Ayyam-i-Ha
Ayyám-i-Há
“Days of Há” Intercalary days
Ayyam-i-Shidad
Ayyám-i-Shidád
“Days of stress”
Ayyub (Aiyub)
Ayyúb
Job (the prophet)
Ayyubiyun
al-Ayyúbíyún
Ayyubid dynasty, the Ayubites
Az
Áz
Pers.   desire, love, passion, lust;   avidity, avarice, covetousness;   (at the end of compounds) greedy;   name of a city.
Az
Az
Pers.   from;   of;   for;   by;   out of;   with;   belonging to;   by means of;   in
Az-Bagh-i-Ilahi
Az-Bágh-i-Iláhí
“From the Garden of Holiness” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Azad
Ázád
Pers.   free, independent, liberated, delivered, manumitted, exempted;   fault, less;   solitary, lonely;   a kind of faqír, or devotee;   a lily;   a cypress;   a fresh date;   an evergreen;   a delicious kind of fish
Azadi
Ázádí
Pers.   liberty;   freedom from worldly cares;   praise, thanksgiving
Azal
Azal
Pers.   eternity (without beginning)
Azali
Azalí, pl. Azálál
Pers.   existing from all eternity, eternal;   God.   Also a follower of Mírzá Yaḥyá, Ṣubḥ-i-Azal (“Morn of Eternity”)
Azamat
‘Azamat, ‘Azamút, pl. ‘Azamát
Pers.   magnitude, magnificence, pride, pomp, grandeur;   (met.) a grandee.
Azamatu’llah
‘Aẓamatu’lláh
Magnificence of God
Azamut
‘Aẓamút
Ar.   greatness, magnitude, grandeur, dominion
Azan
Áẓán or Aẓán (also Adhán)
Pers.   announcing, giving notice;   the signal for summoning to prayers, by the Mu’aẓẓin or crier, from the minarets or towers of the mosques;   listening to
Azghand
Azghand
village (130 km SW Mashhad) and rural district
Azhar
Aẓhar
more distinct, more manifest, clearer
Azhar, Zahra, Zahra’i
Azhar, fem. Zahrá
shining, luminous, radiant, brilliant;   bright.   al-Azhar University, Cairo.   Surname Zahrá’í a radiant one, a dazzling beauty
Azim-i-Khu'i
‘Aẓím-i-Khu’í
Azim-i-Tafrishi
‘Aẓím-i-Tafríshí
(MF)
Azim, Uzama, Izam, Aza'im
‘Aẓím, pl. ‘Uẓamá, ‘Iẓám, ‘Aẓá’im
great, big, large;   strong, powerful, mighty;   significant, important;   grand, grandiose, imposing, stately, magnificent;   lofty, exalted, august, sublime, splendid, gorgeous, glorious, superb;   huge, vast, prodigious, enormous, tremendous, immense, stupendous;   hard, distressing, gruesome, trying, oppressive (see A‘ẓam)   The Great One (Superlative form of ‘aẓuma)
Aziz
‘Azíz
Strongest, most powerful (Superlative form of azza).   Also dear, beloved, valuable.
Azizi
‘Azízí
(Ar. element)   greatness, valuableness
Azizu'llah Khan Bahadur
‘Azízu’lláh Khán Bahádur
(Unfolding Destiny, p. 44)
Azm, A'zum, 'Izam
‘Aẓm, pl. A‘ẓum, ‘Iẓám
bone
Azuma, Izam, Azama
‘Aẓuma, ‘Iẓam, ‘Aẓáma
to be or become great, big, large, grand, grandiose, magnificent, imposing, powerful, or mighty;   etc.
Azurdigan (Azordegan, Azordigan)
Ázúrdigán
Pers.   name
Azza, Izz, Azaza
‘Azza (‘Izz, ‘Izza ‘Azáza)
to be or become strong, powerful, respected;   etc.
Top -s ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic attributes (“names”) of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots · Underscores · Vowel sounds · Word transcription macros
Plain text
Transcripted text
Word meanings & comments
B
Ba
Bá’
Arabic letter
Ba’ata (ba’t)
Ba‘ata (Ba‘t)
to send, send out, dispatch;   to forward;   to delegate;   to emit;   to evoke, arouse, call forth, awaken;   to stir up, provoke, bring on;   to revive, resuscitate;   to resurrect (someone from death);   to incite, induce, instigate;   to cause (something; e.g., astonishment)
Ba'da
Ba‘da
(preposition) after; in addition to, beside; aside from
Ba'ith, Bawa'ith
Bá‘ith, pl. Bawá‘ith
incentive, inducement, motive, spur, reason, cause, occasion.   Root is ba‘ata, so can also mean to resurrect from death.
Ba'tha, Ba'atat
Ba‘tha, pl. ba‘athát
delegation, deputation, mission;   expedition;   student exchange;   group of exchange students;   revival, rebirth, renaissance, rise.   The Báb is said to calculate the beginning of the Islamic revelation from the year Ba‘tha (the Call in ad 612) instead of the year of the Hijra (ad 622) when Muḥammad migrated from Mecca to Medina.
Bab-i-Amin
Báb-i-Amín
Shrine of the Báb door—centre NW side
Bab-i-Ashraf
Báb-i-Ashraf
Shrine of the Báb door—centre NE side (Tomb ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Bab-i-Bala
Báb-i-Bálá
Shrine of the Báb door—centre SE side
Bab-i-Fadl
Báb-i-Faḍl
Shrine of the Báb door—nthern end NW side
Bab-i-Giachery
Báb-i-Giachery
Shrine of the Báb door—sthern end NW side
Bab-i-Ioas
Báb-i-Ioas
Shrine of the Báb octagon door—SW side
Bab-i-Karim
Báb-i-Karím
Shrine of the Báb door—nthern end SE side
Bab-i-Makhsus
Báb-i-Makhṣúṣ
Special or specific gate
Bab-i-Maxwell
Báb-i-Maxwell
Shrine of the Báb door—centre SW side
Bab-i-Qassabchi
Báb-i-Qaṣṣábchí
Shrine of the Báb door—southern end, SE side
Bab, Abwab, Abvab
Báb, pl. Abwáb, Pers. Abváb
Gate   Title assumed by Mírzá ‘Alí Muḥammad (the Báb) after the declaration of his Mission in Shíráz in May 1844   His wife was Khadíjih-Bagum.   Qayyúmu’l-Asmá’, the Persian and Arabic Bayán, Dalá’il-i-Sab‘ih (“Seven Proofs”) and the Kitáb-i-Asmá’.   Second wife Fáṭimih, married 1847, later Mírzá Yaḥyá briefly married her.   Some designations of the Báb are: Siyyid-i-Dhikr, Ṭal‘at-i-A‘lá, Siyyid-i-Báb, ‘Abdu’dh-Dhikr, Ḥaḍrat-i-A‘lá, Bábu’lláh, Rabb-i-A‘lá, Nuqṭiy-i-Úlá and Nuqṭiy-i-Bayán. (DB 72)
Baba-Iski
Bábá-Iskí
Babaeski, 50 km se Adrianople, Turkey
Baba-zadih (Babazadih)
Bábá-Zádih
Baba, Babawat
Bábá, pl. Bábawát
pope;   papa, father, daddy
Babak
Bábak
Pers.   (diminutive of báb), a little father;   one who educates;   faithful, constant, firm, strong;   a turquoise stone;   name of a king.
Babi-Dukhtaran
Bábí-Dukhtarán
Site in Shíráz where the Báb’s son is buried.
Babi, Babiyun
Bábí, pl. Bábíyún
A follower of the Báb (Bábís is generally used as the plural)
Babism or Babiism
Bábí Faith
It is incorrect to combine a transcripted word with an English suffix (transcripted adjective converted to a noun)
Babiya, Babiyya, Babiyat, Babiyyat
Bábíya, Pers. Bábíyat
The status of the báb (Gate-hood) [replace “Babhood” by Gate-hood or Door-ship] (-hood or -ship—state of being, quality or condition)
Babiyyih
Bábíyyih
house of Báb in Mashhad
Babu'd-Din
Bábu’d-Dín
“The Gate of Religion”
Babu'l-Bab, Bab-i-Bab
Bábu’l-Báb, Pers. Báb-i-Báb
The “Gate of the Gate”   Mullá Muḥammad-Ḥusayn-i-Bushrú’í
Babu'llah
Bábu’lláh
(“The Gate of God”) (a designation of the Báb)
Babu'llahu'l-A'zam
Bábu’lláhu’l-A‘ẓam
the Most Great Báb
Babul
Bábul
(“Babol”) an acacia tree (Acacia arabica) and the new name for Bárfurúsh
Babulsar, Babul Sar, Mashhad–i-Sar
Bábulsar, Bábul Sar
Pers.   also known as Mashhadsar, Mashhad-i-Sar and Meshed-i-Sar; is a city and capital of Babolsar County, Mázandarán Province, Írán. It is located alongside the Caspian Sea north of Bábul.
Bad
Bád
Pers.   wind, air, breath
Bada
Badá
Ar.   to appear, show, become evident, clear, plain or manifest, come to light;   to be obvious;   to seem good, acceptable, proper (to someone).   form III to show, display, evince, manifest, reveal, declare openly
Bada'
Badá’
Pers.   coming in the mind;   appearing;   beginning.   Two meanings:   1.  Appearance after hiding involving alteration of the Divine Will or the non-fulfilment of the Divine Will.   A Shí’a concept where God may alter the course of human history as is seen to be fit.   2.  Origination of a new idea.   The Sunní view on Badá’ is that it is not applicable to God.
The Báb made significant reinterpretations of the concept of badá’.   1.  Change in divine revelation according to the principle of progressive revelation.   2.  Acceptance embodies the recognition of God’s absolute power and authority and thus is the highest sign of spiritual maturity.   3.  The concept of magnification (takbír), as the symbol of the completion of the four layers of the divine covenant.   One’s faith is complete and will not be subject to alteration or negation if one believes in all four supports or pillars of the covenant.   See Gate of the heart, pp. 207–11.
Bada', Bada'a
Badá’ and Badá’a
Ar.   obscenity, ribaldry, foulness (of language);   disgust, loathing, aversion, contempt
Badakhshan
Badakhshán
“Badakh Mountains”. NE Afghánistán province
Badasht
Badasht
A village near Sháhrúd in Khurásán, venue of the first Bábí conference.
Badawi, Badw
Badawí, pl. Badw
Bedouin, nomadic;   rural (as distinguished from urban);   a Bedouin;—pl. desert, nomads, Bedouins
Badawiya, Badawiyat
Badawíya, pl. Badawíyát
Bedouin woman, Bedouin girl
Badayi'u'l-Athar
Badáyi‘u’l-Áthár
diary of Mírzá Mamúd-i-Zarqání
Badhinjan, Baydhinjan (Baidinjan)
dhinján and Baydhinján
(collective; noun -un) pl. -át. eggplant, aubergine
Badi'
Badí‘
unique, marvellous, wonderful, wondrous.   See abda‘.   Title given to Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí and Fakhru’sh-Shuhadá’ (Pride of Martyrs)
Badi' al-Jamal, Badi'u'l-Jamal
Badí‘ al-Jamál, Pers. Badí‘u’l-Jamál
of astonishing beauty
Badi' az-Zaman, Badi'u'z-Zaman
Badí‘ az-Zamán, Pers. Badí‘u’z-Zamán
the wonder of the age
Badi'a, Bada'i
Badí‘a, pl. Badá’i‘
an astonishing, amazing thing, a marvel, a wonder;   original creation
Badi'ih
Badí‘ih
Pers.
Badi'u'l-Hayat
Badí‘u’l-Ḥayát
“Wondrous Life”   A name give by Bahá’u’lláh to Mírzá Ja‘far.
Badi'u'llah
Badí‘u’lláh
wonder of God
Badkubah (Badkubih), Bad-Kubah
Bádkúbah, Bád-Kúbah
“Wind-pounded city”.   See Bákú
Badkubi'i (Badkoubei)
Bádkúbi’í
Pers.   (bád + kúb)
Badr, Budur
Badr, pl. Budúr
full moon.   Badr Ḥunayn is a city 80 km se of Yanbú‘.   Site of the famous Battle of Badr, between the Quraysh led polytheists, and the Muslims under the leadership of Muḥammad, in 624.
Badri
Badrí
of or relating to the full moon;   plenilunar;   one who had been present at the battle of Badr;   a purse full of money
Badshah, Padshah
Bádsháh, Pádsháh
Pers.   an emperor, sovereign, monarch, king.   Also Pád-Sháh (“Padeshah”)
Badw
Badw
desert;   nomads, Bedouins
Bagh
gh
garden
Bagh
Bagh
Persian.   A ditch;   name of an idol;   a god (enters into composition of names, as bagh-dád—“god-given”)
Bagh-i-Firdaws
gh-i-Firdaws
“Garden of Paradise”, agricultural land west of the Riḍván Garden, and east of old Akko (‘Akká)
Bagh-i-Jannat
gh-i-Jannat
“Garden of Paradise”
Bagh-i-Takht
gh-i-Takht
Bagh-Mishih
gh-Mishih
Bagh-Panbih
gh-Panbih (Bágh-Panba)
a quarter in Qum
Baghban-Bashi
ghbán-Báshí
Baghban, Bagh-Pira
ghbán, Bágh-pírá
Pers.   a gardener;   a vine-dresser
Baghdad
Baghdád
city originally known as Dáru’s-Salám (the Abode of Peace) or Madínatu’lláh (the City of God) because peace is an attribute of God. Also known as Mádina as-Salám (City of Peace). Name may be derived from ancient Persian Bagh (God) and Dád (gift), i.e. “Gift of God” or “God-given”.
Baghdadi, Baghdadyun, Baghdida
Baghdádí, pl. Baghdádyún, Baghádida
native of Baghdád
Bagum
Bagum
(also Bigum) (Turk) dame.   Feminine form of ‘Big’.   A title placed after the name
Baha
Baha
Pers.   far be it!
Baha
Bahá
Pers.   price, value
Baha'
Bahá’
beauty, magnificence, splendour;   brilliancy;   glory or light.   Title of Bahá’u’lláh.   See Abhá.   An Islamic Tradition states the Most great Name (Huwu) consists of four names: 1. “God” (Alláh), 2. “the Blessed” (Tabáraka), 3. “the Exalted” (Ta‘álá, from the same root as ‘Alí), 4. The hidden name of God—identified by the Báb as hidden in Ta‘álá, i.e. ‘Ali, but the ultimate name is Bahá’ [the Greatest Name].   See Gate of the heart, pp. 105–7. Abjad: Bahá’ is eight plus one = 9—hence the significance of the number nine.   (‘B’ is two, the short vowel is not written in, the ‘h’ is five, the long vowel is one, and the hamza, represented by the apostrophe, is one.)   ‘Abdu’l-Bahá interpreted Qur’án 69:17 as “… on that day Bahá [9] will bear up the throne (the body) of thy Lord. On that day eight will bear up one.”
Baha’i Holy Year
Bahá’í Holy Year
1. Centennial of “year nine” AH 1269/AD 1952 (Revelation received by Bahá’u’lláh about two months after imprisonment in Siyàh Chál)—October 1952 to October 1953.
2. Centennial Ascension Bahá’u’lláh, Riḍván 1992 to Riḍván 1993.
Baha’i Khun
Baháʼi Khún
Pers.   the price of blood (which is paid to the relations of a person killed, as an atonement)
Baha’i, Baha’iyun
Bahá’í, pl. Bahá’íyún
precious, valuable.   “Follower of the Glory” (Bahá’ís is a generally used plural) A follower of Bahá’u’lláh;   a person of light, of enlightenment
Baha'ism or Baha'iism
Bahá’í Faith
It is incorrect to combine a transcripted word with an English suffix (transcripted adjective converted to a noun)
Baha'iyya or Baha'iyyih
Bahá’íyya (Ar) Bahá’íyyih (Per)
(Ar. pl. Bahá’íyyát) [Bahá’í Dispensation] Feminine of Bahá’í.   (“Radiant” or “Full of Glory”—derived from Bahá)   Bahá’íyyih Khánum (also known by Persians as the variant Bahíyyih Khánum), The Greatest Holy Leaf
Baha'u'l-Abha
Bahá’u’l-Abhá
(previously written as Baha-el-Abha)   “The Glory of the All-Glorious” “The Glory of the Most Glorious”
Baha'u'llah
Bahá’u’lláh
(“The Glory of God”)   Title of Mírzá Ḥusayn-Alí of Núr, founder of the Bahá’í Faith.
Bahadur, Bahaduran
Bahádur, pl. Bahádurán
Pers.   brave, bold, valiant, courageous, magnanimous, warlike, strong, athletic;   a soldier, champion, hero, chevalier, knight, horseman;   a title of honour conferred by the Great Mogul and other Eastern potentates, bearing some resemblance to the European title of military knighthood.   Abú Sa‘íd Baḥádur—should be Bahádur
Bahar
Bahár
Pers.   spring, beginning of summer;   a blossom;   orange-flower;   an idol;   the harem of a prince;   camomile, anthemis
Bahar, Baharat
Bahár, pl. Bahárát
spice;   a species of odoriferous herb;   anything beautiful and splendid;   name of a village 14 km NW Hamadán
Bahari
Bahárí
Pers.   belonging to the spring, vernal
Baharistan
Baháristán
Pers.   spring;   vernal blossoms;   title of a celebrated work of Ṣúfí, Persian poet, native of Jám, Búshihr Province, Írán
Bahhaj
Bahháj
delightful, blissful.   Form of the word bahija
Bahij
Bahij, Bahíj
magnificent, splendid, beautiful;   happy, joyous;   delightful
Bahija
Bahija
to be glad, he happy (about), he delighted (at)
Bahir
Báhir
dazzling, brilliant, splendid, sparkling
Bahira
Baḥírá
known as Sergius the Monk to the Latin West, was a Syriac or Arab Arian, Nestorian or possibly Gnostic Nasorean monk who, according to Islamic tradition, foretold to the adolescent Muḥammad his future as a prophet. His name derives from the Syriac bḥírá, meaning “tested (by God) and approved”.
Bahiri
Báhirí
Bahiy, Bahiya
Bahíy, fem. Bahíya(h)
Ar.   beautiful, magnificent, splendid;   brilliant, radiant, shining
Bahiyya, Bahiyyih
Bahíyya(h), Pers. Bahíyyih
Bahíyyih Khánum, “Greatest Holy Leaf” (born Fáṭimih Sulṭán, 1846–15 July 1932).   See Bahíya
Bahja, Bahjat (Bahajah)
Bahja(t)
splendour, magnificence, beauty, resplendence;   joy, delight
Bahjatu's-Sudur (Bihjatu's-Sudur)
Bahjatu’ṣ-Ṣudúr
“Delight of hearts”. Book by Ḥájí Mírzá Ḥaydar-‘Alí
Bahji, Bahij
Bahjí, Bahíj
magnificent, splendid, beautiful;   happy, joyous;   delightful.   That part of the plain of ‘Akká where the Shrine and the Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh are located.
Bahman
Bahman
Pers.   intelligent, acute, adroit;   the supreme intelligence;   a cloud pouring rain;   (also bahmani barf (snow)) an avalanche of snow.   The second month of the winter in the Persian calendar.
Bahnimir
Bahnimír
city near southern coast of Caspian Sea
Bahr, Bihar, Buhar, Abhar, Abhur
Baḥr, pl. Biḥár, Buḥúr, Abḥár, Abḥur
sea;   large river;   a noble, or great, man (whose magnanimity or knowledge is comparable to the vastness of the sea);   meter (poet.).   Biḥár is a reference to Shí’ih traditions.
Bahram
Bahrám
Pers.   the planet Mars;   name of several kings of Persia, and of other kingdoms in the East (corrupted by the Greeks into Varanes);   name of several heroes;   the twentieth day of every month.   The older form is Vahrám (Middle Persian), also spelled Wahrám, literally meaning “smiting of resistance” or “victorious”.
Bahram Shahi, Bahramshahi
Bahrám Sháhí, Bahrámsháhí
Rúḥu’lláh Bahrámsháhí
Bahrami
Bahrámí
Pers.   bravery, valour;   slaughter
Bahrani
Baḥrání
of the Bahrein Islands
Bahrayn (Bahrain)
al-Baḥrayn
“the two seas” (two?—unknown—white and black, Mediterranean and Black Sea?), dual form of Baḥr.   Islands in the southern Persian Gulf.   The term Baḥrayn appears five times in the Qur’án, but it does not refer to the modern island—originally known to the Arabs as “Awwal”—but rather to the oases of al-Qaṭíf and Ḥadjár (modern al-Ḥasá).
Bahru'l-'Ulum
Baḥru’l-‘Ulúm
“sea of all knowledge”
Bahth, Buhuth, Abhath
Baḥth, pl. Buḥút, Abḥáth
search (for), quest (of);   examination, study;   research;   investigation, exploration;   discussion;   treatise;   (pl.) study, scientific report (on)
Baji
Bájí
Pers.   sister;   miss, lady (modern colloquialism)
Baka, Buka, Bukan
Baká (Buká’, Bukan)
to cry, weep (over);   to bemoan, lament, bewail (someone), mourn (for)   II and IV to make (someone) cry   X to move (someone) to tears, make (someone) cry
Bakhit
Bakhít
lucky, fortunate
Bakhsh
Bakhsh
Pers.   fate, destiny, portion, share.   Name used for Persian political districts.
Bakhshandagi (Bakhshandegi)
Bakhshandagí
Pers.   liberality;   pardon
Bakht
Bakht
Pers.   fortune, prosperity, felicity, happiness;   luck (good or bad);   a horoscope, nativity, planet, constellation;   the nightmare
Bakhtawar (Bakhtavar)
Bakhtáwar
lucky, fortunate
Bakhtiyari
Bakhtíyárí
tribe of western Írán (Bachtiari)
Bakk
Bakk
bruising, knocking;   tearing, rending;   crowding
Bakka
Bakka
(verb) to crowd as in a bazaar
Bakkah, Bakkat
Bakka(h or t)
believed to be an ancient name of Mecca (the b and m were interchangeable in the Arabic used in that area at the time of Muḥammad), but Muslim scholars say Bakkah refers to the Ka‘ba and the sacred site immediately surrounding it (due to the crowding and congestion of people in the area), while Mecca is the name of the city in which they are both located.
Bakr, Abkhur, Bukran
Bakr, pl. Abkur, Bukrán
young camel.   Caliph Abú-Bakr
Bakri
Bakrí
follower of Abú-Bakr (i.e. a traditionalist)
Bakshish
Bakshísh
Per.   See Baqshísh
Baku
Bákú
Baku, capital city of Azerbaijan. The name is derived from the Persian name for the city Bád-kúbah, meaning “Wind-pounded city”, in which bád means “wind” and kúbah is rooted in the verb kúbídan “to pound”, thus referring to a place where wind is strong and pounding.
Bala
Bálá
upper, up, above, better quality or prestigious.   Where there are two nearby villages, it can be used to indicate one is above the other or is of a better quality.   See Pá’in
Bala
Balá
yes, yes indeed, certainly, surely
Bala-Khanih
Bálá-Khánih
Balcony
Bala-Khiyaban
Bálá-Khíyábán
rural district in Mázandarán
Bala-Rastaq
Bálá-Rastáq
a village in Írán
Bala-Sari, Balasari
Bálá-Sarí, Bálásarí
“above the head”.   A term used by the Shaykhis (Shaykhí followers) to distinguish ordinary Shi’ites (the Bálá-Sarí) from members of their own sect.   Those who pray standing at the head of the Imám while facing the Qiblih (i.e. with their backs to the Imám)
Bala'
Bala’
to test, to afflict
Bala'
Balá’
trial, tribulation, visitation, affliction, distress, misfortune;   scourge, plague;   creditable performance, bravery, gallantry, heroic action
Balad, Bilad, Buldan
Balad m. and f., pl. Bilád, Buldán
country;   town, city;   place, community, village; —(pl. bilád) regions, habitations;   provinces, territories;   an inhabited country;—(pl. buldán) cities, countries
Baladu’l-Amin
Baladu’l-Amín
“protected land” or “safe city”, i.e. Makkah
Balagha
Balágha(h)
eloquence;   art, of good style, art of composition;   literature
Balal
Balál
Pers.   moisture, humidity, freshness (of youth or young plants);   water
Balat, Ablita
Baláṭ, pl. Abliṭa
pavement, tiled floor;   floor tiles;   palace;—pl. floor tiles
Balih (Baleh)
Balih
Pers.   yes
Balinus
Bálinus
Apollonius was also known as Bálinus
Balkh
Balkh
city and province in Afghánistán
Ballur, Billaur, Bulur
Ballúr, Billaur, Bulúr
Pers.   crystal;   beryl
Baluch
Balúch
Iranian tribe who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pákistán, Írán, and Afghánistán.
Baluchistan
Balúchistán
SW province of Pakistan
Baluz, Baluza, Baluzat
Balúz, Balúza, pl. Balúzát
blouse
Balyuz (Balyuzi)
Bályúz
said to derive through Turkish from Venetian Italian balio (governor, later meaning ambassador), itself derived from the Latin (bájulus, pl. bájulí: porter, carrier; manager, steward, bailiff;   administrator).   Hence, Ḥasan Bályúzí (1908–1980).
Bamdad, Bamdadan
Bámdád, Bámdádán
Pers.   early morning
Bana, Bayan
Bána (Bayán)
to be or become plain, evident, come out,come to light;   to be clear (to someone)
Banadak (Banaduk?) Sadat
Banádak Sádát
village 40 km south Yazd
Banan
Banán
finger tips
Banani
Banání
Hand of the Cause Músá Banání, and wife Samíḥih
Banda, Bandagan
Banda, pl. Bandagán
Pers.   bondsman, servant, slave
Bandar-'Abbas
Bandar-‘Abbás
Pers.   a port city and capital of Hurmúzgán Province on the southern Persian Gulf coast of Írán
Bandar-i-Jaz (Bandar-Gaz)
Bandar-i-Jaz
city in Írán, on Caspian Sea (SE corner)
Bandar, Banadir
Bandar, pl. Banádir
seaport;   commercial centre;   district capital (Egyptian)
Bandiy-i-Bab-i-Baha
Bandiy-i-Báb-i-Bahá
Pers.   bondsman at the door of Bahá (Bahá’u’lláh).   A designation used by Mishkín-Qalam.   See banda
Bandiy-i-Khuda
Bandiy-i-Khudá
bondsman or slave of God.   See banda
Bani-Hashim
Baní-Háshim
The sons or children of Háshim, great-grandfather of Muḥammad. That is, the people deriving from the quasi-mythical Shem (Sám), son of Noah.
Bani-Umayyih
Baní-Umayyih
was a clan in the Quraysh tribe named after ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manáf’s adopted son Umayya ibn ‘Abd Shams.
Banna
Banná’ (Banná)
Pers.   a builder, mason, architect
Banu-Tamim
Banú-Tamím
Tribe of Arabia.   Tamím, the ancestor of the tribe, is a direct descendant of Adnan and is thus considered an Ishmaelite tribe descending from Ishmael, son of Abraham.   Banú used in combination—see Banún
Baqa
Baqá’
remaining, staying, lingering, abiding;   continuation, continuance, duration;   survival, continuation of existence after life;   immortality, eternal life;   existence;   permanence.   See Faná’
Baqar
Baqar
cattle
Baqara, Baqarat
Baqara, pl. Baqarát
cow
Baqi
Báqí
remaining, left;   alive;   permanent, durable, fixed, firm;   immortal, everlasting, eternal;   one of the names of God;   remainder, rest;   balance, arrears;   (adverb) for the rest;   upon the whole
Baqi'
Baqí‘
remaining over;   rest, remainder, remnant;   arrears;   balance;   surplus.   Cemetery in Medina in the vicinity of the Tomb of Muḥammad.
Baqila'
Báqilá’
a bean (Faba sativa)
Baqillani
Báqillání
(Ar. influence) a vendor of beans; nickname of a celebrated scholar. Abú Bakr Muḥammad ibn aṭ-Ṭayyib al-Báqillání (c. 940–5 June 1013), I‘jáz al-Qur’án (The Inimitability of the Qur’án).   See Báqilá’
Baqir
Báqir
(“One who expands or breaks”)   Title of the fifth Shí‘a Imám and an Ethiopian slave who was one of the very early converts to Islám.
Baqir-Abad, Baqirabad (Baghirabad)
Báqirábád
now Báqirshahr
Baqir-i-Bastami
Báqir-i-Basṭámí
Baqir-i-Kafsh-Duz
Báqir-i-Kafsh-Dúz
Baqir-i-Kandi
Báqir-i-Kandí
Baqir-i-Kashani
Báqir-i-Káshání
Baqir-i-Qa'ini
Báqir-i-Qá’iní
Baqir-i-Rashti
Báqir-i-Rash
Baqir-i-Sabbagh
Báqir-i-Ṣabbágh
Baqir-i-Shiraz
Báqir-i-Shíráz
Baqir-i-Tabrizi
Báqir-i-Tabrízí
Baqiri
Báqirí
descendents of Muḥammad al-Báqir
Baqiya, Baqaya
Baqíya(t), pl. Baqáyá
remainder, rest;   remnant, residue.   Persian plural baqiyát
Baqiyyatu'llah
Baqíyyatu’lláh
“Remnant of God”   A title of the Twelfth Imám that is also applied to the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh.
Baqlava
Báqlavá
a sweetmeat
Baqshish
Baqshísh, pl. Baqáshísh
present of money;   tip, gratuity, baksheesh
Bar
Bar
Pers.   (preposition) on, upon, onto
Bara'a, Bara'at
Bará’a, pl. Bará’át
being free;   disavowal, withdrawal, repudiation;   innocence, guiltlessness;   naiveté, guilelessness, artlessness;   (pl.) license, diploma, patent
Barafrukhta (Bar-afrokhta)
Barafrúkhta(h)
Pers.   inflamed, fired, lit up.   Dr Ali Mohammed Barafroukhteh, the only member of the 1960 French NSA to reject Mason Remey’s claims. Three others later repented and asked for forgiveness.
Baraka
Báraka
to bless
Baraka, Barakat
Baraka(t), pl. Barakát
blessing, benediction;   abundance, prosperity
Baraka'llahu Fikum
Báraka’lláhu Fíkum
“May God bless you”
Barakatu'llah
Barakatu’lláh
“God bless you”
Baraqani (Baraghani)
Baraqání
from Baraqán (Baraghán) village north of Karaj (nw of Ṭihrán)
Baratha
Baráthá
a mosque on a highway between Baghdád and Kaẓímayn
Barazat
Barázát
Temptation
Barfurush
Bárfurúsh
a town in Mázindarán, now known as Bábul (Babol)
Bari'
Bári‘
skilled, skilful, proficient, capable, efficient;   brilliant, outstanding (work of art)
Baris
Bárís
Paris
Barq, Buruq
Barq, pl. Burúq
lightning;   flash of lightning;   telegraph
Barqi (Barki)
Barqí (Barkí)
pertaining or relating to lightning;   electric;   telegraphic, telegraph- (in compounds).   Aḥmad bin Muḥammad bin Khálid bin ‘Abd al-Raḥmán al-Barqí (b. ~200/815-816—d. 274/887–888 or 280/893–894) was a renowned Twelver Shí‘a muḥaddith (ḥadíth scholar) and historian of 3rd/9th century.
Barr
Barr
land (as opposed to sea), terra firma, mainland;   open country
Barr, Abrar, Barara
Barr and Bárr, pl. Abrár and Barara
reverent, dutiful (+ preposition bi—toward), devoted (+ preposition bi—to);   pious, godly, upright, righteous;   kind
Bartalla (Bartella), Baratallih (?)
Barṭalla(h)
(“Bartella”) town 21 km east of Mosul, ‘Iráq (Barṭ Alláh)
Barzakh, Barazikh
Barzakh, pl. Barázikh
interval, gap, break, partition, bar, obstruction;   isthmus
Bas
Bas
Pers.   a great number, many, more;   very much, greatly;   enough, sufficient;   often;   yes, indeed, certainly, it is so, very true, surely, undoubtedly, unquestionably
Basar (“Bassar”), Absar
Baṣar, pl. Abṣár
vision, eye-sight;   glance, look;   insight;   sight, discernment, perception.   Name (“Baṣṣár”) given by Bahá’u’lláh to blind poet Mírzá Baqir Bihish
Basha, Badshah, Padshah, Padishah
shá
Pers.   being, existing;   a basha or pasha (corruptions of bádsháh (a king), pádsháh, pádisháh, etc.), governor of a province, counsellor of state, great lord;   also sometimes the grand vazir;   a kind of falcon, a hawk.
Basha, Bashawat, Pasha
shá, (Pers. also Páshá), pl. Báshawát
Arabic.   English pasha and Turkish paşa.   A lord (or boy, prince).   Honorary title formerly given to officers of high rank in Turkey.
Bashir wa Nadhir
Bashír wa Nadhír
Bahá’u’lláh appeared as the “Announcer and Warner”, cf. Qur’án 35:22.
Bashir-i-Ilahi
Bashír-i-Iláhí
Announcer of God
Bashir, Busara’
Bashír, pl. Bushará’
bringer of glad tidings (announcer), messenger, herald, harbinger, forerunner, precursor;   evangelist (Christian)
Bashiri
Bashírí
Bashnih
Bashnih
Beshneh, village NE of Nayríz
Basir
Baṣír
(most insightful, discerning, endowed with insight, seeing)   Adjective, superlative form of Baṣár (sight).
Basir-i-Hindi
Baṣír-i-Hindí
Siyyid Baṣír-i-Hindí, the blind Indian Bábí
Basira
Baṣíra, pl. Baṣá’ir
(keen) insight, penetration, discernment, understanding, (power of) mental perception, mental vision
Basit
Básiṭ
Pers.   one who spreads abroad or stretches out;   a name of God, who dispenses riches to whom he will;   distant from water (pasture).   “open”
Basit
Basíṭ, pl. Busaṭa
simple; plain, uncomplicated;   slight, little, modest, inconsiderable, trivial, trifling
Basita
al-Basíṭa
the earth
Basmala
Basmala, pl. Basmalát
“word” meaning to utter the invocation bismi’lláh ar-raḥmání ar-raḥímí “In the name of God, the Benificent, the Merciful”.   The “word” is derived from “in the name of” and is the act of uttering the above invocation.
Basra (Basrih)
Baṣra(h) (Pers. may use Baṣrih)
a single pimple or pustule.   Baṣrah port in southern ‘Iráq (untranscripted variations: Basra, Bosrah)
Basri
Baṣrí
native of Baṣra
Bast
Bast
Pers.   be bound or connected;   a lover, a sweetheart, one in whom the heart is bound up;   a turban, wreath for the head;   a knot;   a hundred;   a sanctuary, asylum;   a bank, a rampart;   a mountain;   distribution of water into canals, ditches, or drains
Bast
Basṭ
Pers.   (verbal noun), Stretching out (the hand);   distension;   diffusiveness;   being wide enough for;   preferring, exalting
Bastam, Bistam, Bustam
Basṭám, Bisṭám or Busṭám
place just north of Sháhrúd, Írán. Home of Mullá ‘Alí, the fourth Letter of Living
Bastan
Bástán
Pers.   ancient, preceding, old;   the past;   the world, fortune;   solitary
Batara (Batr)
Batara (Batr)
to cut off, sever (something);   to amputate (something);   to mutilate, render fragmentarily (a text)   Form VII to be cut off, be severed, be amputated
Batha, Bitah
Baṭḥá, pl. Biṭáḥ
A neighbourhood of Mecca [al-Makkah or al-Maakka—Bakka (Qur’án 3:96) may be an older name], TN p. 76.   lit. “basin shaped valley;   wide riverbed, wide bed of a stream or torrent;   level land, plain, level, flat(s)”
Batil, Abtil
Báṭil, pl. Abáṭíl
nugatory (of no value or importance), vain, futile;   false, untrue;   absurd, groundless, baseless;   worthless;   invalid, null, void;   deception, lie, falsehood;—pl. abáṭíl vanities, trivialities, trifles, flimflam, idle talk, prattle
Batila
Báṭila
falsely;   futilely, in vain
Batin, Bawatin
Báṭin, pl. Bawáṭin
inner, interior, inward, inmost, intrinsic;   hidden, secret—see Ẓáhir.   báṭin-i-báṭin—inner inward meaning.   Derived from baṭn
Batini
Báṭiní
internal
Batn, Butun, Abutun
Baṭn, pl. Buṭún, Abṭun
belly, stomach, abdomen;   womb;   interior, inside, inner portion;   depth
Batt (Butt)
Batt
settlement, decision
Battah
Baṭṭáh
village on coast of Libya, 115 km east of Bengazi
Battuta, Batuta
Baṭṭúṭa(h)
Muḥammad ibn Baṭṭúṭa or Ibn Baṭúṭah;   25 February 1304–1368 or 1369), was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
Batum
Báṭúm
now Batumi, Georgia
Bawanat, Bavanat
Bawánát
county in Fárs Province, Írán (Bavánát-i-Fárs)
Bawil, Bavil
Báwíl, Bávíl
village 23 km sw of Tabríz. It consists of Bávíl ‘Ulyá or Bávíl Bálá (Upper Bavil), and Bávíl Suflá or Bávíl Pá’in (Lower Bavil).   See Mílán and Uskú
Bay, Baya, Bayat
Báy, f. Báya, pl. Báyát
formerly, in Tunisia, a title after the names of the members of the Bey’s family.   See Beg
Bay’a (Bai’a)
Bay‘a(h)
agreement, arrangement;   business deal, commercial transaction, bargain;   sale;   purchase;   homage
Bay’at (Bai’at)
Bay‘at
inauguration, salutation, or acknowledging the authority of a great man;   swearing allegiance;   homage, fealty.   In Islamic terminology it is an oath of allegiance to a leader.   It is known to have been practiced by Muḥammad.   Bay‘at is sometimes taken under a written pact given on behalf of the subjects by leading members of the tribe with the understanding that as long as the leader abides by certain requirements towards his people, they are to maintain their allegiance to him.
Bayan-i-'Arabi, Arabic Bayan
Bayán-i-‘Arabí
“Arabic Bayán” (by the Báb) completed after the Bayán-i-Fársí
Bayan-i-Farsi, Persian Bayan
Bayán-i-Fársí
“Persian Bayán” (Mother Book of the Bábí Revelation) (by the Báb)
Bayan, Bayanat
Bayán, pl. Bayánát
clearness, plainness, patency, obviousness;   statement, declaration, announcement;   manifestation;   explanation, elucidation, illustration;   information, news;   (official) report, (official) statement;   enumeration, index, list;   eloquence.   Also exposition or utterance.   Title given by the Báb to His Revelation, and, in particular, to His Books.   Muslims are puzzled by the chronology given in Qur’án 55:2–4. “Bayán (exposition) [“speech”, 55:4] signifies the Revelation of the Báb, which unveils the hidden truth of the Qur’án. ‘Man’ [55:3] signifies the ‘Perfect Human Being’—the Manifestation of God ….” Gate of the heart, p. 262.   al-Bayán (نايبلا or “ن ا ي ب ل ا”) has an abjad value of 94 (“al” (value 31) consists of an unstressed Alif and Lám).   Compare lilláh
Bayani (Bayanis)
Bayání
explanatory, illustrative; rhetorical.   Bayanis—those few who followed the Báb, but not Bahá’u’lláh or Ṣubḥi-i-Azal (EGB by Balyuzi)
Bayazid
Báyazíd
father of Yazíd
Bayda (Baida, Baiza), Baydun, Baydat
Bayḍa (Pers. Baiẓa), Bayḍún, Bayḍát
egg;   helmet;   main part, substance, essence.   ‘Abdu’l-Ghaní Baydún owned 14.5 ha of land adjacent to Bahjí, but he and his family fled in 1948 and the land reverted to the state. The land was swapped in 1952 for the land purchased by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá for Dhikru’lláh se of the Sea of Galilee, near the Jordan River.
Bayhaq (Baihaq)
Bayhaq
See Sabzivár.   Abú Bakr Aḥmad ibn Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alí ibn Músá al-Khusrawjirdí al-Bayhaqí, also known as Imám al-Bayhaqí was born 994 in Khusrawjird, near Bayhaq. During his lifetime, he became a famous Sunní ḥadíth expert, following the Sháfi‘í school in fiqh and the Ash‘arí school of Islamic Theology.
Bayn (Bain)
Bayn
separation, division;   interval;   difference
Bayram (Bairam)
Bayrám
Turkish festival.   Due to past influence of Ottoman Turkish, many Muslims have adopted the use of the word Bayrám, using the term “Lesser Bayrám” to refer to their own Eid al-Fitr (‘Íd al-Fiṭr) celebrations;   “Greater Bayrám” refers to Eid al Adha (‘Íd al-Aḍḥá) (see Aḍḥan).
Bayt (Bait), Buyut, Buyutat, Abyat
Bayt, pl. Buyút, Buyútát
house, building, temple, edifice;   fabric, tent (of nomads);   room;   apartment, flat;   (garden) bed;   family;   case, box, covering, sheath;   verse, couplet;—pl. large, respectable houses;   respectable families;   (pl. abyát) verses, couplets
Bayt al-Maqdis
Bayt al-Maqdis
the Holy Land
Bayt-i-A'zam
Bayt-i-A‘ẓam
“The Most Great House” (House of Bahá’u’lláh in the Kakh quarter of Baghdád,occupied by the family shortly before Bahá’u’lláh returned from Kudistán)   See Madad, house of.
Bayt-i-Fanduq
Bayt-i-Fanduq
a house in the German Templar colony, Haifa, where Bahá’u’lláh stayed, 1883
Baytu'l-'Adl
Baytu’l-‘Adl
Pers.   House of Justice
Baytu'l-'Adl-i-A'zam
Baytu’l-‘Adl-i-A‘ẓam
Pers.   Universal House of Justice.   See Universal House of Justice listing.
Baytu'l-Hazan
Baytu’l-Ḥazan
house of sadness
Baytu'l-Ma'mur
Baytu’l-Ma‘múr
Ar.   Frequented Fane.   In Islám, the Ka‘bah or its archetype in heaven.
Baytu'l-Maqdis
Baytu’l-Maqdis
al-Aqṣá Mosque, Jerusalem
Baytu'l-Muqaddas
Baytu’l-Muqaddas
“The House of Holiness”—name given to Jerusalem
Baytu'llah
Baytu’lláh
the House of God—the Ka‘bah in Mecca
Bayyina (Bayyinah), Bayyinat
Bayyina (Bayyinah), pl. Bayyinát
clear proof, indisputable evidence;   evidence (Islamic Law);   a document serving as evidence
Baz-Av-u-Bidih-Jami
Báz-Áv-u-Bidih-Jámí
“Return and grant a chalice” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Bazar, Bazarat
Bázár, pl. Bázárát
bazaar
Bazari
Bázárí
merchant or craftsman of the bazzaar
Bazzaz
Bazzáz
draper, cloth merchant;   the mercer
Beg
Beg, fem. Begum
Pers.   A lord, a prince;   title put after the names of servants and petty officials.   Turkish Bey.   See Báy
Begum, Baygum
Begum, Turk. Begam
Great, a lady of rank, a princess—fem. form of Beg or Big
Bektashi
Bektáshí
Turkish.   Dervish order, mainly in Antolia and the Balkans.
Bethulia, Bethulie
Bethulia, Bethulie
Bethulia is a Biblical city (location uncertain), situated on a mountain overlooking the plain of Jezrael, whose deliverance by Judith, when besieged by Holofernes, forms the subject of the Book of Judith.   Hebrew בתוליה (a virgin).   Similar to Ar. Batúlí (virginal).
bi
bi
(prep.) in, at, on (place and time);   with (indicating connection, association, attendance);   with, through, by means of (designating instrumentality or agency, also with pass. = by);   for (= at the price of);   by (= to the amount of);   by (introducing an oath)
bi-Farmayid (Bifarmayid)
bi-Farmáyíd
Pers.   “here you are”, please come and eat, please come and sit, …, etc.
bi-Qamis al-Babiyya
bi-Qamíṣ al-Bábiyya
garment of Gatehood
bi-Qamis al-Wilaya
bi-Qamíṣ al-Wiláya
garment of Sanctity
bi'l-Haqq
bi’l-Ḥaqq
of a truth
bi’t-Tasrih
bi’t-Taṣríḥ
Pers.   in detail;   expressly, distinctly, explicitly
Biba (“Babba”)
Bibá
city in Bibá (Beba) district, Muḥáfẓat Baní Sawíf (Beni Suef Governorate), 130 km SSW of Cairo, Egypt.   See Kawm aṣ-Ṣa‘áydah
Bibi
Bíbí
Pers.   a lady, a matron;   wife, mistress of the house
Bid’a, Bida’
Bid‘a, pl. Bida‘
innovation, novelty;   heretical doctrine, heresy;—pl. creations (of fashion, of art)
Bidil
Bídil
Pers.   heartless, dispirited, out of heart;   pusillanimous;   love-sick;   ignorant;   melancholy, dejected, sad, stupid.
Bidil, Abdu’l-Qadir
Bídil, Abdu’l-Qádir
Mawláná Abu’l-Ma‘ání Mírzá ‘Abdu’l-Qádir Bídil (1642–1720), a famous representative of Dari poetry and Sufism in Afghánistán. He is considered the most difficult and challenging poet of Safavid-Mughal poetry. The pairing of Bídil’s patronymic, Abu’l-Ma‘ání, “The Father of Meanings”, with his devastating nom de plume, Bídil, “The Heartless”, illustrates perfectly the conceptual coupling of Love and Meaning in the sensibilities of the literary self-expression of his audiences.
Big
Big
(Great, a lord or prince)   Honorary title lower than Khán.
Bigliyirbigi
Biglíyirbigí
Beylerbey or Beylerbeyi (Ottoman Turkish: “Bey of Beys”, meaning “the Commander of Commanders” or “the Lord of Lords”). Initially designating a commander-in-chief, it eventually came to be held by senior provincial governors. In Ottoman usage it designated the governors-general of some of the largest and most important provinces. Equivalents in Arabic were ámir al-umará, and in Persian, mír-i mírán.
Bih
Bih
Pers.   good, excellent;   elegant;   better;   safe, sound
Biharu'l-Anvar
Biḥáru’l-Anvár
A compilation of Shí’ih traditions   ‘Seas of Lights’.
Bihjatu’s-Sudur
Bihjatu’ṣ-Ṣudúr
“The Delight of Hearts” by Ḥaydar-‘Alí.   See bahja and ṣadr
Bihmard
Bihmard
Pers.   bih + mard
Bihmardi
Bihmardí
Pers.   Faríd Bihmardí.   Bih+Mardí
Bihnam
Bihnám
Pers.   bih + nám.   Bihnám Páshá’í
Bihnaz (Behnaz)
Bihnáz
Pers.   fem. name
Bihshahr (Behshahr)
Bihshahr
Pers.   city in Mázindarán, 47 km ne Sárí.   Formerly named Ashraf.
Bijan, Bizhan
Bíjan or Bízhan
Pers.   “hero”.   One of the main Iranian heroes in the Sháhnámih
Bika (not Baka)
Bika
A composite comprising the prefix “bi” with the suffix “ka”, which stands for the 2nd person singular masculine pronoun “Thou” or “Thee”. “Bika” can be translated as “upon Thee”, “to Thee”, “on Thee” or “about Thee”, depending on the context.   “Baka” in Tablets of Abdul-Baha Abbas should be Bika.
Bilal
Bilál
Bilál ibn Rabáḥ (580–640) also known as Bilál ibn Riyáḥ, a freed Ethiopian slave born in Mecca, he was one of the most trusted and loyal companions of Muḥammad, who appointed him as the first muezzin
Billahi'l-'Aliyyi'l-'Azim
Billáhi’l-‘Alíyyi’l-‘Aẓím
“in God, the Exalted, the Mighty” (bi+Alláh)
Bin
Bin
the son of
Bint
Bint
(“daughter of”)
Binyamin
Binyámín
Benjamin
Biraw (Birau)
Biraw
Pers.   (“biro”, “buro”, “burro”)   go!, get away!, get off!
Birjand
Bírjand
city in eastern Írán
Birjis
al-Birjís
Jupiter (astronomy).   Martyr, Dr Sulaymán Birjís, Káshán (1897–1950)
Birkas
Birkás
now Lüleburgaz (“Lule Burgas”), Turkey.   23 km ese Babaeski and 75 se Edirne
Birujird
Birújird
Capital city of the province of Luristán, Mírzá Bururg was governor
Birun
Bírún
Pers.   without, out of doors;   exterior, extrinsic, foreign;   the outside;   from, a great way from
Biruni
Bírúní
Pers.   outer or men’s quarters.   See andarúní
Bishara, Bisharat, Basha'ir
Bishára(t), pl. Bishárát, Bashá’ir
good news, glad-tidings;   annunciation, prophecy;   gospel;   bashá’ir good omens, propitious signs.   Glad-Tidings by Bahá’u’lláh
Bisharat-i-'Uzma
Bishárát-i-‘Uẓmá
Supreme Glad-tidings
Bishr
Bishr
joy
Bismi'llah
Bismi’lláh
“word” derived from the expression “In the name of God”. Basmala is the act (verb) of saying the recurring Islamic phrase “Bismi’lláhi ar-Raḥmáni ar-Raḥími”—”In the name of God, the Most Compassionate (or Gracious), the Most Merciful”. Bismi’lláh is the first phrase of the first verse of every súra of the Qur’án except the ninth.   The verse is composed of 19 letters;   in honour of each letter six chapters were revealed, totalling 114 chapters (the Báb, The Persian Bayán, 2nd Váḥid, 2:2).
Bismi'llahi'l-Amna'u'l-Aqdas
Bismi’lláhi’l-Amna‘u’l-Aqdas
(“In the Name of God, the Most Unapproachable, the Most Holy”—Báb) (DB 66)
Bismi'llahi'l-Bahiyyi'l-Abha
Bismi’lláhi’l-Bahíyyi’l-Abhá
“In the name of God, the Glorious, the Most Glorious” (used in calligraphic bird design by Mishkín-Qalam—described as a “bird of paradise in the form of the Greatest Holy Name sitting on the tree of Toubá (tree of paradise)”
Bismi'llahi'r-Rahmani'r-Rahim
Bismi’lláhi’r-Raḥmáni’r-Raḥím
“In the Name of God, the Most gracious, the Most Merciful”—first verse of the Qur’án
Bist, Ishrun
Bíst (Per), ‘Ishrún (Ar)
twenty
Bistami
Bisṭámí
native of Basṭám
Bistum
Bistum, Bístum
Pers.   the twentieth
Bisutun (Bisotun)
Bísutún
Pers.   pillarless.   Bísutún city 36 km NE Kirmásháh, at the foot of Mount Bísutún on which there is the huge Bísutún Inscription in 3 cuneiform scripts (crucial to the decipherment of one of the cuneiform scripts)
Bisyar
Bisyár
Pers.   many, much;   numerous;   frequent;   copious;   very;   exceedingly
Bisyar Khub
Bisyár Khúb
Pers.   very well, all right, very or most good
Biya
Biyá
Pers.   (imperative of ámadan), come, come hither, approach
Biya inja
Biyá ínjá
Pers.   come here
Biyaban
Bíyábán
a mountain near Zanján
Bronlundfjord
Brønlundfjord
(error “Bronlunsfjord”)   a former research and radio station on the shore of Jørgen Brønlund Fjord (a northern branch of Independence Fjord) in southern Peary Land, north Greenland. MBW p. 149 (“147”)
Brummana (Broummana)
Brummáná
(Beit Roumana, Aramaic name possibly meaning the “house of Rammana, the God of Air, Storm and Thunder") town 13 km east of Beirut, Lebanon
Buddha
dhá (Ar.)
Buddha Maitreya-Amitábha, the Buddha of the future, the Lord of the Age.   Maitrya or Maitreya—”Kindness”;   Amitábha—“Infinite light”.
Bughḍ, Bighda and Baghda'
Bughḍ, Bighḍa(h) and Baghḍá’
hatred, hate
Bujnurd
Bujnúrd
capital city of North Khurásán Province, Írán
Bukhar, Bukharat, Abkhira
Bukhár, pl. Bukhárát, Abkhira
vapour, fume;   steam
Bukhara
Bukhárá
city in Uzbekistan
Bukharan
Bukhárán
people of Bukhárá
Bukhari
Bukhárí
steam (adjective), steam-driven.   Abú ‘Abd Alláh Muḥammad ibn Ismá‘íl ibn Ibráhím ibn al-Mughírah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fí al-Bukhárí, 19 July 810–1 September 870), Persian Islamic scholar, author of the aṣ Ṣaḥíḥ al-Bukhárí collection of hadiths (aḥádíth).
Bulbul, Balabil
Bulbul, Balabil
nightingale
Buli, Bolu
Búlí
Ar.   for town (Bolu) 260 km east of Istanbul.
Buluk
Bulúk
Pers.   a tract of country that a subject obtains either by gift, purchase, or succession, holding of the sovereign upon feudal tenure;   a district (modern colloquialism)
Bulus
Búlus
Arabic form of Paul
Bun
Bún
Pers.   foundation, root, origin;   end, limit
Bunab
Bunáb
Pers.   the bottom or depth of water
Bunduq, Banadiq
Bunduq, pl. Banádiq
hazelnut(s), filberts;   hazel, hazel tree.   Pers. Funduq, Turk. Findík
Buni
Búní
‘Abdu’lláh Búní (SDC 104)
Buq'a, Buqa', Biqa'
Buq‘a, pl. Buqa‘, Biqá‘
spot, blot, smudge, stain;   place, site, plot, patch, lot
Buq'atu'l-Hamra
Buq‘atu’l-Ḥamrá’
“Crimson Spot”—a hill called Samaríyyih north of Bahjí where red flowers grew in abundance in the time of Bahá’u’lláh
Buq'atu'l-Khadra'
Buq‘atu’l-Khaḍrá’
“The Verdant Spot”, a former private cemetery near the government “castle”, Yazd.   Designated as such by Bahá’u’lláh.
Burhan-i-Lami'
Burhán-i-Lámi’
(Burhane Lame) published as “The Brilliant Proof”
Burhan, Barahin
Burhán, pl. Baráhín
proof
Burhani'd-Din
Burháni’d-Dín
Proof of religion
Burj, Buruj, Abraj
Burj, pl. Burúj, Abráj
tower, castle, sign of the zodiac
Burnus, Baranis, Barnus, Burnus
Burnus, pl. Baránis
(also barnús, burnús, pl. baranís) burnoose, hooded cloak;   casula, chasuble (of Coptic priests)
Burqa, Burqu', Baraqi'
Burqu‘, (Pers. also Burqa‘), pl. Baráqi‘
veil (worn by women;   long, leaving the eyes exposed)
Burujird
Burújird
Capital city of the province of Luristán, place of the governorship of Mírzá Buzurg
Busayra, Busayrah, Busaira, Bozrah
Buṣayrá (Ar.), Boṣrah (Heb.)
historical site and former capital of Edom. Adjacent to the town of Basira (Bouseira, Busaira), Jordan—about 30 km se of the “southern end” of the Dead Sea.
Bushihr
shihr
Iranian town and province on the Persian Gulf
Bushru'i
Bushrú’í
(of or from Bushrúyih)
Bushruyih (Boshrouyeh)
Bushrúyih
a town in Khurásán, 55 km ne of Ṭabas and 70 km wsw of Tún.  It is the birthplace of Mullá Ḥusayn, first disciple of the Báb.
Busra (Bosra)
Buṣrá
officially named Buṣrá ash-Shám, town sw Syria where 12-year old Muḥammad met the monk Baḥírá
Bustan, Basatin
Bustán, pl. Basátín
garden or orchard.   Tablets of Abdul-Baha Abbas “Boston”
Bustani
Bustání
gardener;   garden (adj.);   horticultural
Butrus
Buṭrus
Peter
Buy
Búy
Pers.   odour, fragrance, perfume;   scent, spice;   hope, wish, desire;   search, quest;   love;   nature, disposition;   portion, part, lot
Buy-i-Juy-i-Muliyan
Búy-i-Júy-i-Múliyán
Pers.   "The fragrance of the Muliyan Brook" poem by Rúdakí
Buyuk
Búyúk
Turkic (Büyük), big
Buyuk-Aqa
Búyúk-Áqá
Buyuk-Chakmachih
Búyúk-Chakmachih
Büyükçekmece, a district and municipality in the suburbs of Istanbul (abour 30 km west of the city), Turkey on the Sea of Marmara coast of the European side. It is west of Küçükçekmece
Buzurg-Banna
Buzurg-Banná
Buzurg-i-Nuri
Buzurg-i-Núrí
Buzurg-i-Vazir
Buzurg-i-Vazír, Mírzá
Buzurg-i-Vazír, Mírzá (Mírzá ‘Abbás of Núr) father of Bahá’u’lláh (third child of second wife, Khadíjih Khánum).
Buzurj, Buzurg
Buzurj, Pers. Buzurg
great, grand.   The title given by Fatḥ-‘Alí Sháh to Mírzá ‘Abbás of Núr (better known as Mírzá Buzurg of Núr), Bahá’u’lláh’s father.
Top -s ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic attributes (“names”) of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots · Underscores · Vowel sounds · Word transcription macros
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C
Caelum, Cælum, Coelo, Cœlo
ex cœlo
Latin.   cælum is sky, heaven. Cœlum is a variation of cælum. Hence, ex cœlo is “from the sky” or “from heaven”. Compare with ex cathedra “from the chair”, with the full authority of office. The Catholic pope is said to occupy the “chair of Peter”.   Refer to The heart of the Gospel, p. 66.
Caravanserai
Caravanserai
(also caravansary)   An inn for caravans
Chadar, Chadur
Chádar, Chádur
Pers.   A tent, pavilion;   a mantle, scarf;   a veil;   a sheet;   a shroud, winding-sheet;   a table-cloth.   Shawl or a long, loose cloak worn over other garments by Muslim women
Chah
Cháh
Pers.   a well, pit;   a prison, dungeon;   a snare
Chah-Qilan
Cháh-Qílán
locality, possibly near Kirmánsháh.   Mentioned in DB p. 13.
Chahar
Charhár
Pers.   four, a crab
Chahardar
Charhárdah
Pers.   fourteen
Chahishk
Cháhishk
Pers.   village on the nw side of Mashhad
Chal
Chál
pit
Chaman, Chamman
Chamán (Chammán)
Pers.   walking, giving oneself haughty, swinging, or graceful airs in walking;   a goblet of wine;   a party of friends
Changiz
Changíz
Genghis Khan (c. 1162–18 August 1227)
Chapan, Chupan (Chuppan)
Chapán, Chupán
Pers.   tattered garments
Chapar
Chápár
Pers.   a runner, mounted messenger, courier;   post;   mail
Chapar-chi, Chaparchi
Chápár-chí, Chápárchí
Pers.   courier
Chaq
Cháq
Pers.   time;   health;   healthy, well;   stout, obese
Chardivari
Chárdívárí
private home or four walls
Chashm
Chashm
Pers.   the eye;   hope;   an amulet or charm (particularly of holy writ) against fascination or enchantment
Chashmih-'Ali
Chashmih-‘Alí
Chay (Cha'i)
Cháy (Chá’í)
Pers.   tea.   See Sháy
Chi or Chih, Chiha
Chi or Chih, pl. Chihá
Pers.   what, which
Chigan
Chigán
village near Iṣfahán
Chihar-Vadi
Chihár-Vádí
“Four Valleys” (by Bahá’u’lláh).   See chahár and wádí
Chihr
Chihr
Pers.   face, visage;   original essence;   a map;   small shot
Chihriq
Chihríq
Fortress in Kurdish Ádhirbáyján, designated by the Báb as Jabal-i-Shadíd (the Grievous Mountain), numerical value of Chihríq & Shadíd is 318. Near the village of ‘Alíl Chihríq, about 70 km NW of Urmia
Chilaw (Chilav), Chulaw
Chuláw
Pers. plain boiled rice
Chilaw-kabab
Chilaw-kabáb
kabáb with rice
Chinar
Chinár
Pers.   chenar tree
Chinar-Sukhtih
Chinár-Súkhtih
a section of Nayríz
Chiragh
Chirágh
Pers.   A lamp;   light;   the wick of a candle;   a guide, director;   a client, dependant;   a horse’s rearing;   a pasture.   See Ar. Siráj.
Chiz, Chi
Chíz, Chí
Pers.   something;   who? what? which? a Turkish affix to form words denoting the agent
Chub (Chob)
Chúb
Pers.   a log;   wood;   a tree;   a staff, rod, baton, stick;   a drumstick;   a beam;   a plough-tail;   a shoot of a tree, sucker
Chubin Dar, Chubindar, Jubin
Chúbín Dar
(Choobindar Choubindar;   also known as Júbín Dar, Chúbín, and Chundar) is a village to the SW of Qazvín.   Chúbín Dar Zindán (Prison) is on the west side of the village.   See Sijn-i-Matín
Chupan
Chúpán
Pers.   (Chopan, Copan) a shepherd.   Amír Chúpán and Dr Chúpán
Comforter
Comforter
(Gk. Paracletos)   Muḥammad and Aḥmad (“the Praised One”, “a Mercy for all creatures” and “most kind and merciful to the Believers”) are almost a translation of the Greek word Periclytos.   The use of “Comforter” in the John 14:16 and 16:7 is based on the Greek word Paracletos (“Advocate”, “one called to the help of another, a kind friend”).   Muslims argue that Paracletos is a corrupt reading for Periclytos.
Ctesiphon, Taysafun, Qataysfun
Ctesiphon
from ancient Greek.   In modern Arabic, Ṭaysafún, Qaṭaysfún or al-Madá’in (“The Cities”, referring to Greater Ctesiphon), located 30 km SE of Baghdád
Cunningham
Cunningham
1919 model car arrived Port Said early January 1920 (Prelude to the Guardianship, p. 126). Recently restored and stored in an air conditioned building at the front of 7 Har-Parsim St, Haifa.
Cyrus
Cyrús
Name of a Persian king
Top -s ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic attributes (“names”) of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots · Underscores · Vowel sounds · Word transcription macros
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Word meanings & comments
D
Da’a, Du’a’
Da‘á, Du‘á’
Ar.   to call (someone);   to summon, call or send for someone;   to call up;   to call upon someone, appeal to someone for something or to do something;   to propagate, propagandize (something), make propaganda, make publicity (for)
Da’i or Du’at
Dá‘í, pl. Du‘át
Pers.   who or what invites or stimulates (others) to anything;   who prays for, invokes a blessing upon;   the Muezzm who calls to prayers;   Muḥammad (as caller to the faith).   Also missionary
Da'if, Du'afa
Ḍa‘if, pl. m. Ḍu‘afa’
weak, feeble;   frail, weakly, delicate, debilitated, impotent, languid, flabby, slack
Da'im
Dá’im
lasting, enduring;   endless, eternal, perpetual, everlasting;   perennial;   continued, continuous, continual, incessant, unceasing, constant;   permanent, standing, established;   durable.   As in permanent marriage.   Compare with munqaṭi‘.
Da’iya (Da’i), Dawa’in
Dá‘iya (“Dá‘í”), pl. Dawá‘in
one who calls for something, invites to something;   propagandist, herald;   (pl.) motive, reason, cause, occasion;   requirements, exigencies.   Hence, ad-dá‘iya, the caller.
Da’wa, Da’awa, Da’awin
Da‘wá, pl. Da‘áwá, Da‘áwin
allegation, pretension;   claim;   lawsuit, case, action, legal proceedings (Islamic Law)
Dabb, Dabab, Adubb, Dubban
Ḍabb, pl. Ḍabáb, Aḍubb, Ḍubbán
lizard
Dabbat
Dábbat
Pers.   whatever creeps upon the earth, a reptile;   a beast of burden;   a saddle-horse, nag, cob
Dabistan
Dabistán
Pers.   (Debistan)   (either a contraction of dabíristán or an abbreviation of adabistán), a school
Dabistan al-Madhhahib
Dabistán al-Madhháhib
title of a book (“School of doctrines”) containing historical records of religions and creeds, we find stories and traditions concerning the Brahaman and Zoroastrian miracles.   Persian Dabistánu’l-Madhháhib
Dabit, Dubbat, Dawabit
Ḍábiṭ
controlling device, control, governor, regulator (techn.);   prepositor entrusted with discipline (in e.g. schools);   (pl. ḍubbáṭ) officer;   (pl. ḍawábiṭ) general rule, canon, (moral) precept or order
Dabita, Dawabit
Ḍábiṭa, Ḍawábiṭ
police;   (pl.) curbing force, order
Dad
Dád
Persian.   He gave;   a gift;   justice, equity;   redress of grievances;   complaint, lamentation (under oppression);   measure;   a part, portion;   revenge;   a ringworm;   life;   age;   a year
Dada
Dada (Dadih)
Pers.   a grandfather;   a title given to dervishes, especially qalandars;   a nurse who brings up children
Dada
Dáda
governess, dry nurse, nurse
Dada
Dádá
Pers.   a female servant, particularly an old one who has attended upon anyone from her youth;   a handmaid.
Dah
Dah
Pers.   ten;   indicating sometimes a large, sometimes a small number;   displeasure;   annoyance, trouble;   curses, imprecations;   commanding what is right and forbidding what is wrong
Dahaj
Dahaj (Dahíj)
town near the centre of a triangle formed by Shíráz, Yazd and Kirmán
Dahaji
Dahají
from Dahaj.   Siyyid-i-Mihdíy-i-Dahají was named Ismu’lláhu’l-Jamál by Bahá’u’lláh. He rebelled against ‘Abdu’l-Bahá after the death of Bahá’u’lláh.
Dahiya, Dawahin
Dáhiya(t), pl. Dawáhin
calamity, disaster, catastrophe;   misfortune
Dahmubidi
Dahmúbidí (Dah + múbidí)
Dáryúsh Dahmúbidí
Dahr, Duhur, Adhur
Dahr, pl. , Duhúr, Adhur (ادھر)
time;   long time, age, epoch;   lifetime;   eternity;   fate, destiny;   “world of duration”
Dai’a, Diya’
Ḍai‘a, pl. Ḍiyá‘
landed estate, country estate, domain;   small village, hamlet
Daidanaw
Daidanaw
Burmese.   “‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s village”.   Daidanaw Bahá’í Centre co-ordinates: 16.465507, 96.040759. 4.25 km NE along the road to Kawhmu from the main road junction in Kungangon.   Siyyid Muṣṭafá Rúmí shrine to the north and the Bahá’í Centre is south of it.
https://bahai-library.com/history_bahai_faith_myanmar
Dajjal, Dajjalun, Dajajila
Dajjál, pl. Dajjálún, Dajájila
(“Dedjal”)   swindler, cheat, imposter;   quack, charlatan;   Antichrist (false Christ or anti-Christ).   The Antichrist, who it was believed would appear at the advent of the Promised One, to contend with and be ultimately defeated by Him.   See Sufyání
Dakhil, Dukhala'
Dakhíl, pl. Dukhalá’
inner, inward, internal;   inner self, heart, core;—pl. extraneous;   foreign, alien;   exotic;   foreigner, alien, stranger;   not genuine, false, spurious;   newly added (to);   novice;   (new) convert;   guest;   protégé, charge, ward
Dakhili
Dakhílí
Masrúr Dakhílí executed 1981
Dal
Dál
Letter ‘D’
Dala'il-i-Sab'ih
Dalá’il-i-Sab‘ih
“The Seven Proofs” (by the Báb)
Dalal
Ḍalál
a straying from the right path or from truth;   error
Dalil, Adilla, Dala'l, Adilla'
Dalíl, pl. Adilla, Dalá’l, Adillá’
(the latter of persons) indication (of);   sign, token;   symptom;   proof, evidence (of);   guide;   tourist guide;   pilot (of a ship, of an airplane);   guidebook, guide manual, handbook;   directory, telephone directory;   railroad guide, timetable;   guide rail (technical);   roller path (in steel construction)
Dalilu'l-Mutahayyirin
Dalílu’l-Mutaḥayyirín
Guide of the astonished, bewildered, helpless or perplexed
Daliyat ar-Rawha'
Dálíyá(t) ar-Rawḥá’
(fragrant vine”) a Palestinian village 24.5 km se of Haifa. The Jewish colony of Dalia was established on land purchased in the village in 1939. It was depopulated of its Arab inhabitants in late March during the 1948 Palestine War.
Dall, Dawall, Dallin
Ḍáll, pl. Ḍawáll, Ḍállín
straying, roaming, wandering;   astray, lost;   erroneous, false.   Ḍállín (gone astray)
Dallal
Dallál
auctioneer;   broker, jobber, middleman, agent, commission merchant;   hawker
Dalvand
Dálvand
Sháhín Dálvand
Damavand
Damávand
city, county and mountain south of the Caspian Sea
Damghan
Dámghán
city 125 km SE Sarí and 60 km SW of Sháhrúd
Damma, Dammat
Ḍamma, pl. Ḍammát
the vowel point for the short vowel u;—pl. embrace, hug.   See kasra and fatḥa
Dana (Danih)
Dána
Pers.   grain;   a berry;   stone of fruit, seed of grain or fruit;   a pimple;   grain or bait scattered for catching birds;   a cannon-ball;   knowledge, science, learning;   learned
Dani', Adniya', Adna'
Daní’,pl. Adniyá’, Adná’
low, base, mean, vile, despicable, contemptible;   inferior, second-rate, of poor quality.   Adná’ also “lowest” or “even closer”—being the second station (the other is that of divinity) of the Báb, that of servitude.   (Gate of the heart, p. 223)
Danish
Dánish
Pers.   science, knowledge, learning;   excellence
Danishniya
Dánishníyá(t)
Pers.   Adíb Dánishníyá (Dánish + níyá(t)?)
Daqiqa, Daqa'iq
Daqíqa, pl. Daqá’iq
particle;   nicety (“subtlety”);   intricacy;   detail, particular;   minute (time unit)
Dar
Dar
Pers.   1. (preposition) in, into, within, among;   on, upon, above;   of, concerning, about;   by, for;   because of;   near, hard by, at;   to, as far as, according to;   before, in presence of;   against;   with;   under;   at length;   after;   so much;   out, out of doors.
2. (noun) a door, gate, passage, door-way or gate-way;   a chapter (of the Zand);   a subject, topic;   way, manner, method;   genus, sort, kind;   turn, step, degree;   a kind of wild bird;   a gnat;   a blackberry;   a valley;   a mountain-pass;   the foot, also summit, of a mountain.
3. (imperative of darídan), tear thou;   (in composition) tearing, as parda-dar, veil-tearing, dishonouring.
Dar al-Athar, Daru'l-Athar
Dár al-Áthár, Pers. Dáru’l-Áthár
museum, archives
Dar al-Funun, Daru'l-funun
Dár al-Funún, Pers. Dáru’l-Funún
building or centre for arts and sciences)   The first technical college of Írán in Teheran founded by Prime Minister Mírzá Taqí Khán. BKG 72
Dar as-Salam, Daru’s-Salam
Dár as-Salám, Pers. Dáru’s-Salám
paradise, heaven;   epithet of Baghdád (Abode of Peace or the City of God since peace is an attribute of God (Bahá’u’lláh King of Glory, p. 296));   Dar es Salaam (seaport and capital of Tanzania).
Dar, Dur, Diyar, Diyarat, Diyara
Dár f., pl. Dúr, Diyár, Diyárát, Diyara(h)
house;   building, structure, edifice;   habitation, dwelling, abode;   residence, home;   seat, side, locality;   area, region;   land, country (especially diyár).   dár al-baqá’ the eternal abode, the hereafter;   dár as-sa‘áda and dár as-salṭana Constantinople (designation before World War I);   dár as-salám paradise, heaven;   dár al-hijra Medina.   Example Dúru’l-Bahá’íyya
Darab
Daráb (Dar Áb)
Pers.   dar+áb (در آب), in the water
Darab
Dáráb
A town in Fárs, southern Persia, home of Vaḥíd’s ancestors.
Darabi
Dárábí
Sayyid Yaḥyá Dárábí (1811–1850), Bábí leader usually known as Waḥíd Akbar (Peerless One), a title given him by the Báb.   The eldest son of Sayyid Ja‘far al-Kashfí Iṣṭahbánátí.
Daraja, Darajat
Daraja, pl. Daraját
step, stair;   flight of steps, stairs, staircase;   degree, step, tone (of a scale; music);   degree (mathematics, geography;   of temperature);   grade, fate;   degree, order, rank;   club (also, e.g., in trains, of a decoration);   phase state, stage (of a development);   mark, grade (in school)
Darb, Durab, Adrab
Ḍarb, pl. Ḍurúb, Aḍráb
beating, striking, hitting, rapping;   shooting, shelling, gunning, bombing, bombardment;   multiplication;   coining, formation;   minting (of money);— (pl. ḍurúb) kind, sort, specimen, species, variety;   (pl. aḍráb) similar, like
Darband
Darband
Pers.   gateway or mountain door.   City (renamed Derbent) in the province of Dághistán (Russia) on the western banks of the Caspian Sea (gateway to the Caucasus).   Also a village (gateway to Mt. Tochal) that is now part of the north side of Teheran.
Dard, Darad
Dárd, Dárad
Pers.   an attribute of God;   dárad he holds, has, is possessed of
Dargaz (Dar Gaz)
Dargaz (Dar Gaz)
also known as Darreh Gaz;   formerly, Muḥammadábád, Muḥammadábád Arbáb, and Abíward (Abivard), is a city 65 km NE of Qúchán, in Raḍawí Khurásán Ústán (province), Írán.
Daridan
Darídan
Pers.   to tear, rend, lacerate;   to cut out (cloth);   to lay open;   to subtract;   to be loosed;   to be torn
Darkala or Dar-Kala
Dárkalá or Dár-Kalá
(“Kalaa”, “Dhakala”) a village in Núr County (8 km SW Tákur) in Mázindarán, a second ancestral home of Mírzá Ḥusayn-‘Alí.
Darr
Ḍárr
harmful, injurious, detrimental, noxious, disadvantageous.   Abú Dharr al-Ghifárí al-Kinání, also Jundab ibn Junádah, was the 4th or 5th convert to Islam, and a Muhájirún
Dars, Durus
Dars, pl. Durús
effacement, obliteration, extinction;—pl. study, studies;   lesson, chapter (of a textbook);   class, class hour, period;   lecture;   lesson (taught by experience, etc.)
Darsu’l-Akhláq, Dars-i-Akhlaq
Darsu’l-Akhláq, Pers. Dars-i-Akhláq
“Lessons in morals, good behaviour and character building” (“Dars Akhláq”)
Daru'l-Tabigh or Daru'l-Tarwij
Dáru’l-Tabígh or Dáru’l-Tarwíj
(Teaching or Propagation Centre, for the Hands)
Daru'l-Tashri'
Dáru’l-Tashrí‘
(House of Legislation, Universal House of Justice)
Daru's-Surur
Dáru’s-Surúr
“the happy home”
Daru'sh-Shafa
Dáru’sh-Shafá
House of treatment
Daru'sh-Shafay-i-Masjid-i-Shah
Dáru’sh-Shafáy-i-Masjid-i-Sháh
Darugha (Darughih), Darughachi
Dárúgha (Pers. Dárúghih), Dárúghachí
Derived from Mongol: daru-, ‘to press, to seal’.   A territorial subdivision (later a province) in the Mongol Empire.   A darugha was ruled by darughachi, who were in charge of administration and taxes—sometimes referred to as governors.   Dárúcha corresponds to the Persian dárúchih and, in Safavid Persia, it was a title meaning prefect.   In the Mughal Empire of South Asia, dárúcha was the title of the district police officer or police magistrate.
Darvish Muhammad-i-Irani
Darvísh Muḥammad-i-Írání
Name used by Bahá’u’lláh while in Sulaymáníyyih
Darvish Sidq-'Ali
Darvísh Ṣidq-‘Alí
Darvish-Salah
Darvísh-Ṣaláḥ
Darwaza (Darvarza, Darvazih)
Darwáza
Pers.   a door;   a gate;   a square, market-place, or exchange where merchants meet, and mendicants beg;   (hence) begging;   a pass through mountains;   a boundary;   name of a fortress or castle;   lintel of a door
Darwish (Darvish), Darawish
Darwísh, pl. Daráwísh
poor, indigent;   dervish or monk   A beggar of faqír (poor one)   “… those who are completely severed from all but God, who cleave to His laws, are firm in His Faith, loyal to His Covenant, and constant in worship.” Attributed to Bahá’u’lláh in MF 39.   May be written as Darwesh or Darvesh in Persian.
Darya
Daryá
Pers.   a sea, ocean;   a river;   (in the language of mysticism) pure, uncreated, divine essence
Daryay-i-Nur
Daryáy-i-Núr
Pers.   the Ocean of Light—the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh
Daryun (Dariun), Daryan (Darian)
Dáryún (Dáríún), Dáryán (Dáríán)
city (35 km east of Shíráz) in the Central District of Shíráz County, Fárs Province, Írán.   Village in Kirmánsháh Province, western Írán.   Possibly village in or near Iṣfahán.
Daryush (Dariush, Darioush)
Dáryúsh
(“Dáriúsh”, Darioush) a common Persian male given name. Historically it has been translated into English and Latin as “Darius”.   Dáryúsh Dahmúbidí.
Dasht
Dasht
Pers.   a desert, plain without water;   a burial-ground;   a chess-board;   dry musk
Dast, Dust
Dast, pl. Dusút
place of honour, seat of honour, seat of office;   council;   dast al-ḥukm (a ruler’s) throne
Dastan
Dastán
Pers.   history, romance, fable;   song, melody, trill, shake;   the key of a musical instrument;   foolish, idle talk;   fraud, imposture, stratagem
Dastjird
Dastjird
(Dastjerd) city 60 km WSW of Qum, Írán
Dastjirdan
Dastjirdán
people of Dastjird
Dastmal-Girih-Zan
Dastmál-Girih-Zan
Dastmal, Dast-mal
Dast-mál, Dastmál
Pers.   rubbing the hands;   a towel;   a handkerchief;   a kettle-holder;   dinner-plate;   easy, smooth;   bare;   a prisoner;   wealth
Dastur
Dastúr
A Pársí priest
Dawla (Daula), Duwal
Dawla(h or t), pl. Duwal
alternation, rotation, change;   change of time, turn of fortune;   dynasty;   state, country;   power, empire.   e.g. Dawlat-Ábád and Dawlat-Ábádí
Dawli (Dauli), Duwali
Dawlí
state (adjective);   duwalí international
Dawlih
Dawlih
Pers.   state or government.   See Dawla
Dawr (Dur, Daur), Adwar
Dawr, pl. Adwár
round (of a patrol;   in sports);   role, part (played by someone or something);   film role, stage role;   periodic change, rotation, alternation;   crop rotation;   period;   (one’s) turn;   phase, stage, step, degree, station;   epoch, age, era, cycle;   fit, attack, paroxysm (of a disease);   floor, story;   musical composition;   number, single performance (within a program)
Dawr al-Nabawi, Dur-i-Nabuwwat
Dawr al-Nabawí, Dur-i-Nabuwwat
Prophetic Cycle
Dawud (Davud), Da'ud (Daoud)
Dáwud, Dáwúd, Dá’ud
David.   Hebrew Daoud.   Other variants: Daut, Dawood and Davut.   Abú Dáwud Sulaymán ibn al-Ash‘ath al-Azdí as-Sijistání, commonly known simply as Abú Dáwud, was a Persian scholar of prophetic ḥadíth who compiled the third of the six “canonical” ḥadíth collections recognized by Sunní Muslims.
Dawudi (Daoudi), Daiudi
Dáwúdí, Dá’udí
of David.   Followers (Daoudis) of David, a small sect of Islám..
Day of Resurrection
Yawmu’l-Qiyámah
The Great Day (al-Yawmu’l-‘Aẓím);
The Day of Resurrection (Yawmu’l-Qiyámah);
The Day of Decision (Yawmu’l-Faṣl);
The Day when the Hour shall come to pass (Yawmu’l-Sá‘ah);
The Day of Judgement (Yawmu’l-Dín);
The Day of Disillusion (Yawmu’t-Taghabún);
The Day of Reckoning (Yawmu’l-Ḥisáb)
Dayf (Daif), Duyuf, Adyaf, Difan
Ḍayf, pl. Ḍuyúf, Aḍyáf, Ḍífán
guest;   visitor
Daylam
Daylam
Old Province SW cnr Caspian Sea (now Gílán)
Dayr (Dair), Adyar, Adyira, Duyura
Dayr, pl. Adyár, Adyira, Duyúra
monastery, convent, cloister.
Dayyan (Daiyan)
Dayyán
Pers.   a requiter (rewarder) of good and evil;   hence an epithet of God;   a conqueror, a subduer;   a judge, umpire, administrator.   Mirza Asadu’lláh was given the title Dayyán (Judge) by the Báb and ‘the third to believe in Him whom God shall make manifest’ (Bahá’u’lláh)
Dhabih
Dhabíḥ
sacrifice or slaughtered.   Pers.   zabíḥ.   Ḥájí Muḥammad Ismá‘íl was known as Dhabíḥ.   The name Ismá‘íl in Bábí-Bahá’í history is associated with the soubriquet ‘Dhabíḥ’.   Ismá‘íl (Ishmael), the son that Abraham had by Hagar, and according to the Qur’án, it was Ishmael whom Abraham offered to sacrifice—hence the association of the name Ismá‘íl with Dhabíḥ.   (E. G. Browne, Balyuzi.)
Dhabih Allah, Dhabihu’llah
Dhabíḥ Alláh, Dhabíḥu’lláh
“Sacrifice of God”   Abraham’s sacrifice of His son
Dhahaba, Dhahab, Madhhab (Mazhab)
Dhahaba (Dhaháb, Madhhab)
to go (to);   to betake oneself, travel (to);   to go away, leave, depart;   to disappear, vanish, decline, dwindle;   to perish, die, be destroyed;   with to carry something off, take something away, abduct, steal something, sweep something or someone away, annihilate, destroy something or someone
Dhahabi
Dhahabí
golden, of gold;   precious, excellent, apposite (e.g., advice, saying, etc.)
Dhakawat (Dhakavat, Zakawat)
Dhakáwat
Pers.   intelligence, sharp-mindedness
Dhakir, Dhakirin
Dhákir, pl. Dhákirín
Pers.   rememberer;   a praiser of God
Dhakira
Dhákira
memory
Dhaqa, Dhawq (Dhauq), Madhaq
Dháqa, (Dhawq, Dhawáq, Madháq)
to taste, sample (food, etc.);   to try, try out, test (something);   to get a taste (of something), experience, undergo, suffer (something), go through something;   form IV to have (someone) taste or sample (something), give (someone something) to taste;   form V to taste (something) slowly, repeatedly, thoroughly;   to get a taste (of something);   to sense, perceive (something);   to enjoy thoroughly, savour, relish (something);   to derive pleasure (from)
Dhar'
Dhar‘
(verbal noun of dhara‘a)   power, ability, capability (to do something)
Dhara'a
Dhara‘a
(verb) to measure (something);   to take the measure or measurements (of something);   to cover (a distance);   to cross, travel (a country), travel through;   to intercede, intervene, mediate, put in a word (for someone, on behalf of someone, with someone else)
Dhariyatun, Dhariyat
Dháriyatun, pl. Dháriyát
quick-scattering wind;   that which scatters, that which blows away
Dharkara, Dhikr, Tadhkar
Dharkara, Dhikr, Tadhkár
to remember, bear in mind (something), think (of);   to keep in mind (something);   to recall, recollect (something)
Dharr
Dharr
strewing, scattering, sprinkling;   (collective) tiny particles, atoms, specks, motes.   Root word dharra has another derivative, dhurríya, so dharr can be understood as “seeds”, as in progeny.   See dharra and dhurríya.
Dharra, Dharr
Dharra (Dharr)
to strew, scatter, spread (something);   to sprinkle (on something, something)
Dharw
Dharw
scattering, dispersing, the act of blowing away
Dhat, Dhawat
Dhát, pl. Dhawát
being, essence, nature;   self;   person, personality;   the same, the self-same;   -self
Dhatiya
Dhátíya
personality;   subjectivism (philosophy);   identity (of a person)
Dhawq (Dhauq), Adhaq
Dhawq, pl. Adhwáq
gustatory sense;   taste (for;   also, e.g., literary taste);   perceptivity, responsiveness (for);   sensitivity, sensitiveness;   savoir-vivre, suavity, urbanity, tact;   liking, inclination;   taste, flavour (of food, etc.)
Dhawqi (Dhauqi)
Dhawqí
of taste, gustative, gustatory.   Form V “of sensing, perceiving”—see Dháqa
Dhi'b, Dhi'ab, Dhu'ban
Dhi’b, pl. Dhi’áb, Dhu’bán
wolf, jackal.   Bahá’u’lláh named Shaykh Muḥammad Báqir (1819–1883) the “Wolf” and his son, Shaykh Muḥammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí (1846–1914), Ibn-i-Dhi’b (“Son of the Wolf”).
Dhi'l-Hijjih
Dhi’l-Ḥijjih
Pers.   Twelth month in Islamic calendar
Dhi'l-Jawshan
Dhi’l-Jawshan
Ar.   “clad in armour”.   Term applied to Mullá ‘Abdu’lláh the arch-killer of Imám Ḥusayn
Dhi'l-Qa'dih
Dhi’l-Qa‘dih
Pers.   Eleventh month in Islamic calendar
Dhibh
Dhibḥ
sacrificial victim, blood sacrifice
Dhikr, Adhkar
Dhikr, pl. Adhkár
recollection, remembrance (e.g of God), reminiscence, memory, commemoration;   reputation, repute, renown;   naming, stating, mention(ing), quoting, citation;   report, account, narration, narrative;   invocation of God, mention of the Lord’s name;   (in Sufism) incessant repetition of certain words or formulas in praise of God, often accompanied by music and dancing.   A name of the Qur’án.
Dhikra, Dhikayat
Dhikrá, pl. Dhikrayát
remembrance, recollection, memory;—pl. reminiscences, memoirs
Dhikran
Dhikrán
remembrance
Dhikriyya
Dhikriyya
Pers.(?)   Remembranceship
Dhikru'llah
Dhikru’lláh
“Remembrance of God” (Pers. Zikru’lláh), early title used by the Báb
Dhikru'llah-i-A'zam
Dhikru’lláh-i-A‘ẓam
Dhimmi, Dhimmiyun
Dhimmí, pl. Dhimmíyún
a non-Muslim, but follower of another religion mentioned in the Qur’án, who lives as a protected subject in an Islamic state
Dhu'l-Awtad
Dhu’l-Awtád
is variously rendered by translators of the Qur’án as The Impaler, The Contriver of the Stakes, The Lord of a Strong Dominion, The One Surrounded by Ministers, etc.
Dhu'l-Faqar
Dhu’l-Faqár
“that which possesses a spine”.   The name of the well-known sword of Muḥammad and Imám ‘Alí. So named because it had projections and jags, like the spinal cord, on its back.
Dhu’l-Hijjih
Dhu’l-Ḥijjih
Twelfth month of Islamic calendar (the one of pilgrimage or “Possessor of the Pilgrimage”)
Dhu’l-Qa‘da
Dhu’l-Qa‘da
Eleventh month of Islamic calendar (the one of truce/sitting)
Dhu'l-Qarnayn
Dhu’l-Qarnayn
Prophet in Qur’án 18:83–101—“the one with two horns” or “He of the Two Ages”.   In traditional scholarship, the character is usually identified as Alexander the Great.
Dhurriya, Dhurriyat, Dharariy
Dhurríya, pl. Dhurríyát, Dharáríy
progeny, descendants, children, offspring. See root Dharra
Didam Baha'u'llahst
Dídam Bahá’u’lláhst
Pers.   “I saw this was Bahá’u’lláh”   Summon up remembrance, p. 108.
Didan, Didam
Dídan
Pers.   to see, look, observe;   to perceive, feel;   to expect, hope for;   to visit (modern colloquialism).   Dídam, saw
Dih (Deh), Dihak
Dih, pl. Dihák
village, country
Dih-Bala
Dih-Bálá
(Deh-i-Bala) common place name in Írán (GPB p. 298)
Dih-Chah
Dih-Cháh
Deh Chah, village NNE Nayríz
Dihi
Díhí
peasant, villager
Dihqan, Dahaqina, Dahqin, Duhqan
Dihqán, pl. Daháqina, Daháqín
man of importance, one who plays an important role, leading personality;   grandee (in ancient Persia).   Pers.: also duhqán (from Per. dih-khán or dihgán), chief man or magistrate of a village, prince or head of the farmers (among the Persians);   a husbandman, cultivator of the ground;   a historian;   a minstrel, bard.
Dihqani, Dahqani
Dihqání, Dahqání
(Ar. element)   tillage, husbandry;   a husbandman
Dil
Dil
Pers.   the heart, mind, soul;   marrow;   pith of a tree;   trunk of a tree;   the centre;   the eye;   a dot;   an enigma;   cote (animal shelter)
Dil-Dari
Dil-Dárí
Pers.   demonstrations of love;   comfort, consolation
Dil-Gusha (Dilgusha)
Dil-Gushá
Pers.   exhilarating;   “expansion” or “delight” of the heart
Dili-‘Abbas
Dilí-‘Abbás
(Delli Abbas) a small town 12 km nw of al-Miqdádiyah and 90 km ne of Baghdád, in ‘Iráq
Dimashq (Damashq), Dimishq
Dimashq, Dimishq
Damascus, capital of Syria
Dimashqi (Damashqi), Dimishqi
Dimashqí, Dimish
of Damascus, e.g. Damashqí Gate, the city gate facing Damascus near a mosque in ‘Akká, or the gate on the NW side of old Jerusalem
Din al-Qayyin
al-Dín al-Qayyim
True Religion (Qur’án 30:30)
Din-i-Ilahi
Dín-i-Iláhí
(The Divine Faith)
Din-Muhammad-Vazir
Dín-Muḥammad-Vazír
Din, Adyan
Dín, pl. Adyán
religion, creed, faith, belief.   Suffix in proper names, i.e. Salah ad-Dín Pers. Salah-ud-Dín.
Dinar, Dananir
Dínár, pl. Danánír
(originally dinnár), a coin;   a gold coin, a ducat, a dinar;   a weight of gold (variously stated);   (metaphorically) the sun
Dini
Díní
religious;   spiritual
Dinur, Dinwar (Dinyar)
Dínúr, Dínwar
(Pers.   with Ar. influence) religious, faithful;   who knows the law
Dirbas, Darabis (Pers. Zarrabis)
Dirbás, Darábís
bolt, door bolt
Dirham, Darahim
Dirham, pl. Daráhim
dirhem, drachma;   a weight;   money, cash
Disatir (Desatir)
Disátír
Pers.   is a literary forgery with Sufi leanings published in Bombay in 1818 from an Iranian manuscript
Disciples of ‘Abdu'l-Baha
Disciples of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Designated by Shoghi Effendi:   Dr John Ebenezer Esslemont,   Thornton Chase,   Howard MacNutt,   Sarah Farmer,   Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney,   Lillian Kappes,   Robert Turner (First Afro-American Bahá’í in America),   Dr Arthur Brauns,   W. H. Randall,   Lua Getsinger (née Louisa A. Moore - Livá (banner), Lua - flag),   Joseph Hannan,   Chester I. Thatcher,   Charles Greenleaf,   Mrs J. D. Brittingham,   Mrs Thornburgh,   Helen S. Goodall,   Arthur P. Dodge,   William H. Hoar and Dr J. G. Augur.
Diwan (Divan), Dawawin
Díwán (Díván), pl.Dawáwín
account books of the treasury (in the older Islamic administration);   collection of poems written by one author;   governmental office, administrative office;   chancellery, office, bureau, secretariat;   council or state, cabinet;   council, consultative assembly, board of advisers, executive committee;   government;   court or justice, tribunal;   hall;   davenport, divan;   (railway) compartment.   Used in titles, as in Amír-Díwán, Head of the Court, or Prime Minister.
Diwan-Khanih, Divan-Khanih
Díwán-Khánih
Court
Diya (Deya), Dia, Ziya, Zia
Ḍiyá’ (ضياء), Ḍíyá’ (ضيىاء)
light, brightness, glow.   Transcriped as ḍiyá’ (dictionaries, elsewhere also with ẓ instead of ḍ) or ḍíyá’ (Shoghi Effendi).   The same issue with the “íyá” letter combination also occurs with díyár.
Diya Baghdadi
Ḍíyá’ Baghdádí
Dr Zíá Baghdádí.   Named Ḍíyá’ and Afandí by Bahá’u’lláh (He also called him Mabsúṭ Afandí, “the happy one”)
Diya'i
Ḍíyá’í
Diya'iyyih
Ḍíyá’íyyih
(Ziaiyyih or Zia’iyyih)
Diya'u'd-Din
Ḍíyá’u’d-Dín ẓíyá
Diya'u'l-Hajiyyih
Ḍíyá’u’l-Ḥájíyyih
Diya'u'llah
Ḍíyá’u’lláh
light of God (Zíá’u’lláh or Ziaoullah).   Mirza Ḍíyá’u’lláh—a son of Bahá’u’lláh
Diya'ud-Din
Ḍíyá’úd-Dín
(Zia ed Din)
Diyafa
Ḍiyáfa(t)
hospitable reception, entertainment as guest, accommodation;   hospitality;   “feast”
Diyala, Sirwan
Diyálá (in ‘Iráq), Sírwan (in Írán)
445 km tributary of Tigris River in eastern ‘Iráq, flowing on east side of Baghdád and joining the Tigris River to the south side of the city.   Given incorrectly as Dajli in Star of the West.
Diyar-Bakr (Diar-Bakr)
Díyár-Bakr or Diyár-Bakr
(Diyár Bakr or Diyárbakir, “land of Bakr” tribe) city in SE Turkey, 630 km NW of Baghdád. Transcribed Díyár-Bakr by Shoghi Effendi. The Arabic is also given as ديار بكر (Díár Bakr). Renamed Diyabakir (Turkish, “land of copper”) by Atatürk in 1931.
Diyar-i-Khatt
Díyár-i-Khaṭṭ
“domain of writing” or “realm of calligraphy”. Verse inscribed by Nabíl when asked by Mishkín-Qalam: Dar díyár-i-khaṭṭ sháh-i-ṣáḥib-‘alam Bandiy-i-báb-i-Bahá, Mishkín-Qalam.”
“In the realm of calligraphy, the king who possesses the Banner, is the servant of the gate of Bahá [the Báb], Mishkín-Qalam.”
Dizij, Dizaj
Dízij
Dízij Ábád, village 11 km ese of the centre of Zanján
Dizva
Dízvá
village supposed to be near the Shrine of Shaykh Ṭabarsí
Droshky (Doroshky, Durushkih)
Droshky, Pers. Durushkih
a low four-wheeled open carriage once used in Russia
Du, Do
Dú, Du, Do
Pers.   two
Du'a'
Du‘á’, pl. Ad‘yá, Pers. Ad‘iyat (Ad’iyyih)
call;   invocation of God, supplication, prayer;   request, plea;   good wish;   imprecation, course.   Prayer (supplication) for certain occasions and requirements.
Du'ab
Dú’áb
Pers.   “two” + ”water”, water-rich tract of land lying between two converging, or confluent, rivers
Dugh-Abad (Dughabad)
gh-Ábád
village in Razavi Khorasan Province, Írán. 150 km sw of Mashhad. Named Fúrúgh by Bahá’u’lláh.
Duhan, Duha, Zuha, Zuhwat
Ḍuḥan, Ḍuḥá, Pers. Ḍuḥwat
Forenoon, luncheon-time
Dukhan
Dukhán (Dukkán), pl. Adkhina
smoke, fume, vapour;   tobacco
Dukht
Dukht
Pers.   a daughter;   a virgin;   ability, strength;   contempt and hatred
Dumit
Ḍúmiṭ
‘Azíz Sulaymán Ḍúmiṭ (fanatical Christian)—his house (since demolished) was on eastern side of the Pilgrim House near the Shrine of the Báb. He erected a large illuminated cross on the roof of his house.
Dunam
Dunam
Ottoman Turkish origin.   Modern metric unit is 1,000 m2 of land (about 0.25 acre).
Dunya
Dunyá (fem. of Adná)
world;   earth;   this world (as opposed to ákhira);   life in this world, worldly existence;   worldly.   temporal things or possessions;   earthly things or concerns.   See awwal and ákhirah
Durar al-Baha'iyya, Durar'u'l-Baha'iyya
ad-Durar al-Bahá’íyya
Pers.   Duraru’l-Bahá’íyyah (or -ih) or ad-Durar al-Bahiyyah (Dorar-ul-Bahiyyih)   “The Brilliant Pearls” by Mírzá Abu’l-Faḍl, translated into English and published as Miracles and Metaphors
Durr
Durr
(collective) pearls
Durra(t), Durrun, Durar
Durra(t), Durrun, pl. Durar
pearl, e.g. Durratu’l-Bahá’íyya
Durud
Durúd
(Dorud) place 260 km NW of Iṣfahán
Durukhshan, Derakhshan
Durukhshán
Pers.   (pronounced Derakhshan)   shining, flashing
Durzi, Duruz
Durzí, pl. Durúz
Druse.   The name Druze is derived from the name of Muḥammad bin Ismá‘íl Nashtakín ad-Darazí (from Persian darzí, "tailor") who was an early preacher. However, the people prefer the name Muwaḥḥidún (“Unitarian”)
Dust (Dost), Dustan
Dúst, pl. Dústán
Pers.   friend;   lover;   mistress, sweetheart.   Dúst-Muḥammad
Duwaliya
Duwalíya
internationality;   internationalism;   the International …
Duz (Doz)
Dúz
Pers.   (in compound word) sewing
Duzd
Duzd
A thief, robber, assassin;   theft
Duzdab
Duzdáb
Pers.   “water thieves”, renamed Záhidán (pl. “pious”) late 1920s, capital of Sístán, Írán
Top -s ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic attributes (“names”) of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots · Underscores · Vowel sounds · Word transcription macros
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Word meanings & comments
E
Eirene, Eirenion
Eiréné (Greek)
one, peace, quietness, rest.   Greek goddess of peace (Roman counterpart is Pax).   The Eirenion Hall was built in 1897 on the Green Acre property and was used as a lecture hall during the summer lecture series at Green Acre. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave a number of talks in the hall in 1912.
Erzurum
Erzurum
city in eastern Turkey (“Erzeroum”). Known as Theodosiopolis in Roman times. Neighbouring city of Artsn (Arzan) was destroyed 1048–49 and citizens moved to Theodosiopolis and called it Artsn Rum (Arzan of the Romans). Muslim citizens changed it to Arzan ar-Rúm (or Arz ar-Rúm) and then to Erzurum.
Top -s ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic attributes (“names”) of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots · Underscores · Vowel sounds · Word transcription macros
Plain text
Transcripted text
Word meanings & comments
F
Fa’ida, Fawa’id (Fava’id)
Fá’ida, pl. Fawá’id
utility, avail, benefit, advantage;   gain, profit;   interest (on money);   useful lesson, moral;   use (e.g., of a medicine).   The Qur’án forbids usury, not reasonable interest.   See riban.
Fa'il, Fa'ilun, Fa'ala
Fá‘il, pl. Fá‘ilún, Fa‘ala
effective;   efficacious, efficient;   (with pl. fá‘ilún) doer, actor, perpetrator;   (with pl. fa‘ala) worker, workman, labourer;   active subject of a verbal clause (grammar).   See maf‘úl, manṣúb and marfú‘
Fa'iq
Fá’iq
superior;   surpassing, excellent, exquisite, first-rate;   outstanding, remarkable, striking;   pre-eminent;   exceeding, extraordinary;   going far beyond (a restriction, etc.);   awake, waking, wakeful
Fa'iz, Fa'iza
Fá’iz, fem. Fá’iza
successful, victorious, triumphant;   victor, winner
Fa'izih
Fá’izih
Pers.   “she who has attained”—name given to Gulsurkh Bagum by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Fad-dan
Fad-dán
(feddan) about an acre in size
Fadil (Fazil), Fawadil, Fadilun, Fudala
Fáḍil, pl. Fawáḍil, Fáḍilún, Fuḍalá
Ar.   (Fazel is an old Persian form) remaining, leftover, left, surplus, exceeding, in excess;   (pl. fawáḍil) remainder, remnant, residue, rest, leftover, surplus, excess;—(pl. fáḍilún, fuḍalá) outstanding, eminent, very good, first-rate, superior, excellent, distinguished, deserving;   learned;   man of culture and refinement.   Persian (ẓ may be used instead of ḍ): fáḍil, fem. fáḍilat, fáḍila, pl. fáḍilát.
Fadil (Fazil), Fudala
Faḍíl, pl. Fuḍalá’
outstanding, eminent, very good, first-rate, excellent;   distinguished, deserving;   learned, erudite.   As the day of the Badí‘ week, Faḍíl: grace, favour.
Fadil-i-Furughi
Faḍíl-i-Furúghí
Pers.   savant of Furúgh.   See Furúghí
Fadil-i-Mazandarani
Fáḍil-i-Mazandarání
Persian Bahá’í scholar (1880-1957)
Fadil-i-Qa’ini
Fáḍil-i-Qá’iní
the Learned One of the Qá’in.   A district in the province of Khurásán
Fadil-i-Yazdi
Fáḍil-i-Yazdí
“scholar of Yazd”.   Fáḍil-i-Yazdí (‘Alí Muntazi‘ of Nadúshun) was a poet, religious scholar, and a devoted servant of Bahá’u’lláh.
Fadila, Fada'il
Faḍíla, pl. Faḍá’il
moral excellence, excellent quality, virtue;   merit, advantage, excellence, exquisiteness.   ‘Abdu’l-Bahá addressed Mírzá Abu’l-Faḍl as Abu’l-Faḍá’il—“Father of All Excellences”
Fadilabad (Fazelabad)
Fáḍilábád
28 km ENE of Gurgán (SE corner of the Caspian Sea), Írán
Fadl (Fazl), Fudul, Afdal
Faḍl, pl. Fuḍúl, Afḍál
surplus, excess, superfluity, overflow;   leftover, remainder, remnant, rest;   matter of secondary importance, subordinate matter;—pl. fuḍúl that which is superfluous, redundant or in excess, a surplus, superfluity;   waste, refuse;   droppings, excrement;—pl. afḍál merit, desert (on behalf of, with respect to), credit (for, in), service(s) (to);   benefit, favour, gift, present.   Persian—ẓ may be used instead of ḍ)
Fadla, Fadalat
Faḍla(t), pl. Faḍalát
remnant, remainder, residue, leftover, rest, surplus;   waste, scrap, discard, offal, waste product;   pl. excretions (physiology), excrements
Fadlu'llah
Faḍlu’lláh
Grace of God
Fahandizh
Fahandizh
Pers.   a family name
Fahd, Fuhud, Afhud
Fahd, pl. Fuhúd, Afhud
lynx (also the term for cheetah and panther)
Fahima, Fahm, Faham
Fahima, Fahm, Faham
to understand, comprehend, realize (something);   to note (something), take note, take cognizance (of something);   to hear, learn (of something from), be informed (of something by)
Fahm, Afham
Fahm, pl. Afhám
understanding;   comprehension, grasp;   perceptive faculty, perceptivity;   brains, intellect;   discernment, acumen, penetration, insight, intelligence
Fahnih (Faneh), Panah, Dakhin
Fahnih
(also known as Panáh and Ḍakhín) is a small village 72 km SSW Qúchán in Razavi Khorasan Province, Írán.   See Panábandán.
Fajr
Fajr
dawn, daybreak, morning twilight;   dawn (figuratively), beginning, outset, start;   (fem.) morning prayer (Islamic Law)
Fakara, Fakr
Fakara (Fakr)
to reflect, meditate, cogitate, ponder, muse, speculate (on), revolve in ones mind, think over, contemplate, consider (something) form V to reflect, meditate, cogitate, ponder, muse, speculate (on), revolve in ones mind, think, over, contemplate, consider (something);   to think (of) forms V & VIII to remember, recall, recollect (someone, something)
Fakhkhar
Fakhkhár
(fired) clay;   earthenware, crockery, pottery.   Tell ‘Akká (inaccurately also called Tell al-Fakhkhár (Hill of Shards) or Napoleon’s Hill.
Fakhr
Fakhr
glory, pride;   honor;   vainglorious poetry (as a literary genre)
Fakhru'd-Dawlih
Fakhkhru’d-Dawlih
(MF)
Fakhru'd-Din
Fakhru’d-Dín
(Fakr ed Din)
Fakhru'sh-Shuhada'
Fakhru’sh-Shuhadá’
Pride of Martyrs.   Note final Hamza
Fakhura
khúra
pottery, earthenware manufactory
Falah
Faláḥ
thriving, prosperity;   salvation;   welfare;   success
Falak al-Buruj
Falak al-Burúj
the celestial spheres
Falak, Aflak
Falak, pl. Aflák
celestial sphere;   celestial body, star;   circuit, orbit (of celestial bodies).   Hence, falak al-burúj (the celestial spheres);   falak al-manázil (the celestial stations);   falak az-zuḥal (the sphere of Saturn);   falak al-mushtarí (the sphere of Jupiter);   falak al-mirrikh (the sphere of Mars);   falak ash-shams (the sphere of the Sun);   falak az-zuhrah (the sphere of Venus);   falak ‘uṭárid (the sphere of Mercury);   falak al-qamar (the sphere of the moon)
Falaq
Falaq
daybreak, dawn
Falasifiyya sharq
Falásifiyya sharq
“philosophers of the East”.   See Faylasúf
Falsafa
Falsafa
to philosophize;   philosophy
Falsafi
Falsafí
Pers.   philosophical;   a philosopher
Fana'
Faná’
passing away, cessation of being;   perdition, ruin, destruction, annihilation;   evanescence, vanishing, termination, extinction;   exhaustion;   non-being, non-existence, non-entity;   extinction of individual consciousness, recedence of the ego, obliteration of the self (mysticism)
Fana' Fi'lláh
Faná’ Fí’lláh
the annihilation of self in God (Scholl, Remembrance of God, p. 5)
Fana' wa Baqa
Faná’ wa Baqá’
annihilation and subsistence (Scholl, Remembrance of God, p. 5)
Fana'yan (Fana'ian, Fanaian, Fanaiyan)
Faná’yán (Faná’íyán)
Mírzá Faraju’lláh Faná’yán (Junún) (ad 1871–1945)—a shoemaker, Bahá’í and poet
Fanan, Afnan
Fanan, pl. Afnán
bough or twig.   Bahá’ís use Afnán to denote the male relatives of the Báb, specifically of His three maternal uncles and His wife’s two brother.
Fani
Fání
Pers.   frail, transitory, perishable, inconstant;   tottering (old man);   (in the parlance of the Sufis) one who has reached the state of fanáʼ, or annihilation
Fanin
Fánin
evanescent, transitory, transient, ephemeral, vain;   exhausted;   far advanced in years, very old
Faniya, Fana'
Faniya (Faná’)
to pass away, perish, cease to exist, come to nought;   to come to an end, cease, wane, dwindle, evanesce, vanish;   to be extinguished, become extinct;   to be exhausted, be consumed, be spent;   to undergo obliteration of the self;   to become totally absorbed (by).   See Baqá’
Fann, Funun, Afnan, Afanin
Fann, pl. Funún, Afnán, Afánín
kind, specimen, variety;—pl. Afánín various sides (of something), diversity;—pl. Funún sciences, arts;   modes, ways, manners;   tricks, artifices;   arts and sciences or technology.   Thamarát al-Funún (1875–1908) “The fruits of the arts”, first Syrian Islamic newspaper.
Faqa, (Fawq, Fawaq)
Fáqa (Fawq, Fawáq)
to surpass, excel, overtop (someone, something), tower (above);   to be superior (to someone);   to outweigh, outbalance;   to transcend, exceed (something)
Faqarat, Faqar
Faqárat, pl. Faqár
back joint or vertebrae
Faqih, Fuqaha
Faqíh, pl. Fuqahá’
legist, jurisprudent (and theologian), expert of fiqh
Faqir, Fuqara'
Faqír, pl. Fuqara’
poor, poverty-stricken;   poor man, pauper;   mendicant dervish, Sufi mendicant
Faqnas
Faqnas
phoenix
Faqr
Faqr
poverty;   need, lack, want
Far', Furu', Afru'
Far‘, pl. Furú‘, Afru‘
twig, branch, bough, limb, (also colloquial) branches, twigs;   derivative;   section, subdivision;   branch office, subsidiary establishment, branch;   branch line, feeder line;   branch wire (electricity)
Farab
Fáráb
village 60 km south of Ardabíl, Írán
Farabi
Fárábí
Abú Naṣr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad Al Fárábí (known in West as Alpharabius). Renowned Arab philosopher and jurist. Born in Fáráb or Fáryáb.
Faraburz, Fariburz
Faráburz, Faríburz
Pers.   glorious and mighty.   Name of a mighty champion and minister of Írán.
Farada, Faruda, Furud
Farada and Faruda (Furúd)
to be single, be alone;   to be singular, be unique;—farada (furúd) to withdraw, retire, segregate (from)
Faraghih (Farugh)
Farághih
(Faraghe, Faragheh) village 160 km SW Yazd
Farah-Abad
Faraḥ-Ábád
“The Fair Abode of Joy”, palace near Tehran that was built by Muẓaffari’d-Dín
Farah, Afrah
Faraḥ, pl. Afráḥ
joy, gladness, glee, gaiety, hilarity, mirth, exhilaration, merriment, happiness;   wedding;—pl. feast of rejoicing, celebration, festival, festivity;   wedding (feast).   Faraḥ, niece of Fáṭimah Naḥrí (Munírih Khánum), sister of Amín Faríd, married Sydney Sprague.
Farahan
Faráhán
merry, gay, cheerful, joyful, glad, delighted, happy.   County in Markazí Province, Írán.
Farahmand, Farhmand, Farhamand
Farahmand, Farhmand, Farhamand
Pers.   intelligent, wise;   near
Faraj
Faraj
freedom from grief or sorrow, release from suffering;   joy; relaxation;   relief, ease, repose, pleasure, comfort;   happy ending
Faraju'llah
Faraju’lláh
God’s relief or rescue
Faraju'llah Dhaki al Kurdi
Faraju’lláh Dhakí al Kurdí
see Zakíy
Faraju'llah Tafrishi
Faraju’lláh Tafríshí
(MF) (from Tafrísh)
Faramarz
Farámarz
Pers.   keeper of a citadel or fortress;   name of the son of Rustam
Faramush
Fáramúsh
Pers.   forgotten, forgetfulness
Faramush-Khanih
Farámúsh-Khánih
Pers.   house of oblivion, Freemasonry headquarters, a corruption of franc-maçonnerie (Freemasonry)
Faran
Fárán
Pers.   small village in Ardistán.   Ar. for Párán desert, mountain, wilderness, etc.
Farang, Firing
Farang (hence Farangí), Firing
Pers.   from old French word franc (“Frank”), an Italian, European;   a Christian;   all nations that wear short garments;   ruddy, of pleasing aspect;   a galley.  See afranj and ifranjí
Faraqa, Farq, Furqan
Faraqa (Farq, Furqán)
to separate, part, divide, sever, sunder (something);   to make a distinction (between), distinguish, differentiate, discriminate (between).   See Furqán
Faraqlit
Fáraqlíṭ (Fáriq+líṭ)
defender, deputy, or intercessor;   a distinguisher between truth and error, i.e. Aḥmad, a name of Muḥammad.   Arabic rendering of the Greek Paráklētos (Paraclete)
Farasha, Farashah, Farashun
Farásha (n. Faráshun), Pers. Farásháh
moth;   butterfly;   flighty, fickle person.   Farásháh (now Islámiyih, Eslamiyeh) is a town SW of Yazd, Írán
Faraz
Faráz
Pers.   above, up, upon, on, upwards, aloft, on the top;   above and below, up and down;   back, behind;   after, hereafter
Farazistan
Farázistán
“The heavenly world”, title of a volume by Muḥammad Ismá‘íl Khán
Fard, Furud
Farḍ, pl. Furúḍ
notch, incision;   duty, precept, injunction, order, decree, ordinance, command;   religious duty (Islamic Law);   statutory portion, lawful shore (Islamic Law);   assumption, supposition, presupposition, premise, postulate, hypothesis
Farda
Fardá
Pers.   tomorrow.   A reply sometimes given to creditors since it never arrives
Farhad
Farhád
Pers.   elation, happiness
Farhand
Farhand
Pers.   an excavation formed by a torrent;   an artificial canal newly dug;   a ditch;   a stream above ground flowing from one spot to another;   a subterraneous canal which works its way from one well to another;   anything falling to pieces from age.
Farhang
Farhang
Pers.   good-breeding;   greatness;   excellence;   gravity;   wisdom, science;   jurisprudence, a dictionary, lexicon, vocabulary, glossary;   a vine-branch bent under ground, so that the other extremity shoots up at a distance from the other trunk;   a subterraneous canal
Farhangi
Farhangí
Pers.   A preceptor, tutor, teacher, instructor;   a man learned in the law.
Farhumand (Fahomand, Farhoumand)
Farhumand
Pers.   virtuous and enlightened
Fariburz
Faríburz
Pers.   name of the son of Kay Káwús
Farid, Fara'id
Faríd, pl. Fará’id
alone, one, lonely, solitary;   singular, unique, incomparable, matchless, peerless, unrivalled, incomparable;   bright, glittering (sword);   a precious gem, pearl, especially one of a larger size, or a bead of gold placed alternately between smaller ones in a necklace or bracelet.   Kitábu’l-Fará’id (Book of peerless gems) by Mírzá Faḍl.
Farida, Fara'd
Faríḍa(h), pl. Fará’ḍ
religious duty (Islamic Law);   divine precept, ordinance of God (Islamic Law);   obligatory prayer (Islamic Law);—pl. distributive shares in estate (Islamic Law)
Farida, Fara'id
Farída(h), pl. Fará’íd
precious pearl, precious gem, solitaire;   (e.g.) quire (of paper)
Faridu'd-Din 'Attar
Farídu’d-Dín ‘Aṭṭár
Great Persian mystic poet “the druggist”
Fariq, Fawariq
Fáriq, pl. Fawáriq
distinguishing, differential, distinctive, discriminative, separative;—pl. a separating or distinctive factor;   distinctive characteristic, criterion;   difference, distinction, dissimilarity, disparity
Faris
Fáris
Arabic for Persia, also Balad Fáris (land of Persia)
Faris, Fawaris
Fáris, pl. Fawáris
Pers.   Mounted upon any solid-hoofed animal;   a horseman, a cavalier;   a lion;   the Persians;   Persia.
Farisi
Fárisí
Arabic for Persian;   a Persian
Farma
Farmá
One who issues orders.   From the infinitive Farmúdan (to bid, to order), but never used alone, i.e. Farmán-Farmá, the one who establishes order;   the Governor.
Farma
Farma
Pers.   violet
Farmahin, Farahan
Farmahín, Farahán
Farmahín is in Farahán County and is 40 km north of Arák, Írán
Farman-Farma
Farmán-Farmá
the one who establishes or issues the order;   the commander or governor.   Title of Prince Ḥusayn ‘Alí Mírzá, grandson of Fatḥ-‘Alí-Sháh
Farman, Firman, Faraman
Farmán, Per. also Firmán, pl. Farámán
Royal decree, command, order or edict.   Ar.   plural also Faramát or Farámín
Farmaniyyih
Farmáníyyih
(“Farmanieh”) once a garden named after Prince Ḥusayn ‘Alí Mírzá, now a district in NE of Teheran
Farnush
Farnúsh
Pers.   fem. name
Farrash-Bashi
Farrásh-Báshí
Head farrásh
Farrash, Farrashun
Farrásh
one who spreads the carpets;   servant, attendant;   house servant, valet;   office boy, errand boy
Farrukh
Farrukh
Pers.   Beautiful-faced;   happy, fortunate
Fars
Fárs
a southern province of Írán, from which the name Persia derives.
Fars
Fárs
Pers.   Persia, Parthia.   Párs is the the proper and original name of this country, Arabs, who have not the letter p in their language, replaced it by an F: Fárs
Fars-Namih (Farsnamih)
Fárs-Námih (Ar. Fárs an-Náma)
“book on Fárs”
Farsakh, Farasikh
Farsakh, pl. Farásikh
Pers.   A parasang, a league, about 18,000 feet in length;   an hour;   a long time;   an interval;   a chink, cleft;   quiet, repose;   perpetual;   much.
Farsang
Farsang
Pers.   A parsang, league, about 5.5 km—the distance a laden mule can travel in an hour.   Derived from the Persian parsang (stone, sang, placed by the road).
Farsh, Furush
Farsh, pl. Furúsh
furnishing;   furniture, household effects;   mat, rug, carpet;   anything spread on the ground as bedding;   foundation (architecture)
Farsi
Fársí
modern Persian
Faruhar
Farúhar
Pers.   possibly a form of Furúhar (same consonants)
Faryab, Faryaw, Firyab
Fáryáb, Fáryáw
Pers.   ground watered by irrigation.   Fáryáb (also Fíryáb), name of village 140 km NE of Bandar-‘Abbás, Írán;   and another 195 km SW of Balkh, Afghánistán.
Farzam
Farzám
Pers.   worthy, suiting, befitting.   Dr Arbáb Farzám
Farzan
Farzán
Pers.   science, learning;   strength, constancy; wise, learned
Farzanih-Mu'ayyad
Farzánih-Mu’ayyad
Manúchihr Farzánih-Mu’ayyad, martyred 1982
Fas, Fez
Fás
a city (second largest) in northern inland Morocco
Fasa
Fasá
village (43 km SW of Iṣfahán) and district, Írán
Fasaha
Faṣáḥa(h)
purity of the language;   fluency, eloquence
Fashar, Fishar
Fashar, Fishár
Pers.   a scattering;   diffusion;   compression, constriction, squeezing;   the piercing of one thing with another
Fasih, Fusaha', Fisah, Fusuh
Faṣíḥ, pl. Fuṣaḥá’, Fiṣáḥ, Fuṣuḥ
pure, good Arabic (language), literary;   skilful in using the correct literary language;   clear, plain, distinct, intelligible (language, speech);   fluent, eloquent
Fasiq, Fasiqun, Fussaq, Fasaqa
Fásiq, pl. Fásiqún, Fussáq, Fasaqa
godless, sinful, dissolute, wanton, licentious, profligate, vicious, iniquitous, nefarious;   trespasser, offender, sinner;   fornicator, adulterer;   a person not meeting the legal requirements of righteousness (Islamic Law)
Fasl al-Khitab, Faslu’l-Khitab
Faṣl al-Khiṭáb, Pers. Faṣlu’l-Khiṭáb
“sound or unmistakable judgement” (Fassl-ul-Khitab).  The Conclusive Proof or The Decisive Decree by Mírzá Faḍl
Fasl, Fusul
Faṣl, pl. Fuṣúl
parting, disjunction, detachment, severance, sunderance, cutting off;   separation;   division, partition;   discharge, dismissal.—plural: section, part;   chapter;   act (of a play);   movement (of a symphony, etc.);   article (in a newspaper);   class, grade (school);   season.
Fass, Fusus
Faṣṣ, pl. Fuṣúṣ
stone of a ring;   clove (of garlic);   segment (of an orange);   lobe (anatatomy, botanical);   joint;   essence
Fassala, Fussila
Faṣṣala, Fuṣṣila
to detail, to enumerate;   to expound, to elucidate, to explain;   to make understandable, to clarify;   to be made distinct
Fata
Fatá’
youth, adolescence
Fata'
Fata’
forgetting;   desisting
Fata'l-Malih
Fatá’l-Malíḥ
handsome young man.   DB 272, 286 omits the á
Fata'l-Qazvini
Fatá’l-Qazvíní
youth of Qazvín.   DB 294 omits á
Fataha, Fath, Futuh, Futuhat
Fataḥa, Fatḥ, pl. Futuḥ, Futuḥát
to open (something);   to turn on (a faucet);   to switch on, turn on (an apparatus);   to dig (a canal);   to build (a road);   to open, preface, introduce, begin (something);   to conquer, capture (something);   to reveal, disclose (to someone or something);   to grant victory or success (to someone over or in something;   of God).   Plural: conquest; victory, triumph;   alms;   donations, contributions
Fatama, Fatm
Faṭama, Faṭm
to wean (an infant or a young animal
Fath-'Ali
Fatḥ-‘Alí
Fath-'Ali Shah
Fatḥ-‘Alí Sháh
A Qájár king, father of Muḥammad Sháh.
Fath-al-Futuh
Fatḥ-al-Futúḥ
Victory of Victories
Fath-i-A'zam
Fatḥ-i-A‘ẓam
(“Fatheazam”)   “supreme victory”
Fath, Futuh, Futuhat
Fatḥ, pl. Futúḥ, Futúḥát
opening;   introduction, commencement, beginning;—(pl. futúḥ, futúḥát) conquest;   victory, triumph;   pl. futúḥát alms;   donations, contributions
Fatha
Fatḥa(h or t)
the vowel point, the short vowel a (grammar).   See ḍamma and kasra
Fathu'llah
Fatḥu’lláh
“Victory of God”
Fathu'llah-i-Hakkak
Fatḥu’lláh-i-Ḥakkák
Fathu'llah-i-Hakkak-i-Qumi
Fatḥu’lláh-i-Ḥakkák-i-Qumí
Fathu'llah-i-Qumi
Fatḥu’lláh-i-Qumí
Fatih
Fátiḥ
opener;   beginner;   conqueror, victor;   light (colour)
Fatiha, Fawatih
Fátiḥa, pl. Fawátiḥ
start, opening, beginning, commencement, inception, incipience;   introduction, preface, preamble, proem.   Al-Fátiḥa (or Al-Sab‘a Al Matḥání (the seven oft-repeated) since the verses of Al-Fátiḥa must be read in every prayer) is the first surah (with 7 verses) of the Qur’án.   See Qur’án 15:87.
Fatim, Futum
Faṭím, pl. Fuṭum
weaned
Fatima, Fatimih or Fatimah
Fáṭima (Fáṭimah), Pers. Fáṭimih
(“One who weans”)   Fem. of ‘Fátim’.   Fáṭima was the daughter of the Prophet Muḥammad and wife of the Imám ‘Alí.   Fáṭimih-Bagum was the mother of the Báb.   Fáṭimih Khánum (referred to as Mahd-i-‘Ulyá) (second wife of Bahá’u’lláh—daughter Ṣamadíyyih, son Muḥammad, son Ḍíyá’u’lláh, and son Badí’u’lláh)
Fatimi
Fáṭimí
Fatimid (adj. and n.).   Not Fáṭimid or Fátimid (-id is an English ending)
Fatimiy-i-Ma'sumih
Fáṭimiy-i-Ma‘ṣúmih
DB 224 is incorrect
Fatiq
Fatíq
unstitched, ripped, ripped open, slit, rent, torn;   sharp, shining (dawn), eloquent
Fatir
Fáṭir
originator or creator.   al-Fáṭir, the Creator (God)
Fatra, Fatarat
Fatra, Fatarát
lassitude, languor, listlessness, slackness, weakness, feebleness, debility;   tepidity, indifference, coolness (of a feeling);   (pl.) interval of time, intermission, pause;   period, spell, while
Fattah
Faṭṭáḥ
an opener;   a conqueror;   a judge, an arbiter;   one of the names of God (al-Faṭṭáḥ);   name of a bird.   Derived from Fataḥa.
Fatwa, Fatva Pers., Fatawa
Fatwá, pl. Fatáwá
A judgement or sentence made by a Muslim muftí (and court)
Fawa'id al-Hikmiyyah
al-Fawá‘id al-Ḥikmiyyah
(written by Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Aḥsá’í) observations in wisdom
Fawz (Fauz)
Fawz
success, triumph, victory;   obtainment, attainment, achievement, accomplishment;   escape
Fawzi (Fauzi)
Fawzí
triumphal, triumphant
Fayadan (Fayazan)
Fayaḍán
flood, inundation, deluge
Fayd (Faid, Faiz), Fayz, Fuyud
Fayḍ, Pers. Fayẓ, pl. Fuyúḍ
flood, inundation, deluge;   emanation;   superabundance, plenty, copiousness, abundance;   (pl.) stream
Fayd-i-Aqdas
Fayḍ-i-Aqdas
(“most holy outpouring”)   Signifies revelation in the realm of absolute divine unity itself.
Fayd-i-Muqaddas
Fayḍ-i-Muqaddas
(“holy outpouring”) and “most holy outpouring” (fayḍ-i-aqdas), as symbols of differential stages of divine revelation (as discussed in The Kitáb-i-Íqán), may also be inferred from the title of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.   Fayḍ-i-Muqaddas signifies revelation and manifestation of the divine in the realm of creation.   See Faiḍ.
Faydi (Faidi, Faizi), Fayzi
Fayḍí, Pers. Fayẓí
e.g. Afnán Fayḍí
Faydu’llah (Fazu’llah)
Fayḍu’lláh
Abundance from God
Fayha
Fayḥá’
now known as Damascus (Summons of the Lord of Hosts para. 252)
Faylasuf (Failasuf), Falasifa
Faylasúf, pl. Falásifa
philosopher
Fayruz (Fairuz), Fayruzaj (Fairuzaj)
Fayrúz and Fayrúzaj
turquoise
Fayruzabadi (Fairuzabadi, Firuz Abadi)
al-Fayrúzábádí
Muḥammad ibn Ya‘qúb al-Fayrúzábádí (1329–1414) was a lexicographer and the compiler of a comprehensive Arabic dictionary, al-Qámús, that was one of the most widely used for nearly 500 years
Faysal (Faizal)
Fayṣal
decisive criterion;   arbitrator, arbiter.   Fayṣal bin ‘Abdu’l-Ázíz, King of Saudi Arabia (1964 to 1975).
Fayyad
Fayyáḍ
overflowing, effusive, exuberant;   elaborate, exhaustive (speech);   munificent, bountiful, liberal, generous
Fi
(prep.) in;   at;   on;   near, by;   within, during;   among, in the company of, with;   about, on;   concerning, regarding, with reference to, with regard or respect to, as to dealing with, treating of, consisting in (in book titles);   for the sake of, on behalf of, because of, for;   according to;   in proportion to.
Fi Khalali and Fi Khilali
Khalali and Fí Khiláli
during;   in the course of, within, in a given period of
Fi'l
Fi‘l, pl. Af‘ál, Afá‘íl
activity, doing, work, action, performance;   function;— (pl. af‘ál, fi‘ál) deed, act, action;   effect, impact;— (pl. af‘ál) verb (gram.);—pl. afá‘íl great deeds, exploits, feats;   machinations
Fi's-Suluk
Fi’s-Sulúk I and II
“On the Virtuous Journey” (by the Báb)   [elided form of: fí as-Sulúk]
Fida'
Fidá’
redemption, ransoming;   ransom;   price (one has to pay for something), sacrifice (one makes for something).
Fidal
Fiḍál
grace, favour.   Name given to Tuesday in Badí‘ calendar.   See Faḍíl
Fidda, Fiddih (Fizza)
Fiḍḍa(h) (Pers. fem. Fiḍḍih)
silver.   Name of the maid of the wife of the Báb.   Pers. may be written as Fiẓẓa.
Fidya, Fidayat, Fidan
Fidya(h), pl. Fidayát, Fidan
ransom;   redemption (from the omission of certain religious duties, by a material donation or a ritual act;   Islamic law)
Fikr
Fikr
meditation or reflection
Fikum
Fíkum
Fí+kum, on you
Fil, Fiyala, Fuyul, Afyal
Fíl, pl. Fiyala, Fuyúl, Afyál
(ivory) elephant;   bishop (chess)
Fin
Fín
Fín Garden in Káshán, Írán
Findik
Findík
Turkish “hazelnut”
Fiqh
Fiqh
understanding, comprehension;   knowledge.   Islamic jurisprudence
Firaydan (Faridan, Feredan)
Firaydán (alt. pronunciation Farídán)
Pers.   county in Iṣfahán Province.   The capital of the county is Dárán (or Dárún).
Firaydani (Faridani, Feredani)
Firaydání
person from Firaydán
Firaydun (Fraydun, Faridun, Afridun)
Firaydún (Fraydún, Farídún, Afrídún)
Pers.   (“Fereydun”) an ancient Persian king—sons: Túr (Túraj), Salm and Íraj
Firayjat
Firayját
A place where Bahá’u’lláh stayed.   It is 5 km north of the Riḍván Garden, Baghdád.
Firdaws-i-A'la
Firdaws-i-A‘lá
“Supreme Paradise”
Firdaws, Faradis
Firdaws fem., pl. Farádís
a garden, vineyard, paradise;   a fertile valley.   (“Firdaus, Ferdows, Ferdos and Ferdous”)   Firdaws (formerly Tún), capital city of Firdaws County in the southern part of South Khurásán Province, Írán.
Firdawsi
Firdawsí
paradisiacal, heavenly.   Abu’l-Qásim Firdawsí Ṭúsí (c. 940–1020), or Ferdowsi (Firdawsi, Firdusi, Firdosi, Firdausi) was a Persian poet and the author of Sháhnámah (Shahnameh, “Book of Kings”), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Írán. Ferdowsi is celebrated as the most influential figure in Persian literature and one of the greatest in the history of literature.
Firishta, Firishtih, Firishtagan
Firishta, Fem. Firishtih, pl. Firishtagán
Pers.   an angel;   a messenger, apostle.   See Ar. Mal’ak/Malak
Firman
Firmán
Pers.   See Farmán
Firq
Firq
part, portion, division, section, unit;   band, company, party, detachment, troop, group;   herd, flock
Firqa, Firaq
Firqa, pl. Firaq
part, portion, division, section, unit;   band, company, party, detachment, troop, group;   class;   grade, class (in school);   pupils or students of a course;   troupe, ensemble;   team, crew;   division (military);   sect
Firutan, Furutan
Firútan, Furútan
Pers.   lowly;   humble, depressed;   submissive.   ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, educator, author and Hand of the Cause of God.
Firuz
Fírúz
victorious, triumphant, prosperous, successful;   victory;   prosperity;   the third of the five supplemental days added to the Persian year;   name of several Persian kings.   See Ẓáfir
Firuz-Kuh, Firuzkuh
Fírúz-Kúh or Fírúzkúh
village 125 km east of Teheran
Firuzabad (Fayruzabad)
Fírúzábád (Fayrúzábád)
city 85 km south of Shíráz
Fishar-i-Qabr
Fishár-i-Qabr
Pers.   constriction in the grave.   Promised after death tortures leading to a fear of being squeezed in the grave.
Fitna, Fitan
Fitna,  Pers. Fitnah, pl. Fitan
temptation, trial;   charm, attractiveness;   enchantment, captivation, fascination, enticement, temptation;   infatuation;   intrigue;   sedition, riot, discord, dissension, civil strife.   Occurs when a Manifestation appears.   See also Imtiḥán.
Fitr
Fiṭr
breaking fast, alms giving at ‘Íd al-Fiṭr (a Muslim festival marking the end of Ramaḍán)
Fitr, Aftar
Fitr, pl. Aftár
small div (the space between the end of the thumb and the end of the index finger when extended);   corner
Fitra, Fitar
Fiṭra(t), pl. Fiṭar
creation;   idiosyncrasy;   tendency;   wisdom, sagacity;   deceit, trick;   religion;   the power of the Creator;—(pl.) nature, (natural) disposition, constitution, temperament, innate character, instinct
Fitrat
Fitrat
Ar.   There are several meanings: original Reality, creating, and gap.   Also the interval between two prophets, or the time between the martyrdom of the Báb and the rise of Bahá’u’lláh. (The Bahá’í Proofs, p. 66)
Fizan (Fezan), Fizzan (Fezzan)
Fízán (Turkish), Fizzán (Ar.)
“rough rocks”, south-western region of modern Libya. It is largely desert, but broken by mountains, uplands, and dry river valleys (wadis) in the north, where oases enable ancient towns and villages to survive deep in the otherwise inhospitable Sahara Desert.
Fu'ad, Af'ida
Fu’ád, pl. Af’ida
(“Fuad”) heart.   Shoghi Effendi described the Shrine of the Báb as being the “Heart” of Mt. Carmel.
Fu’adiyyih
Fu’ádíyyih
Daughter of Bahá’u’lláh and Munírih Khánum
Fulad, Fuladi
Fúlád, adj. Fúládí and Fuládí
steel, of steel, made of steel;   steely, steel-like, steel-hard
Fulan, Fulana
Fulán, fem. Fulána
(substituting for an unnamed or unspecified person or thing) so and so
Fulk
Fulk (m. and f.)
ship, (also collective) ships;   Ark (as in Noah’s)
Funduq, Funduqa (Findik)
Funduq, Funduqa
Pers.   hazelnut of filbert-nut;   a nut good against the sting of a scorpion;   a ball for cannon, musketry, or cross-bow.   Ar. Bunduq, Turk. Findík
Furat
Furát
Pers.   very fine, sweet water or waters;   the river Euphrates;   the sea
Furqan
Furqán
proof, evidence, discriminator.   An important attribute of al-Qur’án (see 2:185) is that of distinction (Furqán), for the word Qur’án describes how al-Qur’án is recited, whereas the word Furqán describes the criterion that distinguishes between truth (Ḥaqq) and falsehood (Báṭil) (see 25:1).   Name of súra 25.
Furugh
Furúgh
Ar.   emptiness, vacuity;   vacancy;   termination, expiration, exhaustion
Furugh
Furúgh
Pers.   splendour, light, brightness, flame.   Name given by Bahá’u’lláh to the remote village of Dúghábád.
Furughi
Furúghí
(Forooghy) the erudite Mírzá Maḥmúd Furúghí came from the village of Dúghábád. That is why Mírzá Maḥmúd is known as Furúghí. Faḍíl-i-Furúghí—the Savant of Furúgh—is also an appellation by which he is remembered. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá described him as a leader of the legion of the believers.   Eminent Bahá’ís in the Time of Bahá’u’lláh, pp. 157, 164.   See jaysh ‘aramram.
Furughiyyih
Furúghíyyih
name of a daughter of Bahá’u’lláh
Furuhar, Farawahar (Faravahar)
Furúhar, Farawahár
classical Pers.   matter, essence (distinguished from accident).   The new Persian reading of Furúhar (frwhr فروهر) is Farawahár, Faravahár, Forouhar. The Farawahár, also known as Farr-i-Kiyání (فرکیانی) or Ashu Farúhar, is one of the best-known symbols of Írán. It symbolizes Zoroastrianism and Iranian nationalism. The Farawahár is the most worn pendant among Iranians and has become a secular national symbol, rather than a religious symbol. It symbolizes good thoughts (pindár-i-nik), good words (speech) (guftár-i-nik) and good deeds (kirdár-i-nik), which are the basic tenets and principles of Zoroastrianism.   The winged-disc symbol (“guardian angel”) of Zoroastrianism is traditionally interpreted as a depiction of a frawashi—the Avestan language term for the Zoroastrian concept of a personal spirit of an individual, whether dead, living and yet-unborn.
Fususu'l-Hikam
Fuṣúṣu’l-Ḥikam
The Bezels of Wisdom by Ibnu’l-‘Arabí.   See Faṣṣ and Ḥikma
Futa, Fuwat
Fúṭa(t), pl. Fuwat
apron, pinafore;   napkin, serviette;   towel.   Wrap-around male skirt worn by men in Yemen.
Futuhat-i-Makkiyyih
Futúḥát-i-Makkíyyih
“Conquests of Mecca” by Shaykh Ibnu’l-‘Arabí.   See Fataḥa and Makkí
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Gabr
Gabr
Pers.   originally an ancient Persian (i.e. a Zoroastrain), one of the Magi of the sect of Zoroaster (a priest of the worshippers of fire);   by the 13th century the word denoted a pagan, an infidel;   a plant resembling ginger;   a vest;   a stone.   After gabr came to have a pejorative implication, it was superseded in literature by the respectable Zartoshtí ("Zoroastrian”)
Gach
Gach
Pers.   a kind of white earth of which lime is made of;   a plaster of lime and gypsum mixed with sand and pounded marble.
Gaf
Gáf
Persian letter representing g—a form of the Arabic letter káf
Gallipoli
Gallipoli
Gelibolu, Turkey
Gand
Gand
Pers.   anything fetid, bad smell, stink, funk.   Can result from a mispronounciation of qand
Gandum
Gandum
Pers.   wheat
Gandum-Pak-Kun
Gandum-Pák-Kun
Mullá Muḥammad Ja‘far—the first person in Iṣfahán to accept the Faith of the Báb
Ganj
Ganj
Pers.   a store, hoard, hidden treasure;   a magazine, granary, grain-market, storehouse;   a mart;   a case
Ganja, Ganjih
Ganja, Ganjih
(Ganjeh) city (2nd largest) in Ádharbayján. It was named Elisabethpol in the Russian Empire period. The city regained its original name in 1920. However, its name was changed again in 1935 to Kirovabad. In 1989 the city regained its original name.
Gar
Gár
Pers.   a suffix that, subjoined to a word, denotes agency or possession
Garb
Garb
west;   occident;   vehemence, violence, impetuosity, tempestuousness;   al-Garb—the West, the Occident
Garbi
Garbí
western, westerly;   occidental, Western;   European;   an Occidental, a Westerner;—al-Garbíyún the Western Church (Christian)
Gari
Garí
Pers.   any standard of measure, whether for land, cloth, grain, liquids, or time;   a measure of time, twenty-two minutes and thirty seconds;   the itch, scab;   practice, trade, office
Garm Rud
Garm Rúd (or Garmrúd)
Village northern Írán (south of Sárí).   Pers.: warm or hot (garm) flowing water (rúd)
Garm-Siri
Garm-Sírí
“warm place”
Gawhar (Gohar, Gauhar, Guhar)
Gawhar
Pers.   a gem, jewel, pearl, precious stone;   lustre of a gem or sword;   root, origin;   of a noble family;   essence, substance, form;   offspring;   any hidden virtue;   intellect, wisdom;   a substitute.   See jawhar
Gawhar Khanum
Gawhar Khánum
third wife of Bahá’u’lláh (broke Covenant after the passing of Bahá’u’lláh)—her daughter is Furúghíyyih
Gawhar-Maliki
Gawhar-Malikí
Royal jewel
Gawhar-Shad
Gawhar-Shád
“joyful or shining jewel”.   Gawhar-Shád (“Gowharshad Begum”), wife of Sháhrukh.
Gawhardasht (Gawhar Dasht)
Gawhardasht (Gawhar + Dasht)
(“Gohardasht”) formerly Rajá‘í Shahr, a neighbourhood (with prison, Gawhardasht Zindán) on north side of Karaj
Gha'i
Ghá’í
final
Ghadir Khumm
Ghadír Khumm
Muḥammad gave a speech (during which he designated ‘Alí as the leader of the Muslim ummah) on 18th of Dhu’l-Ḥijjih ah 10 (ad 632) at Ghadír Khumm, which is near the city of al-Juhfah.
Ghadir, Ghudur, Ghudran
Ghadír, pl. Ghudur, Ghudrán
pond, pool, puddle;   stream, brook, creek, river
Ghafara, Gafr, Maghfira, Ghufran
Ghafara, Ghafr, Maghfira, Ghufrán
to forgive (someone something), grant pardon (to someone for something), remit (something)
Ghaffar (“Gaffar”)
Ghaffár
readily inclined to pardon, much-forgiving (especially of God).   ‘Abdu’l-Ghaffár is claimed to be the real name of Noah.   See Núḥ.
Ghaffari
Ghaffárí
Pers.   Iranian family name.
Ghafir
Gháfir
forgiving;   merciful, compassionate
Ghafr
Ghafr
covering;   pardoning (sins);   laying up, enclosing in a case or in a repository;   rankling, being raw (a wound);   relapsing (a sick person);   relapse;   tingeing, dyeing (grey hair)
Ghafur
Ghafúr
readily inclined to pardon, much-forgiving (esp. of God)
Ghali
Ghalí
Pers.   dear, highly-priced
Ghali, Ghulat
Ghálí, pl. Ghulát
Pers.   dear, costly, high-priced, precious, valuable;   one who exceeds bounds;   a fanatic, a zealot;   name of a poet.   extremist, adj. of Ghuluww
Ghalin, Ghulah
Ghálin, pl. Ghuláh
expensive, high priced;   valuable, costly;   dear, beloved;   (pl.) adherent of an extreme sect;   extremist, radical;   fanatic adherent, fanatic
Ghamam, Ghamamun, Ghama'im
Ghamám, pl. Ghamá’im
clouds (collective noun Ghamámun)
Ghani
Ghaní
Self-sufficient (able to do without, detached).   Khájih Ghaní or ‘Abdu’l-Ghaní Baydún
Ghaní ad-Dahr
Ghaní ad-Dahr
the appreciative
Ghanim
Ghánim
Ar.   successful
Ghanima, Ghana'im
Ghaníma(h), pl. Ghaná’im
spoils, booty, loot, prey
Ghannam
Ghannám
shepherd.   House of Sulaymán-i-Ghannám in Baghdád.   See Bayt-i-A‘ẓam
Ghar, Aghwar, Ghiran
Ghár, pl. Aghwár, Ghírán
cave, cavern
Gharasa (Gharasih), Ghars, Ghiras
Gharasa (Gharasih), Ghars, pl. Ghirás
to plant, implant (something in);   to place, put, set, infix, interpose, interpolate, insert (something into).   Ghars and Gharasih (Pers.) have numerical values of 1260 and 1265 respectively.   See DB p. 50.
Gharasi
Gharasí
(numerical value of 1270)
Gharb
Gharb
being hid;   going, departing, going to a great distance or to one side;   the place where the sun sets;   sunset;   the West;   Africa;   being shed (tears);   the flowing of tears
Ghariq
Gharíq
Pers.   drowned, immersed.   Numerical value of 1310.   Nabíl drowned in AH 1310—the year began 26 July 1892.
Ghashiya, Ghawashin
Gháshiya, pl. Ghawáshin
pericardium;   misfortune, calamity, disaster;   faint, swoon;   insensibility, stupor;   servants, attendants, retinue, suit.   Al Gháshiyah, the overwhelming event, súra 88
Ghasil
Ghasíl
washed;   (dirty or washed) clothes, washing
Ghawgha' (Ghaugha')
Ghawghá’
mob, rabble, riffraff, din, noise, clamour
Ghawr
Ghawr
place near Tiberias, Israel
Ghawth
Ghawth
call for help;   help, aid, succour
Ghawthiyyih
Ghawthiyyih
garden of Ghawthiyyih—riyáḍ al-ghawthiyya—(loosely) “Garden of Intercessory Sainthood”
Ghayb (Ghaib)
Ghayb, pl. Ghuyúb
absence;   hidden, concealed, invisible;   (pl.) that which is hidden, the invisible;   that which is transcendental, the supernatural;   divine secret.   (invisible realm)
Ghayba (Ghaiba)
Ghayba(t)
absence;   concealment, invisibility;   occultation.   State of being hidden from view.   See Tablet of Aḥmad
Ghaybat-i-Kubra
Ghaybat-i-Kubrá
Major Occultation.   See appended Occultation note.
Ghaybat-i-Sughra
Ghaybat-i-Ṣugh
Minor Occultation.   See appended Occultation note.
Ghaym (Ghaim), Ghuyum, Ghiyam
Ghaym, pl. Ghuyúm, Ghiyám
(collective) clouds;   mist, fog
Ghaym al-Raqiq
Ghaym al-Raqíq
thin cloud
Ghayn
Ghayn
Arabic letter transcripted as gh
Ghayr (Ghair)
Ghayr
other than (with dependent genitive), different from, unlike, no, not, non-, un-, in-, dis-;   (preposition) ghayra except, save, but
Ghayr Mutashabih
Ghayr Mutashábíh
unambiguous
Ghaz, Ghazat
Gház, pl. Gházát
gas;   petroleum, oil (north African)
Ghazal, Ghizla, Ghizlan
Ghazál, pl. Ghizla, Ghizlá
gazelle;   a village near or now in Tús;   a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter.
Ghazali
Ghazálí
a native of Ghazál.   al-Ghazálí (Abú Ḥámid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazálí (c. 1058–1111), Persian, was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mystics of Sunní Islám.
Ghazi
Ghází
gaseous, gas-like.   al-ghází war lord, warrior champion
Ghazna
Ghazná or Ghazní
“jewel”, city (historically known as Ghaznín or Ghazna(h)) in Afghánistán 128 km sw of Kabul
Ghazwa, Ghazawat
Ghazwa(h), pl. Ghazawát
military expedition, foray;   raid, incursion, inroad, invasion, attack, aggression;   conquest;   campaign of conquest.   See Mu’tah
Ghazza
Ghazza
Gaza (seaport in the Gaza strip)
Ghazzi
Ghazzí
gauze
Ghifar
Ghifár
a helmet;   father of the Banú Ghifár
Ghina'
Ghiná’
singing, song   (term normally used to denote music and the human chanting voice)
Ghirsh, Ghursh, Ghurush
Ghirsh, Ghursh, pl. Ghurúsh
silver coin, piaster
Ghiyath
Ghiyáth
help, succour.   Abjad 1,511
Ghulam al-Khuld
Ghulám al-Khuld
Tablet of the Deathless Youth by Bahá’u’lláh
Ghulam-Ahmad
Ghulám-Aḥmad
Mírzá Ghulám-Aḥmad of Qádiyán, India,(1839–1908). Followers later split into Aḥmadíyyah and Qádiyáníyyah.
Ghulam-Husayn
Ghulám-Ḥusayn
Ghulam-Rida
Ghulám-Riḍá
Ghulam-Riday-i-Kuchik
Ghulám-Riḍáy-i-Kúchik
Ghulam-Riday-i-Yazdi
Ghulám-Riḍáy-i-Yazdí
Ghulam, Ghilman, Ghilma
Ghulám pl. Ghilmán, Ghilma
boy, youth, lad;   slave;   servant, waiter
Ghulamu'llah
Ghulámu’lláh
servant of God.   son of Javáv-i-Qazvíní
Ghuluw
Ghulúw
exceeding of proper bounds, excess, extravagance;   exaggeration
Ghuluww, Ghaliyya
Ghuluww, Gháliyya
exaggeration, extremism
Ghusl, Aghsal
Ghusl, pl. Aghsál
washing, ablution;   the major ritual ablution, i.e., a washing of the whole body (Islamic Law);   wash water
Ghusn-i-A'zam
Ghuṣn-i-A‘ẓám
Most Great or Greatest Branch, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Ghusn-i-Akbar
Ghuṣn-i-Akbar
Greater Branch, Mírzá Muḥammad-‘Ali
Ghusn-i-Mumtaz
Ghuṣn-i-Mumtáz
The Chosen Branch i.e. Shoghi Effendi
Ghusn, Ghusun, Aghsan
Ghuṣn, dual Ghuṣún, pl. Aghṣán
twig, bough, limb, branch.   Aghṣán (branches) denotes the sons and male descendants of Bahá’u’lláh.   Only two Aghṣán are mentioned in the Kitáb-i-‘Ahd: Ghuṣn-i-A‘ẓám (‘Abdu’l-Bahá) and Ghuṣn-i-Akbar (Mírzá Muḥammad-‘Ali)
Ghusniyyih
Ghuṣniyyih
Pers.   followers of Mírzá Muḥammad ‘Alí, the “Ghuṣn-i-Akbar”, the half-brother of Bahá’u’lláh
Ghusnu'llahu'l-A'zam
Ghuṣnu’lláhu’l-A‘ẓam
“The Greatest Branch of God”   BKG 250, 311, 420, 485
Ghusnu'llahu'l-Athar
Ghuṣnu’lláhu’l-Aṭhar
“The Purest Branch of God”
Gilan
Gílán
a northern province of Írán on the Caspian Sea.
Gilani
Gílání
Pers.   a native of Gílán
Giltughi
Giltúghí
Ḥájí Káẓim Giltúghí
Gird
Gird
Pers.   round;   a circle, orbit, circumference, circuit;   environs, parts adjacent;   a collection, assembly;   a host;   a city;   a tent, pavilion;   (adverb) around.   e.g. Kinár-Gird, a village where the Báb paused in His exile journey to Máh-Kú.
Girih
Girih
Pers.   a knot, a knur (as in a thread or on wood), a knob, a joint;   a button or anything for fastening garments;   a gland;   a kernel;   a purse;   an abscess;   a knuckle;   articulation;   three finger-breadths;   a difficulty;   the seed of a thorny tree used for tanning;   the heart
Giwah (Givah, Giveh, Giwa)
Giwah
Pers.   a soft, comfortable, durable and hand woven-top shoe common in several parts of Írán especially in rural and mountainous areas of Kirmánsháh Province.
Guardian
Guardian
Title given to Shoghi Effendi by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá: “After the passing away of this wronged one, it is incumbent upon the Aghsán, the Afnán of the Sacred Lote-Tree, the Hands of the Cause of God and the loved ones of the Abhá Beauty to turn unto Shoghi Effendi—the youthful branch branched from the two hallowed and sacred Lote-Trees and the fruit grown from the union of the two offshoots of the Tree of Holiness,—as he is the sign of God, the chosen branch, the Guardian of the Cause of God …. He is the Interpreter of the Word of God ….” (The Will and Testament, p. 11)
Guftar
Guftár
Pers.   speech, conversation;   a saying;   a chapter
Gugan (Gavgan (Gav-Gan), Gavkan)
Gúgán
village 50 km SW of Tabríz.   Letters transcribe as “Gawgán”
Gul-i-Gulab
Gul-i-Gulab
Red Rose, literally, “the flower of the rose-water”.   See Ar. Jull and Julláb
Gul-i-Mawla
Gul-i-Mawlá
“the master’s rose”.   name given to Darvish Siḍq-‘Alí
Gul-Muhammad (Gul-Muhammad)
Gul-Muḥammad
GPB p. 200
Gul-Saba
Gul-Sabá
Pers.   Sheba rose
Gul, Gulan
Gul, pl. Gulán
Pers.   a rose;   a flower;   embers;   a red colour.   See Ar. Jull
Guldanih
Guldánih
Pers.   (Gul-Dána “wise flower”)   Guldánih ‘Alipúr
Gulistan
Gulistán
where flowers grow;   a celebrated Persian book in prose and verse, by Abú-Muḥammad Muṣliḥ al-Dín bin ‘Abdu’lláh Shírází (better known by his pen-name Sa‘dí) (1175–1291). Book structure: Introduction followed by eight chapters, each consisting of a number of stories and poetry: 1. The Manners of Kings; 2. On the Morals of Dervishes; 3. On the Excellence of Contentment; 4. On the Advantages of Silence; 5. On Love and Youth; 6. On Weakness and Old Age; 7. On the Effects of Education; 8. On Rules for Conduct in Life.
Gulmuhammadi
Gulmuḥammadí
Zabíḥu’lláh (Ar. Dhabíḥu’lláh) Gulmuḥammadí
Gulpaygan
Gulpáygán
a city in and the capital of Gulpáygán County, Iṣfahán Province, Írán (about 160 km NW of Iṣfahán)
Gulshan (Golshan)
Gulshán
Pers.   a rose or flower-garden;   a bed of roses or flowers;   a delightful spot;   a place where a person enjoys himself;   a pleasure-palace;   florid, cheerful, agreeable.   Former name of Ṭabas—city in South Khorasan Province, Írán.
Gulshani
Gulshaní
a Sufi order founded by Ibráhím al-Gulshaní, an influential Sufi shaykh from Azerbaijan
Gumruk, Gamarik
Gumruk, pl. Gamárik
customs;   customhouse
Gunabad (Gonabad)
Gunábád
city 225 km SW of Mashhad, Khurásán province
Gunjishk
Gunjishk
Pers.   a sparrow;   a chick;   any small bird.   gáf or káf (kafara, “renounce”) + nún (nazih, “purify”) + jím (jánib, “draw back”) + shín (ush’kur, “thank”, “be grateful”) + káf (kafara)—see The Seven Valleys 1st edn.
Guran
Gúrán
Pers.   the rendezvous of an army;   an assembly-room;   rice browned in the oven.   A village in Lorestan Province, 174 km SW of Káshán.   The Dawn-Breakers p. 547
Gurgin (Gurgan, Gorgan), Jurjan
Gurgín or Gurgán, Jurján
city near Caspian Sea (formerly Astrabád or Astarábád)
Gurgin Khan
Gurgín Khán
Nephew and successor of Governor Manúchihr Khán in Iṣfahán.
Gusha
Gushá
Pers.   opening, loosening, solving
Gusht, Gosht
sht
Pers.   flesh, meat;   pulp of fruit
Gushtasb, Gushasb
Gushtásb, Gushásb
Pers.   an ancient king of Persia
Guzal
Guzal
(The Pass)   As in Ádí-Guzal, Sayyáh, the messenger.
Gyawur-Kyuy
Gyáwur-Kyuy
probably the Turkish village of Güneyli Köyü (“Southern Village”), 11 km north of Gallipoli
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Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic attributes (“names”) of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots · Underscores · Vowel sounds · Word transcription macros
Plain text
Transcripted text
Word meanings & comments
H
Ha, Ha'at
Há’, pl. Ha’át
Arabic letter
Ha, Had, Hadihi, Hadi, Ha’ula’i, Hadani
look! there!   há huwa look, there he is!   há antum you there!   as a prefix (mostly written defectively): hádá, f. hádihí, hádí,—pl. há’ulá’i, dual m. hádání, f. hátáni this one, this
Ha’ik, Haka
Ḥá’ik, pl. Ḥáka
weaver;   (Moroccan) an outer garment consisting of a long piece of white material, covering body and head
Habash, Ahbash
al-Ḥabash, pl. al-Aḥbash
Abyssinia, Ethiopia;—pl. the Abyssinians, Ethiopians
Habba, Hubb
Ḥabba, Ḥubb
to love, like;   to evoke (in someone), love or a liking (for something or someone);   to endear (something to someone), make (something) dear, lovable, attractive (for someone), make (something) palatable, acceptable (to someone);   to urge (something on someone), suggest (something to someone)
Habib, Ahibba,
Ḥabíb, pl. Aḥabbá, Aḥibba
beloved, sweetheart, lover;   darling;   dear one, friend;   dear
Habibi
Ḥabíbi, Pers. Ḥabíbih
my love
Habibu'llah
Ḥabíbu’lláh
beloved of God
Habibu'llah-i-Afnan
Ḥabíbu’lláh-i-Afnán, Ḥájí Mírzá
Habr, Hibr, Ahbar
Ḥabr, Ḥibr, pl. Aḥbár
a non-Muslim religious authority, learned man, scribe;   bishop; rabbi.—ḥabr beautifying, adorning;   putting ink into an inkstand;   making glad;   joy, gladness, cheerfulness;—ḥibr, ink;   beauty;   a sign;   signs of joy.
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi
Hádá, fem. Hádihí, Hádí, pl. Há’ulá’i
this one, this
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi, cont.
Hádání dual m., f. Hátáni
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi, Ha’ula’i, Hadani
Hádá (demonstrative pronoun)
fem. hádihí, hádí, pl. há’ulá’i, dual masc. hádáni, dual fem. hátáni this one, this
Hadatha, Huduth
Ḥadatha (Ḥudúth)
to happen, occur, take place, come to pass.   Root of ḥadíth
Hadba, Ahdab
Ḥadbá’, fem. Aḥdab, pl. Ḥudb
hunchbacked, humped.   The historic Great Mosque of al-Núrí in Mosul is famous for its leaning minaret which gave the city its nickname “the hunchback” (al-Ḥadbá’).   See root word Ḥadiba
Hadd, Hudud
Ḥadd, pl. Ḥudúd
(cutting) edge (of a knife, of a sword);   edge, border, brink, brim, verge;   border (of a country), boundary, borderline;   limit (fig.), the utmost, extremity, termination, end, terminal point, terminus;   a (certain) measure, extent, or degree (attained);   (math.) member (of an equation), term (of a fraction, of a proportion);   divine ordinance, divine statute (limit, prohibition or penalty fixed by God);   legal punishment (Islamic Law)
Hadha, Hadhihi, hadhi, Ha’ula’i
dhá (demonstrative pronoun)
fem. hádhihí, hádhí, pl. há’ulá’i, dual m. hádháni, fem. hátáni this one, this
Hadi
Hádí
a director, leader, guide;   one who enjoys rest or peace;   the neck;   head or point of an arrow;   an ox in the centre of a threshing-floor, round which the other oxen move when treading out the grain
Hadiba, Hadab
Ḥadiba, (verbal noun Ḥadab)
to be convex, dome-shaped, cambered, bent outward;   to be hunchbacked;   to be nice, kind, friendly
Hadid, Hada'id
Ḥadíd, pl. Ḥadá’id
iron;—pl. iron parts (of a structure);   forgings, hardware, ironware
Hadid, Hidad, Ahidda
Ḥadíd, pl. Ḥidád, Aḥiddá’, Aḥidda
sharp (knife, eye, tongue, etc.), keen (mind)
Hadin, Hadinun, Huha
Hádin, pl. Hádinún, Hudá(h)
leading, guiding;   leader, guide
Hadiqat
Ḥadíqat
an inclosed garden;   an orchard, a palm-plantation;   name of a village near Madína
Hadiqatu'r-Rahman
Ḥadíqatu’r-Raḥmán
the Orchard of the Merciful
Hadir, Huddar, Hudur, Hadara
Ḥáḍir, pl. Ḥuḍḍar, Ḥuḍúr, Ḥaḍara
present;   attending;—(pl. ḥuḍḍár, ḥaḍara) settled, sedentary, resident, village or town dweller, not nomadic.   (pl. Ḥuḍúr) presence;   visit, participation, attendance.   See ḥáẓir
Hadith-i-Jabir
Ḥadíth-i-Jábir
Hadith, Ahadith
Ḥadíth, pl. Aḥádíth, Ḥádithán
speech;   chat, chitchat, small talk;   conversation, talk, discussion;   interview;   prattle, gossip;   report, account, tale, narrative;   Prophetic tradition, hadith, narrative relating deeds and utterances of the Prophet and his Companions.   Root of ḥadíth is ḥadatha.   Aḥádíth are the oral sayings of the Prophet Muḥammad and the Imáms. Two distinct types: al-Ḥadíth an-Nabawí and al-Ḥadíth al-Qudsí. The former (Prophetic or regular) being restricted to the sayings of Muḥammad (a ḥadíth where one of the Companions reports Muḥammad’s statements, his deeds, or things that happened in his presence and he approved of them), while the latter (Divine) pertains to the sayings of the Prophet through the medium of Divine inspiration.   Note: الأحاديث is written al-aḥádíth.
Hadith, Hawadith
Ḥádith, pl. Ḥawádith, also Ḥáwádithát
occurring, happening, taking place;   new, recent;   fresh;—(pl.) occurrence, incident, event, happening;   episode; case (jurisprudence) accident, mishap
Haditha, Hawadith
Ḥáditha, pl. Ḥawádith
occurrence, event, happening;   plot (of a play);   incident, episode;   accident, mishap
Hadiy-i-Dawlat-Abadi
Hádíy-i-Dawlat-Ábádí
Hadiy-i-Nahri
Hádíy-i-Nahrí
(MF)
Hadiy-i-Qazvini
Hádíy-i-Qazvíní
Hadiya
Ḥadiya
to remain, stay (at a place), stick (to a place).   Name given as location where of Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Aḥsá’í, the leader of the Shaykhís, died. It is near the tomb of Muḥammad in Medina. He is buried in the cemetery of Baqí‘ in Medina.
Hadiya, Hadaya
Hadíya, pl. Hadáyá
gift, present, donation;   offering, sacrifice
Hadiya, Hadiyat
Hádiyat, Hádiya, fem. Hádíyyih
Pers.   the leader of a flock;   a stick, staff
Hadra (Hadrat), Hazrat
Ḥaḍra(t), Pers. Ḥaẓrat
presence, threshold;   dignity;   majesty;   dominion, power;   an epithet often joined with the names of the Deity;   also a title by which kings and great men are addressed, similar to majesty, highness, lordship, worship.   Used broadly by mystics as a synonym of ḥuḍúr, “being in the presence [of Alláh]”.   Holiness (‘his excellency’ or ‘his honour’).   Placed before the name of the Manifestation or other figures with a high spiritual station.
Hadramawt (Hadramaut), Hadhramaut
Ḥaḍramawt (Ḥaḍramút, Hadhramaut)
a region in the south of the Arabian peninsula—part of Yemen (claimed burial place of Húd)
Hadrat-i-A'la or Hadrat-i-'Ala
Ḥaḍrat-i-A‘lá
“His Holiness the Most Exalted One” (a designation of the Báb)
Hadrat-i-Mubashshir
Ḥaḍrat-i-Mubashshir
“His holiness the Herald”
Hadratu’llah (Hazratu’llah)
Ḥaḍratu’lláh
The Lord God
Hafiz
Ḥáfiẓ
a keeper, preserver, guardian;   a commander, governor;   the Preserver of all things (God);   gifted with a good memory;   one who has by heart the whole Qurʼán;   a blind man (because such fall frequently under the preceding category);   pen name of the greatest lyric, mystical poet of Persia, Khwája Shams al-Dín Muḥammad Ḥáfíẓ-i-Shírází (1320–1390), author of odes in the ghazal form. The Tomb of Ḥáfiẓ and its associated memorial hall, the Ḥáfiẓih, are two memorial structures erected in the northern edge of Shíráz, in his memory.
Hafizu's-Sihhih
Ḥafiẓu’ṣ-Ṣiḥḥih
Mírzá ‘Abdu’l-Rahím Khán Ḥafiẓu’ṣ-Ṣiḥḥih, Bahá’í World, vol. ix, pp. 613–4.
Haft-Dast
Haft-Dast
Pers.   seven hands
Haft-Vadi
Haft-Vádí
(Seven Valleys) (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Hahut
Háhút
The essence of God unmanifested.   The “Hidden Mystery” or the “Hidden Treasure”, the Absolute Unknown, the Primal Oneness.   Realm of the “Absolute Unknown”, where God’s essence has been hidden from time immemorial and will continue to remain so for eternity.   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahá'í_cosmology.   See Láhút, Jabarút, Malakút, and Násút.
Haira, Hairat
Ḥaira (Ḥairat)
confusion, perplexity, bewilderment, embarrassment, helplessness, embarrassed, at a loss, helpless
Hajar
Hájar
Hagar, wife of Abraham and the mother of Ismá‘íl
Hajar al-Aswad
al-Ḥajar al-Aswad
Pers.   al-Ḥajaru’l-Aswad.   the Black Stone of the Ka‘ba at Mecca.   Size about 160 (6.3”) x 200 (7.9”) mm
Hajar, Hijarat, Ahjar, Hijar
Ḥajar, pl. Ḥijára(t), Aḥjár, Ḥijár
stone;   the philosopher’s stone;   weight (placed as an equipoise on the scale of a balance)
Hajara, Hajr, Hijran
Hajara, Hajr, Hijrán
to emigrate;   to dissociate oneself, separate, part, secede, keep away
Haji Shah-Muhammad
Ḥájí Sháh-Muḥammad
Sháh-Muḥammad Manshadí, Amín’l-Bayán (Trustee of Ḥuqúqu’lláh)
Hajib, Hujjab
Ḥájib, pl. Ḥujjáb, Ḥajaba
concealing, screening, protecting;   doorman, gatekeeper;   court official, equivalent to a chamberlain.   Classical Arabic grammarian ibn al-Ḥájib.
Hajibu'd-Dawlih
Ḥájibu’d-Dawlih
Hajipur
Ḥájípúr (Ḥájí + Púr)
Pers.   Mr. Jamáli'd-Dín Ḥájípúr.   Also name of city in Indian state of Bihar. It is to the north of Patna.
Hajir
Hájir
elegant, excellent (thing);   delirious, speaking foolishly or deliriously;   emigrating;   name of a tribe
Hajj (Haji), Hajjaj, Hajij
Ḥájj (Pers. Ḥájí), pl. Ḥujjáj, Hajíj
pilgrim;   hadji;   Mecca pilgrim, honorific title of one who has performed the pilgrimage to Mecca.  Pers.   pl. also ḥájiyán or ḥájíyán.
Hajj, Hijja, Hijaj
Ḥajj, Ḥijja, pl. Ḥijaj
hadj, pilgrimage (to Mecca)
Hajjaj
Ḥajjáj
a litigious man, a squabbler;   name of the celebrated governor of Arabia and Iraq, Abú Muḥammad al-Ḥajjáj ibn Yúsuf ibn al-Ḥakam ibn ʿAqíl ath-Thaqafí
Hajr
Hajr
abandonment, forsaking, leaving, separation;   avoidance, abstention;   separation from the beloved one;   hottest time of the day.   Variation hijr.
Hajr
Ḥajr
restriction, curb(ing), check(ing), obstruction, impeding, limitation, curtailing (of something);   barring, closing, debarment, preclusion;   detention;   blocking, confinement, containment, suppression (as a protective measure);   interdiction, prohibition, ban.   Pre-Islamic name of modern Riyadh (ar-Riyáḍ), capital of Saudi Arabia.
Hakam, Hukkam
Ḥakam, pl. Ḥukkam
arbitrator, arbiter;   umpire, referee
Ḥakamanish
Ḥakámanish (Ḥaká + manish)
Pers.   Írándukht Ḥakámanish
Hakha, Hikaya
Ḥaká (Ḥikáya)
to tell, relate (something), report, give an account (of);   to speak, talk (Syr., Leb.);   to imitate, copy (something);   to resemble (someone, something)
Hakim Abu’l-Qasim Firdawsi Tusi
Ḥakím Abu’l-Qásim Firdawsí Ṭúsí
commonly referred to as Ferdowsi, is a revered Persian poet, the author of the epic of Shahnameh (Book of Kings)
Hakim-Bashi
Ḥakím-Báshí
Chief physician
Hakim-Ilahi
Ḥakím-Iláhí
the Divine Philosopher
Hakim, Hukama'
Ḥakím, pl. Ḥukamá’
wise, judicious;   wise man, sage;   philosopher;   physician, doctor.   al-Ḥakím, the divine name for the All-Wise.
Hakiman
Ḥakímán
Raḥmatu’lláh Ḥakímán
Hakkak
Ḥakkák
a jeweller;   a polisher of precious stones;   a borer of pearls;   a lapidary
Hal, Ahwal
Ḥál m. and f., pl. Aḥwál
condition, state;   situation;   position, status;   circumstance;   case;   present, actuality (as opposed to future);   circumstantial expression or phrase (grammar);—pl. conditions, circumstances;   matters, affairs, concerns;   cases;   ḥála (preposition) during;   immediately upon, right after;   just at;   in case of …, in the event of …, ḥálan presently, immediately, at once, right away, without delay;   now, actually, at present.   Pers. Ḥal-i-Shumá, (pl.) Aḥwál-i-Shumá (How are you?)
Hala, Halat
Ḥála, pl. Ḥálát
condition, state;   situation;   (possible, actual) case;   ḥálata (preposition) during.—pl. states, fleeting and ephemeral, of the Ṣúfí spiritual journey
Halab
Ḥalab
milk
Halabi
Ḥalabí
belonging to a milch cow;   native of Aleppo;   white iron, tin-plate
Halaku, Hulagu
Halákú, Pers. Hulágú
Hulagu Khán (c. 1217–8 February 1265).   Hülegü or Hulegu (Mongolian).   Grandson of Genghis Khán, conquered Baghdád (1258) and Syria (1260).
Halal
Ḥalál
that which is allowed, permitted or permissible;   allowed, permitted, permissible, allowable, admissible, lawful, legal, licit, legitimate;   lawful possession
Halih-Halih-Ya-Bisharat
Halih-Halih-Yá-Bishárát
“Hallelujah, Hallelujah, O Glad-Tidings” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Halim, Hulama
Ḥalím, pl. Ḥulamá
mild, mild-tempered, gentle;   patient;   forbearing
Hallaj
Ḥalláj
cotton ginner.   Manṣúr al-Ḥalláj (Abú’l-Mughíth al-Ḥusayn bin Manṣúr al-Ḥalláj) (c. 858–26 March 922) was a Persian mystic, poet and teacher of Sufism.
Halqa, Halaqa, Halaq, Halaqat
Ḥalqa(t), Ḥalaqa pl. Ḥalaq, Ḥalaqát
ring (also earring, etc.);   link (of a chain);   circle (also of people);   group of students studying under a professor, hence: lecture, course (e.g., at Al Azhar University);   part of a sequence or series;   ringlet;   disk;   decade;   market
Halqat adh-Dhahabiyya
al-Ḥalqat adh-Dhahabiyya
the golden circle
Hama, Hamw
Hamá, Hamw
to flow;   to pour forth
Hamad
Ḥamád
Pers.   a village in Khúzistán Province, Írán
Hamadan
Hamadán
“quelled or subsided”   A town in Írán, originally Ecbatana of the ancient Medes.
Hamadani
Hamadání
Badí‘ al-Zamán (“The Wonder of the Age”)   al-Hamadání (969–1007) was a medieval Arabo-Persian man of letters.
Hamam, Hamamat, Hama'im
Ḥamám, pl. Ḥamámát, Ḥamá’im
(Ar.)   dove, pigeon
Haman
Hamán
Pers.   only, solely;   self-same, all one, one and the same, even that, that very;   in this manner, exactly so, thus, equally;   always, continually.   Name of Abraham's brother;   name of Pharaoh's vizier;   name of a place in Kirmán where Sháh Ni‘matu’lláh Walí is buried
Hamaza, Hamz
Ḥamaza, Ḥamz
to bite, or burn, the tongue (taste)
Hamaza, Hamz
Hamaza, Hamz
to prick;   to drive, urge on, prod, goad on (someone, something);   to spur (one’s horse);   (gram.) to provide with hamza (a letter or word)
Hamd
Ḥamd
commendation, praise, laudation
Hamdan
Ḥamdán
praise, one who praises (God)
Hamdu lillah, al-
al-Ḥamdu Lilláh
thank God!   praise be to God!   praised be the Lord!   “Alhamdulillah”
Hamdu’llah
Ḥamdu’lláh
Praise of God
Hamid
Ḥámid
one who praises, a praiser
Hamid, amida (Hamidih, Hamideh)
Ḥamíd, fem. Ḥamída (Pers. Ḥamídih)
praiseworthy, laudable, commendable;   benign, harmless (disease)
Hamida
Ḥamida
to praise, commend, laud, extol (someone for something)   Form II to praise highly (someone)
Hamma
Ḥamma(h or t)
hot spring.   al-Ḥamma was a Palestinian Arab village 12 km SE of Tiberias, famous for its hot springs (on the south side of the village), which are considered therapeutic due to their high sulphur content. The village was depopulated in July 1949. The springs were visited by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in 1914. In 1977 the health resort of Hamat Gader, “hot springs of (the ancient city of) Gadara”, opened on the site of the hot springs.
Hammad (Hamad)
Ḥammád
much praising (God)
Hammal
Ḥammál
Pers.   a porter, carrier of burdens
Hammam
Hammám
careworn, worried;   anxious, solicitous;   eager, active, energetic
Hammam
Ḥammám, pl. Ḥammámát
bath;   swimming pool;   spa, watering place (public baths) (error in Bahá’í writings—the underdot is omitted)
Hamsaya, Hamsayagan
Hamsáya, pl. Hamsáyagán
Pers.   under the same shade, i.e. neighbouring, neighbour
Hamza, Hamazat
Hamza, pl. Hamazát
Arabic glottal stop consonant that is pronounced as an a.   Since a hamza is not actually a letter, it is sometimes counted as an a, and sometimes it is disregarded. Thus, Bahá’ (the hamza is usually dropped) can be read as either eight or nine.
Hamza, Hamzah (Hamzeh)
Ḥamza(h) ḥamza
derived from the Arabic word ḥamuza, meaning strong or steadfast.   Muḥammad’s uncle, Ḥamzah ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muṭṭalib.
Hana
Ḥaná
to bend, curve, twist, turn;   to lean, incline (toward someone);   to feel for someone, sympathize (with someone), commiserate, pity (someone), feel compassion, feel pity (for someone)
Hana-Sab
Ḥaná-Sáb
Muḥammad-i-Ḥaná-Sáb
Hanabali, Hanabilat
Ḥanabalí, pl. Ḥanábila(t)
Hanbalitic, of or pertaining to the madhab of Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal;   puritanical, strict in religious matters;—(pl.) Hanabalites, followers of Aḥmad ibn Ḥambal.   A system of traditional Sunní jurisprudence—smallest of the four (Ḥanabalí, Ḥanafí, Málikí and Sháfi‘í)
Hanafi, Hanafyun
Ḥanafí, pl. Hanafyún, Ḥunafá
orthodox.   One of the four religious Sunní Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).   It is named after the scholar Abú Ḥanífa an-Nu‘man ibn Thábit.
Hanafiya, Hanafiyya
Ḥanafíya(t), Ḥanafiyya(t)
true religion, orthodoxy
Hanbal
Ḥanbal
Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal
Hani, Hani'a
Háni’, fem. Háni’a
happy, delighted, glad;   servant;   fem. servant girl, maid
Hani’
Haní’
healthful, salutary, salubrious, wholesome, beneficial;   pleasant, agreeable;   easy, smooth, comfortable
Hanif, Hunafa’
Ḥaníf, pl. Ḥunafá’
true believer, orthodox;   one who scorns the false creeds surrounding him and professes the true religion;   true (religion)
Hanifa
Ḥanífa
al-ḥanífa as-samḥá’ the true and tolerant (religion. i.e., Islám).   Abú Ḥanífah or Ḥanífih (Pers. forms)
Hanifiya
al-Ḥanífíya(h)
the true (i.e., Islamic) religion
Hanza
Hanzá
village in Kirman Province, Írán (also known as Hamzá). About 110 km south of Kirmán.
Hanzala
Ḥanẓala
(collective;   nomen unitatis   Ḥanẓalah)   Ḥanẓala ibn Abí ‘Ámir, one of the companions of Muḥammad. Title: Ghasíl al-Malá’ika(h), the one cleansed by the angels. Father was Abú Amír al-Asharí. His son was ‘Abdu’lláh ibn Ḥanẓala. Ḥanẓala ibn Abí-Ghafráy-i-Ṭá’í, SDC p. 48, lived earlier than the others mentioned above.
Haqani
Ḥaqání
probably should be Ḥaqqání
Haqiq, Ahiqqa'
Ḥaqíq, pl. Aḥiqqá’
worthy, deserving (of something), fit, competent, qualified;   entitled (to)
Haqiqa, Haqa'iq
Ḥaqíqa(h or t), pl. Ḥaqá’iq
truth, reality (also philosophy);   fact;   the true state of affairs, the facts;   true nature, essence;   real meaning, true sense.   The object of the mystic searcher (ṣúfí).
Haqiqi
Ḥaqíqí
real, true;   actual;   proper, intrinsic, essential;   genuine;   authentic;   positive
Haqq (Haq), Huquq
Ḥaqq, Pers. also Ḥaq, pl. Ḥuqúq
truth;   correctness, rightness;   rightful possession;   property;   ones due;   duty;   proper manner;   true, authentic, real;   right, fair and reasonable;   correct, sound, valid;   al-Ḥaqq an attribute of God;—pl. right, title, claim, legal claim.   Persian: name of a bird said to suspend itself by tbe claws at night and continually to cry ḥaq ḥaq.
Haqqa (Haqqah or Haqqat)
Ḥáqqa(h) or Ḥáqqa(t)
that which sorts out truth from falsehood;   that which is inevitable (an epithet of the Day of Judgement).   Qur’án 69.   The Sure Reality or the Reality
Haqqan
Ḥaqqan
really, in reality, in effect, actually, in fact, indeed, truly, in truth;   justly, rightly, by rights
Haqqani
Ḥaqqání
correct, right, proper, sound, valid, legitimate, legal
Haqqu'llah, Huququ'llah
Ḥaqqu’lláh, pl. Ḥuqúqu’lláh
“Right(s) of God”
Harah, Harat
Haráh or Harát
Herat (city in nw Afghánistán)
Haraka, Harakat
Ḥaraka(t), pl. Harakát
movement, motion;   commotion;   physical exercise;   stirring, impulse;   proceeding, procedure, policy;   action, undertaking, enterprise;   military operation;   continuation, progress;   traffic (rail, shipping, street);   movement (as a social phenomenon);   vowel (grammar)
Haram ash-Sharif
al-Ḥaram ash-Sharíf
“the Noble Sanctuary” or Temple Mount in Jerusalem
Haram-i-Aqdas
Ḥaram-i-Aqdas
Most Holy Sanctuary or Precincts.   Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí and the surrounding gardens.
Haram-i-Fatima-i-Ma'sumih
Ḥaram-i-Fáṭima-i-Ma‘súmih
Pers.   Shrine of Fáṭima al-Ma‘súmih, sister of Imám ‘Alí ar-Riḍá (8th Imám), in Qum, Írán.   See Ma‘súm
Haram, Ahram
Ḥaram, pl. Aḥrám
forbidden, prohibited, interdicted;   taboo;   holy, sacred, sacrosanct;   something sacred, sacred object;   sacred possession;   wife;   sanctum, sanctuary, sacred precinct.
[Ar.]   The sacred sanctuary at Mecca where no blood may be spilled, and the four months with the same sanction in the Arabic calendar.   Compare with Ḥill.
Haram, Ahram
Haram, pl. Ahrám, Ahrámát
pyramid.   al-Ahrám (“The Pyramids”) (5 August 1875–) is the most widely circulating Egyptian daily newspaper, and the second oldest after al-Waqá'i‘ al-Maṣriyyah. It is majority owned by the Egyptian government.
Haram, Hurum
Ḥarám, pl. Ḥurum
forbidden, interdicted, prohibited, unlawful;   something forbidden, offense, sin;   inviolable, taboo;   sacred, sacrosanct;   cursed, accursed
Haraman
Ḥarámán
Mecca and Madína, the two sacred cities
Haramayn (Haramain)
al-Ḥaramayn
(dual pl. form of Ḥaram, sanctuary) “The Two Holy Places” or “The Two Sanctuaries”, traditional Islamic appellations of the two holy cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina.   The “Twin Sacred Shrines” now refers to the places in Shíráz where the Báb was born and where He made His public declaration.
Harati
Harátí
from Herat, Írán
Harawi
Harawí
of Herat
Harb
Ḥarb
war, warfare, battle, conflict;   an enemy;   a proper name
Harf-i-Baqa
Ḥarf-i-Baqá
“Letter of Eternity”
Harf, Hiraf, Huruf, Ahruf
Ḥarf, pl. Ḥiraf, ḥurúf, aḥruf
(cutting) edge (of a knife, of a sword);   sharp edge;   border, edge, rim, brink, verge;   (pl. ḥurúf, aḥruf) letter;   consonant;   particle (grammar);   type (typography)
Hargah (Har-gah)
Hargáh
Pers.   whenever, wherever;   constantly
Harir, Hara'ir
Ḥarír, pl. Ḥará’ir
silk;—pl. silken wares, silks
Hariri
Ḥarírí
silken, silky, of silk.   Abú Muḥammad al-Qásim ibn ‘Alí ibn Muḥammad ibn Uthmán al-Ḥarírí, popularly known as al-Hariri of Basra (1054–1122) was an Arab poet, scholar of the Arabic language and a high government official of the Seljuk Empire.
Harith (Haritha(h)), Hurrath
Ḥárith, pl. Ḥurráth
ploughman, cultivator, farmer.   Banú al-Ḥárith Jewish tribe of Arabia.   Naḍr-ibn-i-Ḥárith: religious leader during the time of Muḥammad.   Zayd ibn Ḥáritha(h) (c. ce 581–629) a companion of Muḥammad and adopted as his son. He is the only Muslim apart from Muḥammad who is mentioned by name (as Zayd) in the Qur'án (33:37).
Harj
Harj
excitement, agitation, commotion;   disorder, muddle, confusion.   Harj can be interpreted as “killing”.
Harran, Harra, Hirar, Harara
Ḥarrán, fem. Ḥarrá, pl. Ḥirár, Ḥarárá
thirsty;   passionate, fervent, hot (figurative).   Ḥarrán was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia (now Turkey), 40 km SE of Şanlıurfa and 100 km north of ar-Raqqah (Syria).
Harun
Hárún
Aaron;   chief, leader;   a messenger, courier;   helplessness, indigence;   astonishment;   amazement
Harun-Abad
Hárún-Ábád
now Islám-Ábád-i-Gharb, Írán
Harunu'r-Rashid
Hárúnu’r-Rashíd
Aaron the Just.   Fifth Abbasid Caliph
Harut
Hárút
name of an angel, who, together with another named Márút (Qur’án 2:102), having severely censured mankind before the throne of God, was sent with him down to earth in human shapes to judge of the temptations to which man is subject. They could not withstand them: they were seduced by women, and committed every kind of iniquity; for which they were suspended by the feet in a well in Babylon, where they are to remain in great torment till the day of judgement. They are said to be teachers of magic to man.   See Márút
Hasan-'Ali
Ḥasan-‘Alí
Hasan-'Amu Murtada
Ḥasan-‘Amú Murtaḍá
(MF)
Hasan-Abad (Hasanabad)
Ḥasan Ábád
an old and historical area to the north side of Ṭihrán
Hasan-i-'Ammu
Ḥasan-i-‘Ammú
Hasan-i-Hakim-Bashi
Ḥasan-i-Ḥakím-Báshí
Hasan-i-Khurasani
Ḥasan-i-Khurásání
Hasan-i-Mazindarani
Ḥasan-i-Mázindarání
Hasan-i-Niku
Ḥasan-i-Níkú
Hasan-i-Safa
Ḥasan-i-Ṣafá
Hasan-i-Vazir
Ḥasan-i-Vazír
Hasan-i-Zunuzi
Ḥasan-i-Zunúzí
Hasan, Hisan
Ḥasan, pl. Ḥisán
beautiful, handsome, lovely;   pretty, nice;   good, agreeable;   excellent, superior, exquisite.   Ḥasan is the name of the second Imám.
Hasana, Husn
Ḥasana (Ḥusn)
to be handsome, beautiful, lovely, nice, fine, good;   to be expedient, advisable, suitable, proper, fitting;   to be in a proper state, be in a desirable condition
Hasani
Ḥasaní
of Ḥasaní, descendant of Ḥasan
Hasanzadih-Shakiri
Ḥasanzádih-Shákirí
(Ḥasan-i-Zádih-Shákirí)
Hashara, Hashr
Ḥashara, Ḥashr
1. to gather, assemble, rally (people), raising from the dead;   to cram, crowd, pack, jam (together);   to squeeze, press, force, stuff.
2. migration, evacuation, exile.
Hashim
shim
breaker of bread into a broth; surname of an ancestor (Háshim ibn 'Abd Manáf al-Mughírah, great grandfather?) of Muḥammad, on account of his providing broth to the poor at the time of a great famine.The Baní-Háshim were Muḥammad’s ancestors, a tribal group in southern Arabia.   From ‘hashama’, “to destroy or smash to pieces”.
Hashimi, Hashimite
shimí
Hashemite, member of the Baní-Háshim
Hashish, Hasha'ish
Ḥashísh, pl. Ḥashá’ish
herbs, grasses;   weeds;   hay;   hemp (Cannabis sativa), hashish, cannabis;   stillborn child.   Known by many names in Persia: ‘Parrot of all mysteries’, or plain ‘Mysteries’; or ‘Secrets’, or ‘Master Siyyid’—it being green, and the Siyyids, descendants of the Prophet, wear a turban as green as parrot feathers. (An ode of Ḥáfiẓ which must have puzzled translators is addressed to hashish and begins, ‘O thou parrot, speaker of secrets, may thy beak never lack for sugar!’) Summon up remembrance, p. 87.
Hashiya, Hawashin
Ḥashiya, pl. Ḥawashin
border;   seam, hem;   edge;   margin (of a book);   marginal gives;   marginal notes;   commentary on certain words and passages of a book, supercommentary;   footnote;   postscript;   retinue, entourage, suite, servants;   dependents;—pl. critical apparatus
Hashshash, Hashshashun (Hashshashin)
Ḥashshásh, pl. Ḥashsháshún
smoker or chewer of hashish, hashish addict.   Assassins (Ḥashsháshín, from Assassiyun—“those faithful to the foundation”) is a name used to refer to medieval Nizárí (an-Nizáriyyún) Ismailis (Ismá‘íliyyún).
Hasht
Hasht
eight
Hasht Bihisht
Hasht Bihisht
The eight paradises by Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Rúḥí
Hasib, Husaba'
Ḥasíb, pl. Ḥusabá
respected, esteemed;   noble, of noble birth, highborn.   Also a revenger or resenter of an injury;   a reckoner (al-Ḥasíb a name of God).
Hast
Hast
Pers.   is, exists, remains;   existence, being.   hastam (I am), hastí (you are), hast (he, she, it is), hastím (we are), hastíd (you are), hastand (they are)
Hasur
Ḥaṣúr
Pers.   close, avaricious
Hasuri
Ḥaṣúrí
Rúḥu’lláh Ḥaṣúrí
Hatif, Hawatif
Hátif, pl. Hawátif
shouting, calling loudly;   (in earlier Sufism) invisible caller, voice;—pl. telephone;   loudspeaker;   exclamations, shouts, cries, calls
Hatim at-Ta'i, Hatim-i-Ta'i
Ḥátim aṭ-Ṭá’í, Pers. Ḥátim-i-Ṭá’í
Arab poet known for his generosity/liberality.   Also transcripted as Ḥátim al-Ṭáyy (“Hatim al-Tai” or “Hatim al-Taaey”), Ḥátim of the Ṭáyy or Ṭá’í tribe, but formally Ḥátim bin ‘Abdu’lláh bin Sa‘d aṭ-Ṭá’iyy.   The nisba (patronymic) of Ṭayy is aṭ-Ṭá’í.
Hatim, Hatam
Ḥátim, Pers. Ḥátam
Who or what renders necessary;   one who decrees, ordains or pronounces judgement;   a judge;   a black crow, “the raven of separation”;   name of a man of the Arabian tribe Tayy, celebrated for his liberality
Hatta
Ḥattá
(preposition) until, till, up to, as far as;   (conjugated with perfect) until, so that;   (with subjunctive) until, that, so that, in order that
Hattab
Ḥaṭṭáb
wood gatherer;   wood-cutter, lumberjack;   vendor of firewood
Hawdaj (Haudaj)
Hawdaj, pl. Hawádij
camel litter, howdah;   sedan chair, litter.   Carried by a camel, mule, horse or elephant for travelling purposes.
Hawl (Haul), Ahwal, Hu'ul
Hawl, pl. Ahwál, Hu’úl
terror, fright, alarm, shook, horror, dismay; power
Hawran, Hauran, Houran
Ḥawrán
the Hauran, a mountainous plateau in SW Syria and N Jordan.   The Druze of the area.
Haww
Ḥawwá’
Eve
Hayat
Ḥayát
Life, existence
Hayat-Quli Khan
Ḥayát-Qulí Khán
Governor of Karand and a member of the ‘Alíyu’lláhís, a sect that equates Imám ‘Alí with God.
Hayawan, Hayawanat
Ḥayawán, pl. Ḥayawánát
animal, beast;   (collectively) animals, living creatures
Haydar
Ḥaydar
Pers.   a lion;   a proper name
Haydar-'Ali
Ḥaydar-‘Alí, Ḥájí Mírzá
Born into Shaykhí family of Iṣfahán
Haydari
Ḥaydarí
Hayf (Haif)
Ḥayf
(pun on the name Haifa)   Pers.   practising injustice;   injustice, violence, oppression;   revenge;   a pity;   alas! what a pity
Hayfa' (Haifa')
Ḥayfá’
Haifa.   Heb. Hefa or Hepha
Haykal (Haikal), Hayakil
Haykal, pl. Hayákil
temple;   large building, edifice;   altar;   skeleton;   framework (of a structure), frame;   chassis (of an automobile);   colossal, gigantic, huge.   A broader definition given by Steingass: a figure, image, face, form, stature or shape of the body;   a long or tall horse;   anything large-sized;   a giant;   a tall plant;   a temple of idolaters;   a palace, stately edifice;   a Christian church;   a monastery;   an amulet or talisman inscribed with magic figures, hung round the body, as a defence against fascination or misfortune.
Haykalu't-tawhid
Haykalu’t-tawḥíd
“posture of unity”, or freely translated as cross-legged
Haytham (Haitham)
Haytham
young eagle.   Abú ‘Alí al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham (c.  965–c.  1040), Muslim Arab scientist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher.
Hayy
Ḥayy, pl. Aḥyá’
living, live, alive;   lively, lusty, animated, active, energetic, unbroken, undaunted, undismayed;   living being, organism;   tribe, tribal community;   block of apartment houses;   section, quarter (of a city).   al-Ḥayy, divine name the Ever-Living
Hayya
Ḥayya
to live to see, experience, witness (something), live (through a time)
Hayyan
Ḥayyán
lively, energetic.   Abú Músá Jábir ibn Hayyán (Geber)
Hazar (Hizar)
Hazár
Pers.   a thousand;   a bird called the thousand voices, having an uncommon variety of melodious notes, a species of nightingale;   a term employed in the game of nard
Hazir, Haziran
Ḥáẓir, pl. Ḥáẓirán
present, at hand, ready, prepared;   at the service of, willing, content;   (in grammar) the present tense;   the second person;   a large tribe;—pl. the people present, the audience.   See ḥáḍir
Hazira, Haza'ir
Ḥaẓírá, pl. Ḥaẓa’ir
enclosure, railing, fence, palisade, hedge;   compound, yard, pound, pinfold;   corral, pen, paddock, coop;   hangar, shed;   field, domain, realm (figurative)
Hazirat
Ḥaẓírat
Pers.   a city, a fixed residence
Haziratu'l-Quds
Ḥaẓíratu’l-Quds
the Sacred Fold or Paradise.   Title (sometimes shortened to Ḥaẓíra) given to Bahá’í administrative headquarters owned by the Bahá’ís—local, regional and national. If rented it is a Bahá’í Centre.
Hiba, Hibat
Hiba(t), pl. Hibát
gift, present, donation, grant
Hibatu'llah
Hibatu’lláh
gift from God
Hibb, Ahbab
Ḥibb, pl. Aḥbáb
darling, dear, dearest (one)
Hidayat (Hedayat)
Hidáya(t)
guidance, showing the way and guiding in the right path to the goal of perfection
Hidayatu'llah
Hidáyatu’lláh
Guidance of God
Hifz
Ḥifẓ
preservation;   maintenance, sustentation, conservation, upholding;   protection, defence, guarding;   custody, safekeeping, keeping, storage;   retention;   observance, compliance (with);   memorizing, memorization;   memory;   (jurisprudence) discontinuance, stay, suspension (of legal action, of a judicial investigation)
Hija’i
Hijá’í
alphabetical;   satiric.   Modern dictionaries and other reference books use the hijá’í order wherein the Arabic letters are partially grouped together by similarity of shape.
Hijab
Ḥijáb, pl. Ḥujub, Aḥjiba
cover, wrap, drape;   curtain;   woman’s veil;   screen, partition, folding screen;   barrier, bar;   diaphragm.   A veil that covers the head and chest.
Hijaz
Ḥijáz
prohibiting, keeping asunder;   a barrier, or anything similar, by which two things are separated;   a rope;   one of the principal musical modes or styles of the Persians.   al-ḥijáz (Hejaz) is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia. It is bordered on the west by the Red Sea, on the north by Jordan, on the east by Najd, and on the south by Asir.
Hijr
Ḥijr
forbidden, interdicted, prohibited;   northern wall of the Ka‘ba;   lap; mare.   Name of chapter 15 of the Qur’án (from 15:80, which refers to the rocky country of the Thamúd tribe to the north of al-Madínah) and translated as “rocky tract”.
Hijra
Hijra(h)
departure, exit;   emigration, exodus;   immigration to;   al-Hijra (the Hegira), the emigration of the Prophet Muḥammad from Mecca to Medina in AD 622 and start of Islamic calendar (assumed to be 15 July 622).
Hijri
Hijrí
of the Hegira pertaining to Muḥammad’s emigration in ad 622.   A year (sana) of the Hegira, a year of the Muslim era (beginning with Muḥammad’s emigration.   Muslim lunar calendar.
Hijriya
Hijríya
Muslim era, after the Hegira, until the end of the time of the Imams in ad 873 (ah 260), i.e. 260 years
Hikaya, Hikayat
Ḥikáya, pl. Ḥikáyát
story, tale, narrative, account;   (grammar) literal quotation (of the words of others)
Hikma
Ḥikma(t), pl. Ḥikam
prudence and wisdom, philosophy
Hikmat-i-Ishraqi
Ḥikmat-i-Ishráqí
(Hekmat-i-Eshrakieh)—a system of old philosophies
Hila, Hiyal, Ahayil
Ḥíla, pl. Ḥiyal, Aḥáyíl
artifice, ruse, stratagem, manoeuver, subterfuge, wile, trick;   device, shift;   a means to accomplish an end;   expedient, makeshift, dodge, way-out;   legal stratagem (for the purpose of in fraudem legis agere (in circumvention of the rules of law)
Hilal, Ahilla, Ahalil
Hilál, pl. Ahilla, Ahálíl
new moon;   half-moon, crescent;   parenthesis;   any crescent-shaped object
Hill
Ḥill
Pers.   being lawful;   a lawful thing;   the dissolution of an oath;   doffing the pilgrim's garb;   a butt or mark for archers
Hill, Hillin
Ḥill, Ḥillin
he was free to …, he was at liberty to …;   he had free disposal of ….   The unprotected area (outside the Sanctuary) and the unprotected months.   Compare with Ḥaram.
Hillah, Hilla, Hillih
Ḥillah or Ḥilla, Pers. Ḥillih
A city in central ‘Iráq on the river Euphrates, 100 km south of Baghdád
Hilm, Hulum, Ahlam
Ḥilm, pl. Ḥulúm, Aḥlám
gentleness, clemency, mildness;   forbearance, indulgence;   patience;   insight, discernment, understanding, intelligence, reason
Hilmi
Ḥilmí
Himar, Hamir, Humur, Ahmira
Ḥimár, pl. Ḥimár, Ḥamír, Ḥumur, Aḥmira
donkey, ass
Himma, Himam
Himma, pl. Himam
endeavor, ambition
Himmat-Abad
Himmat-Ábád
city in Raḍawí Khurásán Ústán Province, Írán
Hims
Ḥimṣ
Homs, city in Syria 140 km north of Damascus. Previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek).
Himyar
Ḥimyar
place and tribe of Yemen (Himyartes)
Himyari
Ḥimyarí
of Ḥimyar.   Ḥarbí al-Ḥimyarí was an Arab scholar from Yemen
Hin, Ahyan, Ahayin
Ḥín, pl. Aḥyán, Aḥáyín
time;   propitious time, good time, opportunity.   Abjad value of ḥín is 68. Hence, the “year of Ḥín” refers to ah 1268 or ad 1851–52.   Hin is an ancient Hebrew liquid measurement (mentioned in the Bible) of 3.8 to 6 litres.
Hind, Hindat
Hind, pl. Hindát
India;   the (East) Indians;   fem. name (in particular Hind bint ‘Utbah, a wife of Abú Sufyán, and the mother of Mu‘áwiyah I)
Hindi, Hunud
Hindí, pl. Hunúd
Ar.   Indian
Hindiya (Hindiyyih)
al-Hindiya(h) (Pers. Hindíyyih
1. city (on the Euphrates River, 20 km se Karbilá) and district in the Karbilá Governorate. The city used to be known as Ṭuwaíríj.
2. Saddat al-Hindíya(h) is a city on the Euphrates River in Iraq, 25 km ne of Karbilá and 8 km south of Musayyib (المسيب). Name derived from the Arabic word for “Indian”, in reference to the dozens of Indian manual labourers imported to the area by the British post World War i, to work on the cities vast agricultural lands.
Hindiyan (Hindian, Hinijan)
Hindíyán (Hindíján)
(Hendijan, Hendian) a city in and the capital of Hendijan County, Khuzestan Province, sw Írán
Hindu, Hinduwan
Hindú, pl. Hinduwán
(Pers.)   Indian;   black;   servant;   slave;   robber;   infidel;   watch-man
Hindustan
Hindústán
Pers.   India
Hiqf, Ahqaf
Ḥiqf, pl. Aḥqáf
wavy heap of sand;—pl. hills of sand extending a great way; name of a large district in Arabia formerly inhabited by the people of ‘Ád. Qur’án 46: al-Aḥqáf “The Wind-curved Sand Hills” or “The Winding Sand-tracts”
Hira
Ḥirá’
Ghár Ḥirá’ (the Cave of Hira) is located on the western side of Jabal Ḥirá’ (Mount Hira), which is on the north side of Mecca. The mountain was renamed Jabal al-Núr (Mountain of Light) after Muḥammad’s revelation in the cave.
Hirah, Hirih
Ḥíra(h), Ḥíri(h)
al-Ḥírah was an ancient city in Mesopotamia located south of what is now al-Kúfah
Hirat
Hirát
Herat, Afghánistán
Hirawi
Hirawí
Pers.   a native of Herat
Hirbud
Hirbúd
[Herbod or Herbud]—the mystics and holy people
Hirman
Ḥirmán
deprivation, bereavement, dispossession (of someone, of something) debarment, exclusion, preclusion (from);   excommunication (Christian);   privation
Hisab, Hisabat
Ḥisáb, pl. Ḥisábát
arithmetic, reckoning, calculus;   computation;   calculation, estimation, appraisal;   accounting, settlement;   consideration;   caution;— (pl.) bill, invoice;   statement of costs (bank) account
Hisami
Ḥisámí
Hisan, Husan, Ahsina
Ḥiṣán, pl. Ḥuṣun, Aḥsina
horse;   stallion;   Ḥiṣán al-baḥr: hippopotamus (Ancient Greek, Hippos, Aramaic, Sussita, names of ancient city east side Sea of Galilee)
Hisar
Ḥiṣár
block, blockage, barrier;   blockade;   siege.   A town in Khurásán province.
Hisham
Hishám
Pers.   beneficence, liberality.   Hishám ibn ‘Abdu’l-Malik, 10th Umayyad Caliph
Hishmat
Ḥishmat
decorum, chastity, bashful, modesty (fem.)
Hishmatu'd-Dawlih
Ḥishmatu’d-Dawlih
Hishmatu'llah
Ḥishmatu’lláh
“chaste one of God”
Hisn, Husun
Ḥiṣn, pl. Ḥuṣún
fortress, fort, castle, citadel, stronghold;   fortification, entrenchment;   protection
Hitta
Ḥiṭṭa
alleviation, relief, mitigation;   abasement, debasement, demotion, degradation (in rank, dignity, prestige);   humiliation, insult, indignity
Hizam, Hizamat, Ahzima, Huzum
Ḥizám, pl. Ḥizámát, Aḥzima, Ḥuzum
belt, girth;   girdle;   cummerbund, waistband (worn over the caftan to fasten it);   sword belt
Hizar
Hizár
Ar.   joking, jesting, fun-making.   Used in Persian with the same meaning as Hazár
Hizar Dastan
Hizár Dastán
Pers.   “thousand songs”
Hizavih
Hizávih
village <20 km NW of Arák (Sulṭán Ábád), Írán
Hizb, Ahzab
Ḥizb, pl. Aḥzab
group, troop, band, cohort, gang;   associates, auxiliaries, confederates;   arms, armour;   party (politics);   a 60th part of the Qur’án
Hizbu'llah
Ḥizbu’lláh
“Party of God” (Hezbullah)
Hizqil
Ḥizqíl
Pers.   Ezekiel
Hubal (Hobal)
Hubal
a god worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia, notably by Quraysh at the Ka‘bah in Mecca. His idol was a human figure, believed to control acts of divination, which was in the form of tossing arrows before the statue. The direction in which the arrows pointed answered questions asked of the idol.
Hubb
Ḥubb
love;   affection, attachment
Hubbu’llah
Ḥubbu’lláh
Love of God
Hubur
Ḥubúr
joy.   Ḥubúr (Hobour) Khánum
Hud
Húd
A prophet sent to the tribe of ‘Ád.   He is a descendent of Noah.
Hudaybiyyah
Ḥudaybiyyah
Truce of al-Ḥudaybiyyah, in ah 6 (ad 628), at Ḥudaybiyyah spring about 20 km west of Mecca on the Old Mecca-Jiddah Road.   The ruins of the old mosque marking the site is at 21.441960, 39.625601.
Huduri
Ḥuḍúrí
ḥuḍúrí (presence of) aḥkám (judgements)—judgements delivered in the presence of the litigant parties after oral proceedings.   Imám’s knowledge is inspired since it is obtained “in the presence of” (ḥuḍúrí) God.
Huduth
Ḥudúth
setting in (of a state or condition), occurrence, incidence (of a phenomenon);   occurrence, incident, happening.   “originated nature”—contrast with Imkán (Gate of the heart, p. 189)
Hujaja'l Bahiayyih
Ḥújaja’l-Bahá’íyyih
“Ḥujaja’l-Bahíyyih”, The Bahá’í Proofs by Mírzá Abu’l-Faḍl
Hujja
Ḥujja(h or t), pl. Ḥújaj
argument;   pretense, pretext, plea;   proof, evidence;   document, writ, deed, record;   authority.   A term used in Shí‘í terminology meaning “proof [implied: proof of God]”. It is usually used to refer to a single individual in any given human era who represents God’s “proof” to humanity.   The ḥujja is a prophet or an Imám who possess a relationship with God that is greater than anyone else.   “Ḥujahs” in The Promised Day is Come, p. 97 should be Ḥújaj.
Hujja ala al-kull
ḥujja alá al-kull
“proof for all”.   The Báb’s praise for Qurratu’l-‘Ayn
Hujjat'u'llah
Ḥujjat’u’lláh
the proof of God.   The last Imám is known as the Proof of God.   Title given to an aspiring mujtahid.
Hujjatiya (Hojjatieh)
Ḥujjatíya(h)
Ánjuman Khayríya Ḥujjatíyah Mahdíyah (“Charitable Society of Allah’s Proof Over Creation”).   The Hojjatieh Society was (1953–1983) a traditionalist Iranian Shí‘a lay religious organization that promoted orthodoxy through non-violent evangelism. It aimed to counter the proofs offered by the Bahá’í Faith.
Hujjatu'l-Islam
Ḥujjatu’l-Islám
Proof of Islám.   Mullá Muḥammad-‘Alí of Zanján was called Ḥujjatu’l-Islám. The Báb called him Ḥujjatu’l-Zanjání.
Hujr, Hajara, Hijr, Hujr, Hijran, Hujran
Ḥujr, Ḥajara
to deny access   (Ḥajr, Ḥijr, Ḥujr, Ḥijrán, Ḥujrán)
Hujra, Hujarat, Hujar
Ḥujra, pl. Ḥujarát, Ḥujar
Ar.   room;   cell;   (railroad) compartment;   chamber
Hujrat (Hujrih), Hujra, Hujarat
Ḥujrat, Ḥujra, pl. Ḥujarát
Pers.   a chamber, closet, cell;   a box in a theatre, circus
Hukm, Ahkam
Ḥukm, Aḥkám
judgement, valuation, opinion;   decision, (legal) judgement, verdict, sentence;   condemnation, conviction;   administration of justice;   jurisdiction, legal consequence of the facts of a case (Islamic Law);   regulation, rule, provision, order, ordinance, decree;   judiciousness, wisdom, judgeship, command, authority, control, dominion, power;   government, regime;—pl. statutes, by-laws, regulations, rules, provisions, stipulations, principles, precepts
Hukuma, Hukumat
Ḥukúma(t), pl. Ḥukúmát
government
Hulul
Ḥulúl
stopping, putting up, staying;   descending, coming on, befalling, overtaking;   incarnation;   setting in, advent, arrival (of a time, of a deadline), beginning, dawn;   substitution (for someone).   In the sense of incarnation: the descent of God or the spirit of God into a person.
Huma (Homa)
Humá
Pers.   a bird of Eastern fable, supposed to fly constantly in the air without touching the ground, and looked upon as a bird of happy omen, prognosticating a crown to every head it overshades;   a bird of paradise, phœnix, large royal eagle, or pelican.   Fem. name.
Humay
Humáy
Pers.   a queen of Persia, grandmother to Dáráb II;   name of a sister of Isfandyár;   name of a daughter of Bahman;   name of a daughter of the Emperor of Constantinople married to Bahrám Gúr;   name of the lover of Humáyún;   a standard bearing a figure of the bird humá.
Humayun
Humáyún
Pers.   blessed, sacred, fortunate, august, royal, imperial;   name of several kings;   name of the mistress of Humáy
Humazatun (Humazah)
Humazatun (Humazah)
one given to backbiting, defamer, slander-monger
Hums
Ḥums
al-Ḥums is the name traditionally given to the inhabitants of the ḥaram of Mecca at the time of Muḥammad’s appearance, in so far as they were distinguished by special customs during the iḥrám from the other tribes who were together known as al-Ḥilla.
Hunar
Hunar
Pers.   skill, science, knowledge, ingenuity, art, industry, excellence, virtue;   profession;   a bill of exchange
Hunayn (Hunain)
Ḥunayn
Battle of Ḥunayn (Qur’án 9:25) in a valley between Mecca and the city of Ṭá’if to the east of Mecca
Huquq
Ḥuqúq
rights
Huququ'llah
Ḥaqqu’lláh (sing.), Ḥuqúqu’lláh
“Right(s) of God”
Hur-i-'Ujab
Ḥúr-i-‘Ujáb
“The Wondrous Maiden” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Hur, Huran
Ḥúr (originally pl., also used as sing.)
Pers.   virgins or a virgin of Paradise, houri;—pl. ḥúr and ḥúrán
Hurayra (Huraira), Hurayrih
Hurayra(h), Pers. also Hurayrih
a little cat or kitten.   Spelling variations of i or y, and endings of “ah” or “ih”.   Surname given to Abú Hurayrih ‘Abdu’r-Raḥmán bin Sakhr (a companion of Muḥammad) because of the favourite kitten he used to carry around with him.   A village about 24 km nw of central Damascus, Syria.
Huriya, Huriyat, Hur
Ḥúríya, pl. Ḥúríyát, Ḥúr
houri, virgin of paradise;   nymph;   young locust.   Ḥúrí (adjective) (literally, white one)
Hurmuduk (Hurmuzak)
Húrmudúk
Hormodok, small village 55 km SW of Yazd. 5.5 km by road from the village of Sakhvíd (Sakhoid) (to the NW)
Hurmuz (Hormuz), Hurmuzd (Hormuzd)
Hurmúz, Hurmúzd
Pers.   name of an angel;   the first day of the solar month;   the planet Jupiter;   name of the grandson of Isfandíyár;   Strait of Hurmúz (Tang-i-Hurmúz) between Írán and Oman
Hurmuzan (Hormuzan, Hormazdan)
Hurmuzán
was an Iranian aristocrat who served as the governor of Khuzestan, and was one of the Sasanian military officers at the Battle of al-Qádisiyyah. He was later taken prisoner by the Muslims after the fall of Shúshtar in 642.
Hurqalya, Havarqalya
Húrqalyá, Havarqalyá (speculative Pers.)
intermediary world between the physical and spiritual worlds. Everything in the physical world has its counterpart in the world of Húrqalyá. Each individual human being has two bodies, one of which exists in the physical world and one in Húrqalyá. The occulted but living twelfth Imám and the cities of Jábulsá and Jábulqá, where he is supposed to live, all exist in the realm of Húrqalyá.   Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Moojan Momen, p. 227.   From Hebrew רָקִיעַ (firmament, sky, ductile, heaven, expanse, canopy).   See www.scribd.com/document/ 21263244/HURQALYA-HAVARQALYA and The development of Shaykhí thought in Shí‘í Islam, pp. 106–7.
Hurr, Ahrar, Hara'ir
Ḥurr, pl. m. Aḥrár, f. Ḥará’ir
noble, free-born;   genuine (jewels, etc.), pure, unadulterated;   free; living in freedom;   freeman;   independent;   free unrestrained;   liberal
Hurriya al-'Ibada
Ḥurriya al-‘Ibada
freedom of worship
Hurriya al-Fikr
Ḥurriya al-Fikr
freedom of thought
Hurriya al-Kalam
Ḥurriya al-Kalam
freedom of speech
Hurriya an-Naṣr
Ḥurriya an-Naṣr
liberty of the press
Hurriya, Huriyat
Ḥurriya, Per. Ḥurriyyah, pl. Ḥurriyát
freedom, liberty;   independence, unrestraint, license (e.g., poetic)
Huruf-i-Hayy
Ḥurúf-i-Ḥayy
Letters of the Living.   See Ḥarf and Sábiq
Hurufat-i-'Alin
Ḥurúfát-i-‘Álín
The Exalted letters (by Bahá’u’lláh).   See Ḥarf
Hurufi
Ḥurúfí
“letters”   a relator of traditions, a traditionist (not Ḥurúfís, MCI, p. 403).   See singular Ḥarf
Hurufiyyya
Ḥurúfiyyya
Hurufism, Sufi doctrine
Husam (Hisam)
Ḥusám (Ḥisám)
(sharp) sword, sword edge
Husam-i-Din, Hisam-i-Din
Ḥusám-i-Dín (Ḥisám-i-Dín)
sword of faith
Husamu's-Sultani, Hisamu's-Saltanih
Ḥusámu’s-Sulṭaní (Ḥisámu’s-Salṭanih)
(“Sword of the sovereign”)   Title of Prince Sulṭán Murád Mírzá, son of ‘Abbás Mírzá and grandson of Fatḥ-‘Alí Sháh
Husayn
Ḥusayn
(Diminutive form of Haṣan “Good”)   Name of the third Imám, Ḥusayn.
Husayn-'Ali
Ḥusayn-‘Alí
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Isfahani
Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Iṣfahání
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Jahrumi
Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Jahrúmí
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Nur
Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Núr
(GPB p. 338)
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Nuri
Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Núrí
Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Núrí, Mírzá   Bahá’u’lláh
Husayn-Abad
Ḥusayn-Ábád
Husayn-Aqa
Ḥusayn-Áqá
(MF)
Husayn-Aqay-i-Tabrizi
Ḥusayn-Áqáy-i-Tabrízí
(MF)
Husayn-i-Ashchi
Ḥusayn-i-Áshchí
Husayn-i-Bushru'i
Ḥusayn-i-Bushrú’í
Muḥammad-Ḥusayn-i-Bushrú’í, Mullá   From Bushrúyih, Khurásán
Husayn-i-Kashani
Ḥusayn-i-Káshání
Husayn-i-Kashi
Ḥusayn-i-Káshí
Husayn-i-Shiraziy-i-Khurtumi
Ḥusayn-i-Shírázíy-i-Khurṭúmí
Husayn-i-Turshizi
Ḥusayn-i-Turshízí
Husayn-i-Yazdi
Ḥusayn-i-Yazdí
Husayn-ibn-Ruh
Ḥusayn-ibn-Rúḥ
(one of “Four Gates”)
Husayn-Khan
Ḥusayn-Khán
(the Mushiru’d-Dawlih)
Husayni
Ḥusayní
of Ḥusayn
Husayniyyih
Ḥusayníyyih
In Shí’ih Islám, a place used to mourn the death of Imám Ḥusayn
Husban
Ḥusbán
calculation, reckoning, accounting;   computation.   bi-Ḥuṣbán “By final calculation”
Hushang (Hoshang)
Húshang
Pers.   name of the second king of Persia, of the Peshdadian dynasty;   wisdom, prudence, intellect.   “The first emanation, intelligence”
Hushidar, Hoshidar
Hushidár
One who increases holiness or promotes righeousness;   name of a future saviour.   Zoroastrian origin.
Hushmand
shmand
Pers.   wise
Husn
Ḥusn
beauty, handsomeness, prettiness, loveliness;   excellence, superiority, perfection
Husn al-Madkhal
Ḥusn al-Madkhal
good manners, good conduct
Husni-Farang
Ḥusní-Farang
Pers.   white, as the complexion of Europeans
Husniyya, Husniyyih
Ḥusniyya(h) fem. , Pers. Ḥusníyyih
possessing beauty
Huss
Ḥuṡṣ
saffron.   See za‘farán
Huwa (Pers. Huva)
Huwa
he; it (3rd pers. m. sing. of the pers. pronoun); God (or “the Most Great Name of God” according to the Báb). Huwa (“he” or “he is”) in the context of “‘He is’ God” is often incorrectly understood (as in the definition) to be the name of God. In the Bible it is represented in Hebrew by the tetragrammaton “yhwh”, sometimes pronounced as Yahweh. However, the Jews were forbidden to utter the name of God, and as ancient Hebrew script did not use vowels, it is not known how yhwh would have been pronounced, if it was permitted. If we say “yá huwa” in Arabic in reference to God, it means “O He is …”. Since Hebrew and Arabic are sister languages, it is not surprising that “yá huwa” sounds like Yahweh, which has commonly been represented by Jehovah. (In some European languages the “J” is pronounced as “Y”, “V” as “U”, and “W” as “UU”.) See note under Bahá’.
Huwa'llah
Huwa’lláh
He is God (huwa+ Alláh). Hence, defining Huwa as “God” gives “God God”???
Huwaydar, Huvaydar
Huwaydar, Pers. Huvaydar
village north of the city Ba‘qúba, which is 60 km NE of Baghdád
Huwiya (Pers. Huwiyyat, Huviyyat)
Huwíya(h) or Huwíya(t), Pers. Huwíyyah
essence, nature;   coessentiality, consubstantiality;   identity;   identity card.   “Essence of Divinity”
Huzn, Hazan, Ahzan
Ḥuzn, Pers. Ḥazan, pl. Aḥzán
grief, sadness, affliction, sorrow
Top -s ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic attributes (“names”) of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots · Underscores · Vowel sounds · Word transcription macros
Plain text
Transcripted text
Word meanings & comments
I
-i-
-i-
Pers.   sound inserted in pronunciation (not represented in Persian script) at the end of a word to indicate that the following words stands in a possessive or adjectival relation to it
I'tidal
I‘tidál
moderation
I'jaz
I‘jáz
inimitability, wondrous nature (of the Qur’án—I‘jáz al-Qur’án).   See ahdá
I'qilhá wa tawakkal
I‘qilhá wa tawakkal
Tie up (your camel) and trust (in God)—in Tirmidhi’s collection of traditions
I'rab
I‘ráb
literally “making the [word] Arabic” or “making a thing expressed, disclosed or eloquent” (variation IV of ‘Arab) manifestation, declaration, proclamation, pronouncement, utterance;   speaking, reasoning in Arabic;   using shameful, indecent, and obscene language;   inflecting, declining an Arabic noun or verb;   the vowels and diacritical points in Arabic
I’tikaf
I‘tikáf
continuing in prayer, remaining constantly in the mosque;   retirement, seclusion (in a place of worship);   restraining one’s passions from religious motives;   constant devotions.
I'timad, I'timadat
I‘timád, pl. I‘timádát
reliance, dependence (on), confidence, trust (in);   confirmation;   sanction, approbation, authorization;   accreditation (of diplomats);   (pl.) credit, loan
I'timadu’d-Dawlih
I‘timádu’d-Dawlih
I'timadu’t-Tujjar
I‘timádu’t-Tujjár
I'tiqad, I'taqadat
I‘tiqád, pl. I‘tiqádát
(firm) belief, faith, trust, confidence, conviction;—pl. (religious) creed, faith;   article of faith;   principle of faith, tenet;   doctrine;   dogma
I’tiraf
I‘tiráf
recognition, acceptance;   acknowledgment, avowal, admission, confession;   (Christian) confession
Iahut
Iáhút
Ar.   Divinity;   the inward or eternal aspect of reality.
Ibada, 'Ibadat
‘Ibáda(t), pl. ‘Ibádát
worship, adoration, veneration;   devotional service, divine service (Christian);—pl. acts of devotion, religious observances (Islamic Law)
Ibadu'llah
‘Ibádu’lláh
worshippers of God
Ibaha, Ibahih
Ibáḥa(h), Pers. Ibáḥih
divulgence, disclosure (of a secret);   permission, authorization;   licentiousness.   “Permission” or abrogation of Islamic law on return of the Hidden Imám.
Ibda'
Ibdá‘
creation, fashioning, shaping;   a marvellous, unique achievement;   uniqueness, singularity, originality;   creative ability
Ibda’i
Ibdá‘í
romantic (literally)
Ibda'iya
Ibdá‘íya
romanticism (literally)
Ibdal
Ibdál
exchange, interchange, replacement (by), substitution (of);   change;   phonetic change.
Iblis, Abalisa
Iblís, pl. Abálisa
devil, Satan
Ibn, Abna', Banun, Bani, Banu
Ibn, (colloquial bin), pl. Abná’, Banún
son;   descendant, scion;   offspring, son (of a nation or people).   Plurals also baní and banú.
Ibna, Bint, Banat
Ibna (colloquial bint), pl. Banát
daughter;   bint girl;   ibna al-‘amm (female)
Ibnu'l-, Ibn-i-
Ibnu’l-, Pers. Ibn-i-
elided forms of ibn
Ibnu'l-Alusi
Ibnu’l-Álúsí
the chief jurisconsult [muftí] of Baghdád—one of the five sons of the famous Shaykh Maḥmúd al-Álúsí. Probably one of the three eldest: ‘Abdu’lláh, Bahá’u’d-Dín; ‘Abdu’l-Baqí‘; and Siyyid Na‘mán, Khayru'd-Dín.
Ibrahim
Ibráhím
(Abraham)   Patriarch of the people of Israel.
Ibrahim-i-Isfahani
Ibráhím-i-Iṣfahání
Ibrahim-i-Khalil
Ibráhím-i-Khalíl
Ibrahim-i-Khayru'llah
Ibráhím-i-Khayru’lláh
Syrian doctor, the first Bahá’í teacher in America, and later joined forces with Muḥammad-‘Ali, the half-brother of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. His English wife, Miriam, remained loyal to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and later they were divorced.   Refer to Balyuzi: Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá’í Faith, pp. 114–117.
Ibrani
Ibrání
Hebrew
Ibtihaj
Ibtiháj
joy, rejoicing, delight (at)
Ibtihaju'l-Mulk
Ibtiháju’l-Mulk
Ibtiháju’l-Mulk of Gílán
Id (Eid), 'Ayad
‘Íd, pl. ‘Ayád
anything which returns (of care, grief, or sickness);   a solemnity, feast, festival, holiday;—pl. manners, customs, habits
Id al-Adha
‘Íd al-Aḍḥá
the Feast of Immolation (see Aḍḥan), or Greater Bayrám, on the 10th of Dhu’l-Ḥijjih
Id al-Fitr
‘Íd al-Fiṭr
Feast of Breaking the Ramaḍán Feast, or Lesser Bayrám, celebrated on the 1st of Shawwál
Idafiya (Idafiyyah)
Iḍáfíya(h)
relativity or correlational (philosophical)
Idal
‘Idál
justice.   See ‘adl
Idbar
Idbár
flight, retreat;   “turn around”
Idda (‘Iddah, ‘Iddat)
‘Idda
number;   several, numerous, many.   ‘iddat, legally prescribed period of waiting during which a woman may not remarry after being widowed or divorced (Islamic Law)
Idha
Idhá
1. (introducing a nominal clause the subject of which may he expressed by ب ("b") with following genitive) and then, and all of a sudden;   (with noun in nominative case or with ب) there was … and all of a sudden there was …;
2. (conjunction) when;   if, whenever;   whether, if (introducing indirect questions)
Idhn
Idhn
permission, authorization
Idris
Idrís
Idris (Enoch)
Iflat
Iflát
(“Aflát”)   escape
Ifranj
al-Ifranj
Ar.   the Franks, the Europeans
Ifranji
Ifranjí
Ar.   European
Ifridaws
al-Ifrídaws
Garden of Innermost Paradise (Gate of the Heart 60)
Ihata
Iḥáṭa
encirclement, encompassment;   comprehension, grasp, understanding, knowledge, cognizance (of something), acquaintance, familiarity (with);   information, communication
Ihram
Iḥrám
state of ritual consecration of the Mecca pilgrim (during which the pilgrim, wearing two seamless woollen or linen sheets, usually white, neither combs nor shaves, and observes sexual continence);   garments of the Mecca pilgrim
Ihsan
Iḥsán
beneficence, charity, almsgiving, performance of good deeds
Ihsanu'llah
Iḥsánu’lláh
beneficence of God
Ihtiraq
Iḥtiráq
burning, combustion;   fire, conflagration
Ihtisham
Iḥtishám
being ashamed;   bashfulness, chastity, modesty, decency, decorum;   having many dependants, followers, or domestics;   pomp, retinue, magnificence, grandeur, state.   See Taḥashshum
Ihtisham al-Dawla, Ihtisham-i-Dawlih
Iḥtishám al-Dawla
Pers.   Iḥtishám-i-Dawlih.   A title.
Ihtiyaj, Ihtiyajat
Iḥtiyáj, pl. Iḥtiyáját
want, need, requirement, (pre)requisite, necessity;—pl. needs, necessities, necessaries
Ihtiyat, Ihtiyatat
Iḥtiyáṭ, pl. Iḥtiyáṭát
caution, cautiousness, prudence, circumspection, carefulness;   provision, care, attention, precaution, prevention;   (pl.) precautionary measures, precautions
Ihya'
Iḥyá’
animation, enlivening;   revival, revitalization, revivification;   arranging, staging, conducting, putting on, holding (of a celebration)
Ijad
Íjád
creation, procreation, production, origination;   procuring, procurement, furnishing, supply;   calculation, computation, evaluation
Ijadiyah (Ijadiyyah)
Íjádíya(h)
an islamic school of mystical philosophy—creationists or transcendentalists, who believe in a God separate from His creation
Ijaza (Ijazih), Ijazat
Ijáza(h), Pers. also Ijázih, pl. Ijázát
licence or diploma bestowed by higher-ranking members of the ulama on those deemed knowledgeable in particular aspects of Islamic sciences
Ijl, 'Ujul, 'Ijala
‘Ijl, pl. ‘Ujúl, ‘Ijala
calf (e.g. the golden calf, al-dhahabí al-‘ijl)
Ijma'
Ijmá‘
agreement, unanimity;   unanimous resolution;   (Isl. Law) consensus (of the authorities in a legal question;   one of the four uṣúl of Islamic Law)
Ijtihad
Ijtihád
effort, exertion, endeavour, pains, trouble;   application, industry, diligence;   (Islamic Law) independent judgement in a legal or theological question, based on the interpretation and application of the four uṣúl, as opposed to taqlíd;   individual judgement.   The power of a Shí‘ih divine to issue ex cathedra decrees and judgements.
Ijtima', Ijyima'at
Ijtimá‘, pl. Ijtimá‘át
meeting;   get-together, gathering, assembly;   reunion;   rally;   convention;   conjunction, constellation (astron.);   confluence (of rivers);   life in a social group, community life, social life
Ijtima'i
Ijtimá‘í
community, group (used attributively);   social;   socialist(ic);   sociological
Ikhlas
Ikhláṣ
sincerity or fidelity
Ikhtiyar, Ikhtiyarat
Ikhtiyár, pl. Ikhtiyárát
choice;   election (pl. also politics);   selection;   preference (to);   option;   free will (philosophy)
Ikram
Ikrám
honour, respect, deference, tribute;   hospitable reception, hospitality;   kindness;   honorarium
Iksir
Iksír
elixir, the philosopher's stone;   alchemy
Il-Khan
Íl-Khán
Pers.   a commander;   a title of the Mogul emperors
Il, Ilat
Íl, pl. Ílat
Pers.   tribe (especially nomadic)
Ilah, Ilaha, Aliha, Ilahat
Iláh, fem. Ilaha, pl. Áliha, fem. Ilahát
god, deity, godhead
Ilaha, Ilahat
Ilaha(t), pl. Ilahát
goddess
Ilahi
Iláhí
divine, of God;   theological.   Bashír-i-Iláhí
Ilahiya
Iláhíya(t)
divinity, deity, divine revelation;   theophany (Christian)
Ilahiyat
al-Iláhíyát
theological, spiritual concerns
Ilan
Ílán
a village 60 km NE of Qazvín and another 70 km SW Shíráz
Ildirim
Íldirím
May be from Turkisk Yildirim (lightning)
Ilhad
Ilḥád
apostasy;   heterodoxy, heresy
Ilham, Ilhamat
Ilhám, pl. Ilhámát
inspiration;   instinct;   divine revelation
Ilkhani
Ílkhání
Pers.   Belonging or referring to an Ilkhan;   the leader of an army.   Also the name of a garden outside Ṭihrán where Ṭáhirih was martyred.
Ilkhchi
Ílkhchí
is a town and capital of Ílkhchí District, East Azerbaijan Province, Írán.
Illa, 'Illat, 'Ilal
‘Illa(t), pl. ‘Illát, ‘Ilal
illness, sickness, disease, malady;   deficiency, defect, weakness;   weakness, defectiveness (of a letter or word;   grammar);   a cause, reason;   metrical variation or irregularity (prosody);—(pl. ‘Ilal) cause, reason, occasion;   excuse, pretence, pretext, plea.   Aristotle claimed that there are four causes (or explanations) needed to explain change in the world: ‘illat al-máddí, material cause, matter of which a thing is made;   ‘illat aṣ-ṣúrí, formal cause, i.e. that form in which the essence of a thing consists;   ‘illat al-fá‘ilí, notional or efficient cause (as the maker, if the work of man);   and ‘illat agh ghá’í, final cause for which it was made.
Illa'llah
Illá’lláh
“but God” or “save God”
Illiyun or 'Illiyyun
‘Illíyún or ‘Illiyyún
(plural form of ‘ulúw or ‘illiyy) high, sublime;   high places or the persons who sit in high places;   the upper apartments of heaven;   a place in the seventh heaven, where the records of men’s actions are laid up;   the books themselves;   a ledger for the righteous deeds.   See Qur’án 83:18–20.   The opposite of sajín.
Ilm adh-Dhawqi
al-‘Ilm adh-Dhawqi
intuitive insight (Remembrance of God, p. 5, Scholl)
Ilm al-Ilahi
‘Ilm al-Iláhí
theology
Ilm al-wujudi
‘ilm al-Wujudi
existential knowledge
Ilm Ilahiyat, 'Ilm Ilahiyun
‘Ílm Iláhíyat, pl. ‘Ílm Iláhíyún
theologian
Ilm-al-Yaqin
‘Ilm-al-Yaqín
“Arc of descent”, literally “bringing forth”. Ends in material realities (‘Abdu’l-Bahá)—going away from God. Converse is the Arc of ascent (circle of existence) ends in spiritual realities
Ilm, ‘Ulum
‘Ilm, pl. ‘Ulúm
Ar.   knowledge, learning, lore;   cognizance, acquaintance;   information;   cognition, intellection, perception, knowledge;   (pl.) science
Ilmi
Ilmí
scientific;   erudite (book);   learned (society)
Ilmiya, 'Ilmiyyyih
‘Ilmíya(t), Pers. also ‘Ilmíyyih
learning, scholarship
Ilmu't-Tajwid
‘Ilmu’t-Tajwíd
al-‘Ilmu’t-Tajwíd or ‘Ilmu’l-Qira’ah—the science of reading the Qur’an correctly.
Iltibas
Iltibás
confusion, tangle, intricacy, obscurity, ambiguity, dubiousness, doubt.   Also veiled or disguised.
Ilyas, Alyas
Ilyás, Alyás
Elijah (alternative spelling: Elyas, Ilias, Eliasor, Elias)
Ilzam
Ilzám
coercion, compulsion
Ilzami
Ilzámí
forced, compulsory, obligatory, required.   As a philosophical term, “necessary” may give a clearer meaning of the word.
Imad, Amad
‘Imád, pl. ‘Amad
support, prop, stay (also figuratively);   bracket, buttress, post, pole, pillar.   Mír ‘Imád famous calligrapher.
Imadi'd-Dawlih
‘Imádi’d-Dawlih
(“the Mainstay of the State”)
Imadu'd-Din
Imádu’d-Dín
pillar of the Faith
Imam-Husayn
Imám-Ḥusayn
the third Imám
Imam-Jum'ih
Imám-Jum‘ih
Pers.   (Imam-Jom’a or Imam Jomai)   The leader of the Shí’ah Friday prayers in the mosque of a city or town.
Imam-Zadih
Imám-Zádih
descendant of an Imám or his shrine
Imam-Zadih Ma'sum
Imám-Zádih Ma‘ṣúm
also known as the Shrine of ibn Bábuyyih (Babawayh) in the ibn Bábuyyih Cemetery, south of Ṭihrán.   Place where the Báb’s body was kept at the instruction of Bahá’u’lláh.   Nabil suggests the Shrine of Imám-Zádih-Ḥasan.
Imam, A'imma
Imám, pl. A’imma
imam, prayer leader;   leader;   master;   plumb line.   The person who leads the congregation in the mosque, in prayer (hence, “prayer leader”).   The A’imma are called the “Kindred of God”, “Suns of immaculacy and Moons of majesty” by Bahá’u’lláh (GDM).
Imama
Imáma(h or t)
Imamah.   Function or office of the prayer leader;   imamate;   leading position;   precedence
Iman
Ímán
faith, belief
Imara
Imára
position or rank of an emir;   princely bearing or manners;   principality, emirate;   authority, power
Imara, Imarat
‘Imára, pl. ‘Imárát, ‘Amá’ir
building, edifice, structure;   real estate, tract, lot
Imarat-i-Khurshid
‘Imárat-i-Khurshíd
Structure of the sun or sun room (missing ‘Ayn in texts?)
Imatu'l-Kubra
‘Imatu’l-Kubrá
al-‘Imatu’l-Kubrá (“Most Great Name”)
Imda'
Imḍá’
realization, execution, accomplishment, completion;   signing, signature
Imkan, Imkanat
Imkán, pl. Imkánát
power, capacity, capability;   faculty, ability;   possibility.   “inherent contingency”—contrast with Ḥudúth (Gate of the heart, p. 189)
Imkani
Imkání
possible, potential;   contingent
Imra', Imru'
Imra’ and Imru’
(with definite article al-mar’) a man;   person, human being;   frequently for son, human being
Imra’a
Imra’a
woman, wife.   See plural Nisá’ and imra’
Imran
‘Imrán
(Amran in Bible and Joachim is known as ‘Imrán in the al-Qur’án) name of the father of Moses, Mary and of Abú Tálib
Imru’ al-Qays (Imru’u’l-Qays)
Imrú’ al-Qays ibn Ḥujr al-Kindí
6th century Arab poet
Imruz
Imrúz
today or this day.   See yúm
Imtihan, Imtihanat
Imtiḥán, pl. Imtiḥánát
test, experiment;   examination.   Tests occur when a Manifestation appears.   See also Fitna.
Imtiyaz, Imtiyazat
Imtiyáz, pl. Imtiyazát
distinction, (mark of) honour;   advantage, benefit, merit;   difference, distinction, differentiation, discrimination;   special right, privilege;   concession, patent, permit, license, franchise;   (oil) concession;   prerogative, priority right
In
Ín
Pers.   this, the demonstrative pronoun for the nearer object;   doubt;   irresolution
Inab, Inabun, A'nab
‘Inab (coll.; n. ‘Inabun), pl. A‘náb
grape(s).   Not ‘Anab as in PUP 248 [aneb].
Inaya
‘Ináya(t)
“Enayat” concern;   care, solicitude, providence (for);   care(fulness), painstaking, meticulousness (in);   heed, notice, regard, attention (to);   interest (in)
Inayatu'llah
‘Ináyatu’lláh
care of God.   ‘Ináyatu’lláh Ishráqí
Infi'al, Infi'alat
Infi‘ál, pl. Infi‘álát
(state of) being affected, acted upon, or influenced, passivity;   stimulation, irritation (biology);—pl. agitation, excitement, excitation, commotion
Infi'ali
Infi‘álí
excitable, irritable, susceptible (biology);   caused by affect, affective (philosophy)
Infitar
Infiṭár
being split, cleft, riven
Inhitat
Inḥiṭáṭ
decline, fall, decay, decadence;   inferiority
Inja
Ínjá
Pers.   this place;   here
Injil, Anajil
Injíl, pl. Anájíl
(Gk. Evangel) gospel.   Injíl occurs twelve times in the Qur’án (as Gospel in English) and refers to the book given to Jesus by God. It is believed to be the true lost original Gospel promulgated by Jesus.
Inkar
Inkár
denial, disavowal, negation, contestation;   refusal, rejection, non-acceptance, e.g. of Imám ‘Alí
Ins
Ins
(colloquial) man, mankind, human race
Insaf
Inṣáf
justice, equity
Insan-i-kamil
insán-i-kámil
perfect human being
Insan, Insana
Insán, fem. Insána
man, human being.   Insán al-‘ain pupil (of the eye)
Insani
Insání
human;   humane;   humanitarian, philanthropist
Insha'
Inshá’
creation;   origination;   bringing about;   setting up.   Establishment, organization, institution;   formation;   making, manufacture, production;   erection;   building, construction;   founding, foundation;   installation;   composition, compilation, writing;   letter writing;   style, art of composition;   essay, treatise.
Insha'allah
Inshá’alláh
“God willing” or “If God wills it”
Inshaqqa
’Inshaqqa
(verb, form VII intransitive of Shaqqa) to split up, to crack (Qur’án 54:1)
Inshaqqu'l-Qamar
’Inshaqqu’l-Qamar
splitting, cleaving or cracking the moon.   A miracle or “an impossible act”.   Refer to Qur’án 54:1.
Inshiqaq
Inshiqáq
separation, segregation, dissociation, spilt;   schism (Christian);   dissension, discord, disunion
Inshirah
Inshiráḥ
relaxedness, relaxation, joy, delight, glee, gaiety
Insi
Insí
human;   human being
Intizam
Intiẓám
(a variation of niẓám), being arranged, strung in a line;   arrangement, regulation, disposition, order, method, system;   plan, scheme;   administration, government
Intizar
Intiẓár
waiting, wait;   expectation
Iqab
‘Iqáb
infliction of punishment, punishment;   penalty.   Translated by Shoghi Effendi as “retribution” in The Hidden Words #93 (Persian).   Mistaken for “eagle” in an early translation.   See ‘uqáb
Iqal, 'Uqal
‘Iqál, pl. ‘Uqul
cord used for hobbling the feet of a camel;   a headband made of camel’s hair, holding the kúfíya in place
Iqan
Íqán
being sure, knowing for certain;   certitude
Iqbal
Iqbál
drawing near, advance, approach;   coming, arrival, advent;   turning, application, attention, response, responsiveness
Iqd, 'Uqud
‘Iqd, pl. ‘Uqúd
chaplet, necklace
Iqlim, Aqalim
Iqlím, pl. Aqálím
climate;   area, region;   province, district;   administrative district.
Iqrar
Iqrár
establishing, fixing (in a place);   promise, agreement, assurance, pledge;   consent, acquiescence, acceptance;   confirmation, ratification, affirmation, attestation, declaration;   settlement, compact, bargain;   confession, acknowledgment.
Iqtidar, Iqtidarat
Iqtidár, fem. pl. Iqtidárát
might, power, strength, potency;   ability, capability, faculty, capacity, efficiency, aptitude.   Iqtidárát wa chand lawḥ-i-dígár ḥaḍrat-i-Bahá’u’lláh (Magnificences and select other Tablets of His Holiness Bahá’u’lláh)—a compilation of Tablets by Bahá’u’lláh.
Iqtiran
Iqtirán
connection, conjunction, union, association, affiliation;   link, connectedness, simultaneous interaction;   conjunction (astron.);   new moon (as an astronomical aspect);   marriage, wedding
Irada (Iradih), Iradat
Iráda(h), (Pers. Irádih), pl. Irádát
will, volition;   wish;   desire;   (pl.) irade (a decree of an Islamic ruler), decree (of a ruler);   will power
Iraj (Iradj)
Íraj
Pers.   the sun;   name of the youngest son of Farídún;   name of a king of Babylon.   A village near Nayríz.
Iram, Aram
Iram, pl. Árám
stone erected in the desert for the direction of travellers.   Iram of the Pillars (Iram dhát al-‘imád), also called “Aram”, “Irum”, “Irem”, “Erum”, or the “City of the tent poles”, is a reference to a lost city, country or area mentioned in Qur’án 89:7, a place in ancient Arabia
Iran
Írán
Írán, the kingdom of Persia proper, said to be named after Íraj, son of Farídún, to whom this part of his father's dominions was given
Irani, Iranun
Írání, pl. Íránún
Iranian, Persian;   (pl.) a Persian, an Iranian
Iranzad
Íránzád
Pers.   son of Iran
Iraq
al-‘Iráq
Iraq
Iraq-i-'Ajam
‘Iráq-i-‘Ajam
Persian ‘Iráq.   ‘Iráq between the 11th to 19th centuries consisted of two neighbouring regions: Arabic Iraq (‘Iráq-i ‘Arab) and Persian Iraq (‘Iráq-i ‘Ajam). Arabic Iraq = ancient Babylonia (now central-southern Iraq), and Persian Iraq = ancient Media (now central-western Iran). The two regions were separated by the Zagros Mountains.
Iraq-i-'Arab
‘Iráq-i-‘Arab
Arabic ‘Iráq.   See note in previous entry.
Iraq-i-A'zam
‘Iráq-i-A‘ẓam
A part of Írán once known as Persian ‘Iráq (the country around Media (the triangle between the ancient cities of Ecbatana (believed near Hamadan), Rhagae (southern Ṭihrán) and Aspadana (Iṣfahán)), in today's central Írán.
Iraqan (Iraqain , Iraqayn)
al-‘Iráqán, Pers. al-‘Iráqayn
cities of Baṣra and Kúfa
Iraqi, Iraqun
‘Iráqí, pl. ‘Iráqún
Iraqi, Iraqian;   (pl.) an Iraqi
Irbil
Irbíl
(“)Erbil) capital of ‘Iráqí Kurdistán
Irfan
‘Irfán
gnosis, mystic knowledge, true or spiritual understanding
Irhaq
Irháq
pressure, oppression;   suppression;   heavy load (e.g., of work)
Iriwan (Irivan)
Iriwán
Yerevan, capital of Armenia
Irshad, Irshadat
Irshád, pl. fem. Irshádát
guidance;   a conducting, showing the way (to);   guiding hand;   care;   spiritual guidance;   instruction;   direction;   directive;   information;   advising, advice;—pl. directives, directions, instructions, advice
Irshad al-'Awamm, Irshadu'l-'Avam
Irshád al-‘Awámm, Pers. Irshádu’l-‘Avám
“Guidance unto the ignorant” by Hájí Muḥammad-Karím Khán
Irtifa'
Irtifá‘
rise (e.g., of prices);   elevation;   increase;   height, altitude (e.g., of a mountain).   The Báb uses irtifá‘ to mean abrogation (both removing and elevating) in relation to the abrogation of a former Dispensation and its fulfilment and exaltation by a new Dispensation.   “Each Revelation, in simultaneously abrogating and exalting the previous Dispensation, is the return of the previous Revelation in the station of its perfection.”  Gate of the heart, p. 277.
Irtiqa'
Irtiqá‘
climbing, mounting;   ascension;   ascent;   progress, rise, progressive development;   “evolution”
Isa
‘Ísá
Pers.   Jesus.   See Yasú’
Isam, A'sima, 'Usum
‘Iṣám, fem. ‘Iṣámí, pl. A‘ṣima, ‘Uṣum
(“Essam”)   strap, thong.   Also safeguard.   Male given name and surname.   Derived from ‘Iṣma.
Isfahan
Iṣfahán
Pers.   city 340 km south of Ṭihirán.   Transcription as per Shoghi Effendi.   Iṣfáhán, Ispáhán and Ṣifáhán transcriptions are also used outside the Faith as the name of the city, carpets, business names and food.
Isfahan nisf-i-jihan
Iṣfahán niṣf-i-jihán
“Iṣfahán is half the world”
Isfahani
Iṣfahání
Ḥájí Mírzá Ḥaydar ‘Alí-i-Iṣfahání (b. Iṣfahán, ca. 1830; d. Haifa, 1920). Bahá’u’lláh gave him the titles “The Angel of Carmel” and “Sulṭán-i-Mu‘allimún” (The king of teachers). Author of Bihjatu’ṣ-Ṣudúr (Delight of Hearts)
Isfand
Isfand
Pers.   A species of rue;   a province of Nishábúr;   twelfth month of Iranian calendar
Isfandabad
Isfandábád
Esfandabd or Isfand-Abad.   Village between Yazd and Shíráz
Isfandiyar
Isfandíyár
Pers.   Esfandiyár, Sepandiár, Sepandiyar, Esfandyar, Isfandiar, Isfandiyar or Esfandiar.   Legendary Iranian hero.   (“Created holy and pure”)   Name of loyal servant of Bahá.
Ishan
Íshán
“They” a designation by which Bahá’u’lláh was known.   Also said to be honorific form of Persian pronoun for the third person singular
Ishaq
Isḥáq
Isaac;   becoming threadbare;   shrinking after milking (the teats);   drying up
Ishara, Isharat
Ishára, pl. Ishárát
sign, motion, nod, wink, wave;   gesture;   signal;   indication;   allusion, hint, intimation;   symbolic expression;   (silent) reminder;   advice, counsel, suggestion;   instruction, order, command
Ishq
‘Ishq
love, ardour of love, passion
Ishqabad
‘Ishqábád
“City of Love” (Ashkabad or Ashgabat) capital of Turmenistan
Ishqi
‘Ish
belonging to love
Ishqiy-i-Qarn-i-Bistum
‘Ishqíy-i-Qarn-i-Bístum
“‘Ishqí of the twentieth century” (abjad value 1342 (ah 1342 or ad 1923.).   See Arches of the Years, p. 257.
Ishraq, Ishraqat
Ishráq, pl. Ishráqát
radiance;   radiation, eradiation, emanation;   illumination;   Pers.   rising (the sun);   sunrise, morning;   splendour, lustre, beauty.   Tablet of Ishráqát (Splendours) (by Bahá’u’lláh) published in Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, pp. 101-134.   Ishráq Khávarí ‘Adbu’l-Ḥamíd
Ishraqi Namaz
Ishhráqí Namáz
Pers.   morning prayer
Ishraqi, Ishraqiyan (Ishraqiyun)
Ishráqí, pl. Ishráqiyán
(Pers.   with Ar. influence) of or pertaining to sunrise;   eastern, oriental;   having the splendour of the East.—pl. a sect of philosophers, illuminati, the Illuminists, adherents of Illuminism.
Ishraqiya, Ishraqiyyih
Ishráqíya, Pers. Ishráqiyyih
a Persian mystical order founded by Shaháb ad-Dín Yaḥyá ibn Ḥabash Suhrawardí (c. 1155–1191), a Persian theologian and philosopher. Ideas arose out of perpatetic philosophy.
Ishti’al
Ishti‘ál
ignition, inflammation, combustion, burning.   Name/pen name (aflame or blazing fire) given to Ali-Kuli Khan by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Ishtihard
Ishtihárd
a village between Karaj (west of Ṭihrán) and Qazvín
Iskaf, Iskafi
Iskáf and Iskáfí, pl. Asákifa
shoemaker
Iskandar
Iskandar
Persian for Alexander
Iskandariya
al-Iskandaríya
Alexandria, Egypt
Iskandarun
Iskandarún
(Turkish İskenderun, Arabic Iskandarúna)   Originally Alexandria, later Alexandretta, on Turkish coast north of Syria
Islah, Islahat
Iṣláḥ, pl. Iṣláḥát
restoration, restitution, redressing, reparation;   improvement, amelioration, betterment, mending, correction;   reconstruction;   reconditioning, repair;   renovation, refurbishing;   adjustment, settling, remedying, removal, elimination;   restoration of order, establishment of peace, happiness and order;   reformation, reform;   reclamation, cultivation (of land);   (re)conciliation, settlement, compromise, peace making
Islam
Islám
submission, resignation, reconciliation (to the will of God in every age);   or the total surrender of oneself to God.   Titled “Perspicuous Religion” and “Well-established Path”.   Redefined by the Báb as “Verily, the essence of religion is none other than submission unto This Remembrance [the Báb].”   Root is al-Silm rather than al-Salima or al-Salám.
Islami (Islamic)
Islámí
Islamic.   No accents for the English Islamic!   Incorrectly given as Muhammadic or Muhammedic.
Islamshahr (Eslamshahr, Islam-Shahr)
Islámshahr
city on sw side of Ṭihrán
Ism al-A'zam, Ism-i-A'zam
al-Ism al-A‘ẓam, Pers. Ism-i-A‘ẓam
The Greatest name (of God)
Ism, Asma, Asamin
Ism, pl. Asmá’, Asámin
name;   appellation;   reputation, standing, prestige
Isma, 'Isam
‘Iṣma(t), pl. ‘Iṣam
hindering, hindrance, prevention, obviation;   preservation, guarding, safeguarding;   defence;   protection;   chastity, purity, modesty, virtuousness;   impeccant, sinlessness, infallibility.   ‘immunity from sin and error’, (from ‘aṣama, ya‘ṣimu = to protect, to save from)
Isma adh-dhatiyya
al-‘Iṣma adh-Dhátiyya
Essential infallibility
Isma al-sifatiya
al-‘Iṣma al-Ṣifátíya
Conferred infallibility (bestowed rather than innate).   Immunity from error and infallibility of judgement—not freedom from sin, sinlessness or immaculateness.
Isma'il
Ismá‘íl
(Ishmael in Hebrew), the son of Abraham and the Egyptian Hagar, who was considered to be the forerunner of the desert Arabs.   “Ismael”
Isma'il-i-Kashani
Ismá‘íl-i-Kashání
Isma'il-i-Kashi
Ismá‘íl-i-Káshí
Isma'il-i-Zavari'i
Ismá‘íl-i-Zavari’í
Isma'ili
Ismá‘ílí, pl. Ismá‘íliyyún
disciple, follower
Isma’iliyya, Isma’iliyyih, Isma’iliyyun
Ismá‘íliyya (Ar), Ismá‘íliyyih (Per)
Isma’ilism—branch of Shi’a Islám.   pl. Ismá‘íliyyún.   Pers. Ismá‘íliya
Ismat-i-Kubra
‘Iṣmat-i-Kubrá
Great Infallibility
Ismatu'l-Kubra
al-‘Iṣmatu’l-Kubrá
Most Great Infallibility
Ismu'l-Azal
Ismu’l-Azal
Name of Eternity (Mírzá Yaḥyá)
Ismu'llah
Ismu’lláh
“Name of God”
Ismu'llahi'l-A'zam
Ismu’lláhi’l-A‘ẓam
Name of God, Greatest
Ismu'llahi’l-Akhir
Ismu’lláhi’l-Ákhir Ar.
Ar.   The Last name of God. This was the title given by the Báb to Quddús.
Ismu’llahi'l-Jud
Ismu’lláhi’l-Júd
“The Name of God, the Bounteous” (name given to Muḥammad Javád-i-Qazvíní by Bahá’u’lláh)
Ismu'llahi'l-Mihdi
Ismu’lláhi’l-Mihdí
“The Name of God, Mihdí’”
Ismu'llahu'l-Akhar
Ismu’lláhu’l-Ákhar
“The Last Name of God”
Ismu'llahu'l-Asdaq
Ismu’lláhu’l-Aṣdaq
“The Name of God, the Most Truthful”
Ismu'llahu'l-Fatiq
Ismu’lláhu’l-Fatíq
“In the Name of God, the Eloquent”
Ismu'llahu'l-Jamal
Ismu’lláhu’l-Jamál
“The Name of God, Jamál”.   Name given to Siyyid-i-Mihdíy-i-Dahají by Bahá’u’lláh.
Ismu'llahu'l-Javad
Ismu’lláhu’l-Javád
“The Name of God, the All-Bountiful”.   Title given to Muḥammad Javád-i-Qazvíní by Bahá’u’lláh.
Ismu'llahu'l-Mihdi
Ismu’lláhu’l-Mihdí
“The Name of God, Mihdí”.   Name given to Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Dahají.
Ismu'llahu'l-Munib
Ismu’lláhu’l-Muníb
“The Name of God, the Patron”
Isnad, Asanid
Isnád, pl. Asáníd
ascription (of an Islamic tradition), the (uninterrupted) chain of authorities on which a tradition is based
Ispahan
Ispáhán
Middle Persian.   Arabicized modern form is Iṣfahán
Isr, Asar
Iṣr, pl. Áṣár
covenant, compact,contract;   load, encumbrance, burden;   sin;—pl. bonds, ties
Isra'
Isrá’
nocturnal journey;   al-Isrá’ the “night journey” of Muḥammad “to the seven heavens”
Isra'
Isrá‘
acceleration, speed-up; hurry
Isra'il
Isrá’íl
Israel.   Banú Isrá’íl—the Israelites;   Daulat Isrá’íl the State of Israel.
Israfil
Isráfíl
“the burning one” (Israfel) seraph.   The Angel whose function is to sound the trumpet (ram’s horn) on the Day of Judgement.
Istahban (Estahban), Istahbanat
Iṣṭahbán
Pers.   (pre-1970 Ar. name was Iṣṭahbánát “Istah-banat”), is a city (29 km ENE of Nayríz and 150 km ESE Shíráz) and capital of Estahban County, Fárs Province, Írán.
Istarabad (Astarabad)
Istarábád
Istidlal
Istidlál
reasoning, argumentation, demonstration;   conclusion, inference, deduction;   proof, evidence (of)
Istidlaliyya, Istidlaliyyih
Istidláliyya, Pers. also Istidláliyyih
testimony (book) or (book) of apologetics
Istijlal
Istijlál
Ar.   majesty
Istikhlaf
Istikhláf
appoint someone to be successor.   In the Qur’anic context, appointing a trustee or vicegerent, or “Law of Succession of Prophets”.
Istiqbal, Istiqbalat
Istiqbál, pl. Istiqbálát
reception;   opposition (astron.);   full moon (as an astronomical aspect);   the future
Istiqlal
Istiqlál
Ar.   Independence
Itabaki-A'zam
Íṭábakí-A‘ẓam
“the greatest tutor”.   Probably should be Atábak-i-A‘ẓam
Itabaki-Chupan
Íṭábakí-Chúpán
probably should be Atábak-i-Chúpán (The Dawn-Breakers, p. 421)
Ithbat
Ithbát
establishment;   assertion;   confirmation;   affirmation, attestation;   demonstration;   proof, evidence;   registration, entering, listing, recording;   documentation, authentication, verification
Ithna 'Ashara, Ithnata 'Ashrata
Ithná ‘Ashara, fem. Ithnatá ‘Ashrata
twelve
Ithnani, Ithnatani
Ithnáni, fem. Ithnatáni
two
Itmam
Itmám
completion;   perfection;   termination, conclusion;   consummation, execution, fulfilment, realization, effectuation, accomplishment
Itmam-i-Ni’mat
Itmám-i-Ni‘mat
completion of favour
Itmi'nan (Itminan)
Iṭmi’nán
calm, repose, serenity, peace, peacefulness, tranquillity;   reassurance, peace of mind, composure, calmness, equanimity;   trust, confidence
Itmi'nan-i-Qalb (Itminan-i-Qalb)
Iṭmi’nán-i-Qalb
heart attaining tranquillity or composure of the heart
Itr, 'Utur, 'Uturat
‘Iṭr, pl. ‘Uṭúr, ‘Uṭúrát
perfume, scent;   essence
Itra, ‘Itrat
‘Itra(t)
little balls formed of musk or other aromatics, and worn as a necklace;   a progeny, family, near relations;   a bit of pure musk;   sweet marjoram;—‘Itrat al-Nabí “Family of the Prophet”
Itri
‘Iṭrí
sweet-smelling, fragrant, aromatic
Ittihad
Ittiḥád
oneness, singleness, unity;   concord, accord, unison, harmony, unanimity, agreement;   combination;   consolidation, amalgamation, merger, fusion;   alliance, confederacy;   association;   federation;   union.   Symbolically, the identification of man with God
Ittihadi, Ittihadiyyih
Ittiḥádí, Pers. also Ittiḥádiyyih
unionist;   unionistic;   federal
Iwil, Ivil
Íwil, Ívil
(“Ivel”, also known as Ídel) is a small village 12 km east of Kiyásar, 90 km se of Sárí, 45 km west of Dámghán in Sari County, Mázandarán Province
Iyala (Iyalih), Iyalat
Iyála(h or t), pl. Iyálát
province;   regency;   governing, administering;   government, dominion
Izadi
Ízadí
Pers.   God;   an angel
Izar, Uzur
Izár m. and f., pl. Uzur
loincloth;   wrap, shawl;   wrapper, covering, cover
Izdiwaj (Izdivaj)
Izdiwáj
Pers.   marrying;   marriage, wedding
Izhar
Iẓhár
presentation, exposition, demonstration, exhibition, disclosure, exposure, revelation, announcement, declaration, manifestation, display;   developing (photography)
Izmir (Smyrna)
Izmír
City in western extremity of Anatolia, Turkey. Formerly ancient city of Smyrna
Izra'il
‘Izrá’íl
(Israfels) angel of death
Izza
‘Izza
might, power, standing, weight;   strength, force;   honour, glory, high rank, fame, celebrity, renown;   pride
Izzat
‘Izzat
Pers.   being great, powerful, rare, valuable;   grandeur, glory, power, might;   honour, esteem;   rareness
Izzatu'llah
‘Izzatu’lláh
Might or Power of God
Izzatu'llah Zahra'i
‘Izzatu’lláh Zahrá’í
(Ezzat Zahrai)
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Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic attributes (“names”) of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots · Underscores · Vowel sounds · Word transcription macros
Plain text
Transcripted text
Word meanings & comments
J
Ja'far
Ja‘far
little river, creek (Djaffar)   The name of the sixth Imám
Ja’far as-Sadiq, Ja’far-i-Sadiq
Ja‘far aṣ-Ṣádiq, Pers. Ja‘far-i-Ṣádiq
the Sixth Imám
Ja'far-i-Istarabadi
Ja‘far-i-Istarábádí
Ja'far-i-Tabrizi
Ja‘far-i-Tabrízí
Ja'far-i-Yazdi
Ja‘far-i-Yazdí
(MF)
Ja'far-Quli
Ja‘far-Qulí
Ja'fari
Ja‘farí
Pers.   the finest kind of gold (named after a celebrated alchemist);   a kind of cupola;   a sort of screen (the interstices of the frame being lozenged);   lattice-work;   name of a yellow flower;   parsley;   name of a fortress
Ja’fariyya, Ja’fariyyih
Ja‘faríya, Pers. Ja‘faríyyih
followers of the Sixth Imám that believed he did not die but is concealed and will return as the Mahdí. Náwus of Baṣra (hence, Náwusíya, alternative name of followers) was a prominent exponent of this idea.
Jabal al-Basit, Jabal-i-Basit
Jabal al-Básiṭ, Pers. Jabal-i-Básiṭ
“the Open Mountain”—Máh-Kú (same numerical value as Básiṭ, 72) al-Básiṭ “the one who expands or stretches”)
Jabal al-Lawz
Jabal al-Lawz
a mountain located in northwest Saudi Arabia, near the Jordan border, above the Gulf of Aqaba at 2580 metres above sea level.   The name means “mountain of almonds”.
Jabal al-Maqla
Jabal al-Maqlá
“burnt mountain”, about 7 km to the south, and a few hundred meters lower than, Jabal al-Lawz.
Jabal al-Shadid, Jabal-i-Shadid
Jabal al-Shadíd, Pers. Jabal-i-Shadíd
“the Grievous Mountain”—fortress of Chihríq
Jabal, Jibal, Ajbal
Jabal, pl. Jibál, Ajbál
mountain;   mountains, mountain range
Jabri, Jabariyan
Jabrí, pl. Jabariyán
one who believes in predestination, a fatalist
Jabarut
Jabarút
omnipotence;   power, might;   tyranny.   ‘álami jabarút, “the highest heaven”, “the All-highest Dominion” or “the Empyrean Heaven”—realm of being.   See Háhút, Láhút and Násút.
Jabbar, Jabbarun, Jababir, Jababira
Jabbár, pl. Jabbárún, Jabábir, Jabábira
giant;   colossus;   tyrant, oppressor;   almighty, omnipotent (God);   gigantic, giant, colossal, huge;   Orion (astronomy)
Jabir
Jábir
bonesetter   Jábir Ibn-i-Ḥayyán was a follower of Imám Ṣádiq who handed down his traditions.
Jabr
Jabr
setting (of broken bones);   force, compulsion;   coercion, duress;   power, might;   (predestined, inescapable) decree of fate.
Jabr wa'l-muqabala
Jabr wa’l-muqábala
Al-Jabr wa’l-muqábala (“completing” or “restoring”, and “simplifying” or “balancing”)   Part of a book title from which the word “algebra” is derived.
Jabriyya
Jabríyya(h)
Muslims who championed determinism
Jabulqa and Jabulsa
Jábulqá and Jábulsá
(According to Shí’ih traditions, the mythical twin cities of Jábulqá and Jábulsá are the dwelling place of the Hidden Imám (the Promised One), whence He will appear on the Day of Resurrection.)
Jadhb (Jazb)
Jadhb
attraction;   gravitation;   appeal, lure, enticement, captivation
Jadhba (Jazba), Jadhbat (Jazbat)
Jadhba, pl. Jadhbát
Pers.   passion, rage, fury;   strong desire, craving for
Jadhdhab
Jadhdháb
Attractive;   magnetic;   suction;   winning;   charming
Jadhib
dhib
attractive; magnetic (fig.);   winning, fetching, engaging;   charming, enticing, captivating, gripping
Jadhibiya, Jadhbiyyih
dhibíya(h), Pers. also Jádhibíyyih
gravitation;   attraction;   attractiveness;   charm;   fascination;   magnetism.   Eminent Bahá’ís in the Time of Bahá’u’lláh has Jadhbíyyih.
Jadid, Judud, Judad
Jadíd, pl. Judud, Judad
new, recent;   renewed;   modern;   novel, unprecedented
Jadidu'llah
Jadídu’lláh
“New one of God”   Jadídu’lláh Ashraf
Jaffa, Jafaf, Jufuf
Jaffa, Jafáf, Jufúf
to dry, become dry;   to dry out
Jafr
Jafr
Islamic science of the numerical values of letters;   numerology.   ‘ilm al-jafr: divination, fortune telling.
Jahada, Jahd
Jahada (Jahd)
to endeavour, strive, labour, take pains, put oneself out;   to over-work, overtax, fatigue, exhaust (someone).   Form III to endeavour, strive;   to fight (for something);   to wage holy war against the infidels.   Form IV to strain, exert (something);   to tire, wear out, fatigue (someone), give trouble (to).
Jahan (Jihan)
Jahán (Jihán)
Pers. world
Jahangir
Jahángír
Pers.   “conqueror of the world”   Núri’d-Dín Muḥammad Salím (Mughal Emperor)
Jahansuz
Jahánsúz
Pers.   Jahán+súz “the burning of the world”
Jahil, Jahala, Juhhal, Juhala
Jáhil, pl. Jahala, Juhhal, Juhhál, Juhalá’
not knowing (something, how to do something);   ignorant, uneducated, illiterate;   foolish;   fool
Jahiliya, Jahiliyyih
Jáhilíya, Pers. Jáhilíyyih
state of ignorance;   pre-Islamic paganism.   The dark age of ignorance among the Arabs before the appearance of Muḥammad.
Jahl, Jahal
Jahl and Jahála
ignorance;   folly, foolishness, stupidity.   Amr ibn Hishám, often known as Abú Jahl (556–17 March 624), was one of the Meccan polytheist pagan Qurayshí leaders known for his critical opposition towards Muḥammad and early Muslims in Mecca.
Jahrum (Jahram, Jahrom)
Jahrum
city and county 155 km se of Shíráz
Jalal
Jalál
loftiness, sublimity, augustness;   splendor, glory
Jalal Khadih
Jalál Kháḍih
Jalál Kházeh (1897–21 Feb. 1990) was a Hand of the Cause of God
Jalali
Jalálí
Ar.?   great, illustrious, majestic, glorious;   terrible, awe-inspiring;   an era reckoned from Jalálu’d-Dín (Akbar Sháh), and beginning AD 1079
Jalaliya, Jalaliyyih
Jalaliya(t), Pers. Jalálíyyih
name of a sect who worships the more terrible attributes of the deity;   the followers of Jalál Bukhárí
Jalalu'd-Dawlih
Jalálu’d-Dawlih
Jalalu'd-Din Rumi
Jalálu’d-Dín Rúmí
[or Jaláli’d-Dín Rúmí or Jalála’d-Dín Rúmí] (called Mawláná (“our Master”), is the greatest of all Persian Súfí poets, and founder of the Mawlaví “whirling” dervish order.)
Jali, Jaliy
Jalí, Jálí, Jalíy
clear, plain, evident, patent, manifest, obvious, conspicuous;   shining, polished.   Loudly and publicly, as in prayers, etc.
Jalil-i-Khu'i
Jalíl-i-Khu’í
Jalil-i-Tabrizi
Jalíl-i-Tabrízí
Jalil, Ajilla', Ajilla, Jala'il
Jalíl, Ajillá’, Ajilla, Jalá’il
great, important, significant, weighty, momentous;   lofty, exalted, sublime;   revered, honourable, venerable;   glorious, splendid
Jalinus, Ghalinua, Isqinus
Jálínús
Aelius or Claudius Galenus (AD 129–c. 200/c. 216), commonly known as Galen of Pergamon, a very famous physician. (also from Greek Ghálínús or Isqilínus)
Jallabiya, Jallabiyat, Jalalib, Jalabiya
Jallábíya, pl. Jallábíyát, Jalálíb, Jalabiya
(Egyptian) a loose, shirtlike garment, the common dress of the male population in Egypt.   Gallábíya, pl. Gallábíyát, Galálíb, Galabiya
Jam
Jam
Pers.   name of an ancient king of Persia, whom they confound with Solomon and Alexander the Great;   a monarch, a great king;   the pupil of the eye;   pure, free, exempt;   essence, nature, person.   (Zend or Avestan: yima and Sanskrit: yama [“the twins”]. Yama became Jam).   See Jamshíd
Jam', Jumu'
Jam‘, pl. Jumú‘
gathering;   collection;   combination;   connection, coupling, joining;   accumulation;   (arithmetic) addition;   union, merger, aggregation, integration (of) holding together (of divergent, separate things);—(pl.) gathering, crowd, throng;   gang, troop
Jam'iya, Jam'iyat
Jam‘iya(t), pl. Jam‘iyát
club, association, society;   corporation, organization;   assembly, community
Jama'a, Jama'at
Jamá‘a(h), pl. Jamá‘át
group (of people);   band, gang, party, troop;   community;   squad (military unit)
Jamad, Jamadat
Jamád, pl. Jamádát
a solid;   inorganic body; mineral;   inanimate body, inanimate being
Jamadiyu'l-Avval
Jamádíyu’l-Avval
Fifth month in Islamic calendar
Jamadiyu'th-Thani
Jamádíyu’th-Thání
Sixth month in Islamic calendar
Jamal
Jamál
Ar.   Beauty
Jamal Afandi (Jamal Effendi)
Jamál Afandí (Effendi)
name given to Sulaymán Khán-i-Tunukábání
Jamal-Abhá
Jamál-Abhá
Abhá Beauty, a title of Bahá’u’lláh
Jamal-i-Burujirdi
Jamál-i-Burújirdí
Jamal-i-Mubarak
Jamál-i-Mubárak
“The Blessed Beauty”.   Title used by some Bahá’ís for Bahá’u’lláh.
Jamal-i-Qidam
Jamál-i-Qidam
Ar.   The Ancient Beauty.   A title of Bahá’u’lláh.
Jamal, Jimal
Jamal, pl. Jimál, Ajmál
camel
Jamali
Jamálí
(Ar. influence) amiable, lovable
Jamali'd-Din
Jamáli’d-Dín
Beauty of the Faith
Jamalu'd-Din-i-Afghani
Jamálu’d-Dín-i-Afghání
Jami', Jawami'
Jámi‘, pl. Jawámi‘
total;   whole, entire;   all;   entirety;   comprehensive, extensive, broad, general, universal;   collector, gatherer;   compiler (of a book);   compositor, typesetter;—(pl.) mosque
Jamil, Jamilih
Jamíl, Pers. Jamílih
beautiful, graceful, lovely, comely, pretty, handsome;   friendly act, favour, service, good turn;   courtesy
Jammal, Jammalun
Jammál, pl. Jammálún
camel driver.   Gardens of Jammál are at the south entrance of the Mansion of Bahjí.
Jamshid
Jamshíd
(“Djemsheed”)   mythical King in Iranian traditions and culture.   A compound of Jam and shíd formed by changes to the original Avestran names.
Jamshid-i-Gurji
Jamshíd-i-Gurjí
(MF)
Jan
Ján
Pers.   soul, vital spirit, mind;   self;   life;   spirit, courage;   wind;   the mouth;   arms;   the father of demons;   name of a race said to have inhabited the world before Adam;   in modern conversation a word of endearment.   See nafs
Jan Aqa Big
Ján Áqá Big
known as a Kaj Kuláh
Jan-i-Khamsih
Ján-i-Khamsih
Janami
Jánamí
you are my life and soul;   you are close to me
Jandaq
Jandaq
city 230 km north of Yazd and 178 km NE of Ná’ín, Írán
Jangal
Jangal
Pers.   a wood, forest, thicket;   a country overgrown with wood, reeds, or long grass;   a jungle
Jangali
Jangalí
Pers.   wild, untilled, jungle-like.   Insult referring to uncultured people (raised in jungles)
Jani
Jání
Pers.   soul;   cordial, heartily loved, devoted.   Title of a merchant of Kashán, Ḥájí Mírzá Jání, early historian of the Bábí Cause and a martyr.
Jani, Junat
Jání, pl. Junát
one who gathers fruit;   sinning, a sinner
Janib, Jawanib
Jánib, pl. Jawánib
side;   lateral portion;   sidepiece;   flank;   wing;   face (geometry);   part, portion, partial amount;   partial view, section (of a scene, picture or panorama);   quantity, amount;   a certain number (of), a few, some.   “draw back”? Seven Valleys p. 43
Janna, Jannat (“Jinnat”), Jinan
Janna(h or t), pl. Janna, Jinán
garden;   paradise, heaven
Jarib
Jaríb
10,000 sq metres
Jarrah, Jarrahun
Jarráḥ, pl. Jarráḥún
surgeon
Jasad, Ajsad
Jasad, pl. Ajsád
body.   Compare Jism
Jasb
Jásb
rural district, Markazí Province, Írán
Jashn
Jashn
Pers.   A feast, social entertainment;   convivial meeting;   a solemn feast
Jashn-i-A'zam
Jashn-i-A‘ẓam
(the Greatest Festival because ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was known as the Ghusn-i-A’ẓám [the Greatest Branch])—Day of the Covenant
Jasim
Jásim
healthy, strong, powerful, good health
Jasim, Jisam
Jasím, pl. Jisám
great, big, large;   voluminous, bulky, huge;   vast, immense;   stout, corpulent;   weighty, most significant, momentous, prodigious
Jathiya
thiya
fem., the kneeling or crouching one
Javad-i-Karbila'i
Javád-i-Karbilá’í
Javad-i-Qazvini
Javád-i-Qazvíní
Muḥammad Javád-i-Qazvíní.   He went to Adrianople in 1867 and worked for many years as one of Bahá’u’lláh’s amanuenses. Bahá’u’lláh gave him the title Ismu'llahu'l-Javad (The Name of God, the All-Bountiful). He later joined Mírzá Muḥammad ‘Alí in opposing ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
Javad-i-Tabataba'i
Javád-i-Ṭabáṭabá’í
Javahiru'l-Asrar
Javáhiru’l-Asrár
“Gems of Divine Mysteries” or “The Essence of Mysteries” by Bahá’u’lláh.   See jawhar and sirr
Jaw'an (Jau'an), Jaw'a' (Jau'a), Jiya'
Jaw‘án, fem. Jaw‘á’, pl. Jiyá‘
hungry, starved, famished
Jawab (Javab), Ajwiba, Jawabat
Jawáb, pl. Ajwiba, Jawabát
answer, reply;   octave (to a given tone; music);   (e.g. pronounced gawáb pl. jawabát) letter, message
Jawad, Ajwad, Ajawid, Jud
Jawád, pl. Ajwád, Ajáwid, Ajawíd, Júd
openhanded, liberal, generous, magnanimous;—pl. jiyád, ajyád, ajáwíd race horse, racer;   charger
Jawan (Javan), Jawanan
Jawán, pl. Jawánán
Pers.   young;   young man, youth, lad
Jawanmardi
Jawánmardí
loosely translated as chivalry.   See lúṭígarí.
Jawhar (Jauhar), Jawahir, Jawwal
Jawhar, pl. Jawáhir, Jawwál
intrinsic, essential nature, essence;   content, substance (as opposed to form;   philosophy);   matter, substance;   atom;   jewel, gem, pearl;—pl. jewellry.   From Persian Gawhar
Jawhara (Jauhara), Jawharat
Jawhara(t), pl. Jawharát
jewel, gem
Jawid
Jáwid
Pers.   eternal, perpetual
Jawidukht, Javidukht
Jáwidukht
Jávidukht, wife of Dhikru'lláh Khádem (sic).   See ukht
Jawid
Jáwíd
Pers.   eternal;   eternity
Jawsh (Jaush)
Jawsh
Pers.   the breast;   the middle of a man;   midnight;   a large section of the night, or the latter part of it;   a march during the whole of the night. See jayb
Jawshan (Jaushan)
Jawshan
breast plate, steel plate or chain mail
Jawshan Kabir
Jawshan Kabír
long (“big”) Islamic prayer with 1,000 names and attributes of God that is Muḥammad’s “coat of amour” to protect Him from injuries
Jayb (Jaib), Juyub
Jayb, pl. Juyúb
breast, bosom, heart;   sine (mathematics);   hole, hollow, cavity, excavation;   pocket;   purse
Jayhun
Jayhún
Oxus River
Jaysh 'Aramram
Jaysh ‘Aramram
a numerous, huge army.   See furúghí
Jaysh (Jaish), Juyush
Jaysh, pl. Juyush
army, troops, armed forces
Jaz
Jaz
Pers.   An island;   name of a country between Euphrates and Tigris (Mesopotamia, al-Jazírat)
Jazbatu'llah
Jaẓbátu’lláh
rages of God
Jazira (Jazirih), Jaza'ir, Juzur
Jazíra(h or t), pl. Jazá’ir, Juzur
island.   Cizre (Kurdish), Jazírat ibn ‘Umar (Ar.), Jazírih (Pers.), town and district in SE Turkey
Jazirat al-Bahr
Jazírat al-Baḥr
Name given to Búshihr by the Báb
Jaziriy-i-Khadra
Jazíriy-i-Khaḍrá’
“Verdant Isle”
Jazzar, Jazzarun
Jazzár, pl. Jazzárún
butcher
Jabra'il, Jibril
Jabra’íl, Jibríl
Gabriel
Jibt
Jibt
sorcery, divination or any false belief
Jidal, Mujadala, Mujadalat
Jidál (m.), Mujádala (f.), pl. Mujádalát
quarrel, argument;   dispute, discussion, debate
Jidda
Jidda(h)
newness, novelty;   modernity;   rebirth, renaissance.   Judda(h)—Jidda, seaport western Saudi Arabia.
Jiha, Jihat, Juhat
Jiha (Pers. Jihat, Juhat), pl. Jihát
side;   direction;   region, part, section, area;   district, precinct, city quarter;   agency, authority;   administrative agency
Jihad
Jihád
Commonly understood to be: fight, battle;   jihad, holy war (against the infidels, as a religious duty).   Literally means “striving” (see root jahada)—a witness or martyr.   During and immediately after the time of Muḥammad, jihad was directed against pagans and idolaters—the polytheists—and was undertaken in defence of the realm of Islám. Meaning was later obscured and lost.   See Qitál
Jihan
Jihán
Pers.   world
Jihat-i-Mahiyyati
Jihat-i-Máhíyyatí
Pers.   essential aspect
Jihat-i-Vujudi
Jihat-i-Vujúdí
Pers.   existential aspect
Jilf-ast
Jilf-ast
“he is a light-weight”
Jilf, Ajlaf
Jilf, pl. Ajláf
Ar.   boorish, rude, uncivil.
Pers.   i) any empty vessel, pot or pan;   an animal disembowelled, and skinned;   anything empty in the middle;   ii) silly, trifling
Jillabiya (Jilabiya, Jellabiya, Gallabiya)
Jillábíya, pl. Jilábi
galabia or galabieh, a loose, shirt-like garment, the common dress of the male population in Egypt, Sudan and Eritrea.   Gallábíya, pl. Gallábíyát, Galálíb in Egyptian Arabic.
Jim
Jím
Arabic letter (j)
Jinab
Jináb
Ar.   Courtesy title sometimes translated as ‘His Honour’, or ‘The Honourable’.
Jinab-i
Jináb-i
(Janabe)
Jinab-i-'Azim
Jináb-i-‘Aẓím
Jinab-i-Amin
Jináb-i-Amín
Jinab-i-Avarih
Jináb-i-Ávárih
(Unfolding Destiny, p. 13.)
Jinab-i-Fadil-i-Mazindarani
Jináb-i-Fáḍil-i-Mázindarání
(Jenabi Fazel)
Jinab-i-Husayn
Jináb-i-Ḥusayn
Jinab-i-Ibn-'Abhar
Jináb-i-Ibn-‘Abhar
(Jenabe Ayadi, Ibn Abhar)
Jinab-i-Ismu'llah
Jináb-i-Ismu’lláh
Jinab-i-Ismu'llahu'l-Asdaq
Jináb-i-Ismu’lláhu’l-Aṣdaq
Jinab-i-Khan
Jináb-i-Khán
Jinab-i-Mirza
Jináb-i-Mírzá
Jinab-i-Mishkin
Jináb-i-Mishkín
(MF p. 100)
Jinab-i-Muhammad-Taqi
Jináb-i-Muḥammad-Taqí
Jinab-i-Mulla
Jináb-i-Mullá
Jinab-i-Munib
Jináb-i-Muníb
(Memorials of the Faithful, GPB & Child of the Covenant 73)
Jinab-i-Munir
Jináb-i-Munír
Jinab-i-Nabil-i-Akbar
Jináb-i-Nabíl-i-Akbar
Jinab-i-Quddus
Jináb-i-Quddús
Jinab-i-Sayyah
Jináb-i-Sayyáḥ
(MF)
Jinab-i-Shaykh
Jináb-i-Shaykh
Jinab-i-Tahirih
Jináb-i-Ṭáhirih
Jinab-i-Varqa
Jináb-i-Varqá
Jinab-i-Zayn
Jináb-i-Zayn
(Jinabi Zain)
Jinaza, Janaza, Jinazat, Janazat, Jana'iz
Jináza, Janza, pl. –át, Janá’iz
bier;   funeral procession.   Pers. sing. also jinázih.
Jinn
Jinn (collective)
jinn, demons (invisible beings, either harmful or helpful, that interfere with the lives of mortals)
Jinni, Jinniya
Jinní, Jinníya (fem.)
jinní, (demonic);   jinni (demon);   Jinníya (female demon)
Jins, Ajnas
Jins, pl. Ajnás
kind, sort, variety, species, class, genus;   category;   sex (male, female);   gender (grammar);   race;   nation
Jirjis
Jirjís
Pers.   George, particularly St. George of England;   ranked among the prophets by Muslims.
Jism al-Kull
Jism al-Kull
the universal substance
Jism, Ajsam, Jusum
Jism, pl. Ajsám, Jusúm
body (also [new meaning] of an automobile);   substance, matter;   mass;   form, shape.   Compare jasad
Jizya (Pers. Jizyah), Jizan, Jiza'
Jizya(h), pl. Jizan, Jizá’
tax;   tribute;   head tax on free non-Muslims under Muslim rule
Ju
Jú‘
hunger, starvation
Ju'an
Jú‘án
be hungry
Jubayr (Jubair)
Jubayr
Sa‘íd bin Jubayr (665–714), also known as Abú Muḥammad, was originally from Kufá. He was a leading Shí‘a jurist of the time.
Jubbih
Jubbih
Pers.   Outer coat, overcoat.
Jubbiy-i-Hizari'i
Jubbiy-i-Hizári’í
A type of overcoat
Jud
Júd
open-handedness, liberality, generosity, bounty
Juhfah
al-Juhfah (al-Jihfah)
city 183 km NE of Mecca
Juj (Jujih), Jawj (Jauj)
Júj, Jauj
Pers.   a cock's comb;   a crest;   a pennant, vane
Jujih Khanum
Jújih Khánum
The minuscule Leona Barnitz was called Jújih Khánum (Little Chick Lady) by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Juk
Júk
Jug-Basisht (Book of Juk), the Persian translation of the Yoga Vasistha, a syncretic philosophic text
Julab
Juláb, Julláb
rose water
Julfa (Jolfa)
Julfá
“new” Julfá (since ad 1606) is an Armenian-populated area (one of the world’s largest) of Iṣfahán, located south of the Záyandí-Rúd. The people migrated from the Armenian city of Julfá in Azerbaijan.
Juljul, Jalajil
Juljul, pl. Jalájil
(little) bell, sleigh bell;   cowbell;   jingle
Jull, Gul
Jull, Pers. Gul
rose
Jullah, Julah
Julláh, Juláh
Pers.   a weaver.   Yulláh may be a variation.
Jum'a, Jum'ih, Juma', Juma'at
Jum‘a, Per. Jum‘ih, pl. Juma‘, Juma‘át
week;   Friday
Jum'ih-Bazar
Jum‘ih-Bázár
Friday Bazaar. Normal market with many temporary traders on Friday
Jumada
Jumádá
dry.   Name of the fifth and sixth months of the Muslim year
Jumada al-Awwal, Jumada al-Ula
Jumádá al-Awwal
Fifth Islamic calendar month (the first of parched land).   Also known as Jumádá al-Úlá.
Jumada ath-Thani, Jumada al-Akhir
Jumádá ath-Thání
Sixth Islamic calendar month (the second/last of parched land).   Also known as Jumádá al-Ákhir.
Jumhuriya, Jumhuriyat
Jumhúriya, pl. Jumhúriyát
republic
Jumu’at
al-Jumu‘at
[a proper name] [the day of gathering, the day of congregating] Friday.   Súra 62 named al-Jumu‘ah because verse 9 mentions the call for the 'Congregational Prayer on Friday”.   See jum‘a
Junaina, Junaynih
Junaina, pl. Junainát, Pers. Junaynih
little garden;   garden.   Junaynih Garden—garden nw of Mazra‘ih, Israel
Jund, Junud, Ajnad, Junayd (Junaid)
Jund m. and f., pl. Junúd, Ajnád
soldiers;   army.   Junayd (a name, soldier or warrior) is a diminutive of jund.   Abu’l-Qásim al-Junayd ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Junayd al-Khazzáz al-Qawárírí was a mystic and one of the most famous of the early Saints of Islam.
Junun
Junún
possession, obsession;   mania, madness, insanity, dementia;   foolishness, folly;   frenzy, rage, fury;   ecstasy, rapture.   Pen name of Mírzá Faraju’lláh Faná’yán, see Faná’yán.
Jurj
Jurj
Pers.   wallets;   saddlebags.   Jurjí Zaydán
Justan
Justan
Pers.   to search, seek, inquire, ask for, examine, investigate;   to heap up, accumulate;   to find, acquire.
Juvayn, Juwayn
Juvayn, Ar. Juwayn
Joveyn, area about 50 km NNW of Sabzivár, Írán
Juy
Júy
Pers.   (imperative and participle of justan), seek thou;   seeking, desiring, wishing, asking
Juz’, Ajza’
Juz’, pl. Ajzá’
part, portion;   constituent, component;   fraction;   division;   section;   the 30th part of the Qur’án (= 2 ḥizb)
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Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic attributes (“names”) of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots · Underscores · Vowel sounds · Word transcription macros
Plain text
Transcripted text
Word meanings & comments
K
Ka'aba, Ku'ub
Ka‘aba (Ku‘úb)
to be full and round, be swelling (breasts)   Form II to make cubic, to cube (something);   to dice (something)
Ka'b-ibn-i-Ashraf
Ka‘b-ibn-i-Ashraf
a hermit who denounced Muḥammad as an imposter
Ka'b, Ka'ba, Ka'aba, Ka'iba
Ka’b, Ka’ba(h), Ka’ába(h), Ka’iba
to be dejected, dispirited, downcast, sad
Ka'b, Ki'ab, Ku'ub
Ka‘b, pl. Ki‘áb, Ku‘úb
knot, knob, node (of cane);   joint, articulation;   ankle, anklebone
Ka'ba, Ka'abat, Ka'bih
Ka‘ba(h), pl. Ka‘abát, Pers. Ka‘bih
cube, cubic structure;   (figurative) shrine;   object of veneration, focus of interest.   The cubic building (the Kaaba (al-Ka‘ba) or the exalted Kaaba (al-Ka‘ba al-Musharrafah)) in the centre of the Mosque at Mecca that contains the Black Stone (al-Ḥajar al-Aswad). The sanctuary is believed to have been originally built by Ibráhím (Abraham) and Ismá‘íl (Ishmael), and appointed by Muḥammad as the Qiblih (the Point of Adoration) to which people turn in prayer in Mecca. The structure is 13.1 × 11.03 × 12.86 m (HxWxD)
Kabara, Kabr, Kabri
Kabara, Kabr
to exceed in age (someone by), be older (than someone).   Aqueduct from Kabrí (NE of Naḥáríya) to ‘Akká.
Kabir, Kibar
Kabír, pl. Kibár
great, big, large, sizable;   bulky, voluminous, spacious;   extensive, comprehensive;   significant, considerable, formidable, huge, vast, enormous;   powerful, influential, distinguished, eminent; important;   old. e.g. Amír Kabír.   Superlative form of ‘kabura’.
Kabul
Kábul
capital of Afghánistán
Kabura
Kabura
to be or become great, big, large, to grow, increase
Kad-Khuda
Kad-Khudá
Pers.   chief officer of a district;   a mayor, magistrate, alderman or bailiff.   Head man of a village, town, district or ward.
Kadhdhab
Kadhdháb
liar, swindler;   lying, untruthful;   false, deceitful
Kadhub
Kadhúb
liar
Kaf
Káf
Arabic letter (k)
Kafan, Akfan
Kafan, pl. Akfán
shroud, winding sheet
Kafara
Kafara
to disbelieve (in), to close oneself off to;   to be ungrateful;   to disclaim association with, to renounce
Kaffara
Kaffara(h)
to cover, hide;   to expiate, do penance, atone;   to forgive, grant pardon;   to make an infidel, seduce to unbelief;   to accuse of infidelity, charge with unbelief.   A religious donation of money or food, made to help those in need, when someone deliberately misses a fast or intentionally breaks their fast.
Kaffara, Kaffarih
Kaffára(h), Pers. also Kaffárih
penance, atonement (‘an for a sin), expiation (‘an of);   reparation, amends;   expiatory gifts, expiations (distributed to the poor at a funeral)
Kafi
Káfí
Pers.   sufficient, enough;   efficacious, effective;   entire, perfect.   Kitáb al-Káfí (The Sufficient Book) is a Twelver Shí‘í ḥadíth collection compiled by Muḥammad ibn Ya‘qúb al-Kulayní.
Kafir, Kafirun, Kuffar, Kafara, Kifar
Káfir, pl. Káfirún, Kuffár, Kafara, Kifár
irreligious, unbelieving;   unbeliever, infidel, atheist;   ungrateful
Kafiya
Káfiyá
by Ibn-i-Ḥájib
Kafshgarkula, Kafshgar Kula
Kafshgarkulá, Kafshgar Kulá
(“Kafshgar Kola”, “Khafagarkolah”) is a village 12 km south of Babol, in Babol County, Mazandaran Province. It is near and to the west of the Shrine of Shaykh Ṭabarsí.
Kafur
Káfúr
(kafur) (a fountain intended to be drunk by the true and firm believers)—literally camphor, a medicine that is given as a soothing tonic in Eastern medicine. It is cool and it may have a good odour. Symbolically it is referred to as a spring in heaven or an added spiritual flavour etc. Used to denote whiteness—a compound of all colours
Kahf, Kuhuf
Kahf, pl. Kuhúf
cave, cavern;   depression, hollow, cavity
Kahin, Kuhan, Kahana
Káhin, pl. Kuhhán, Kahana
diviner, soothsayer, prognosticator, fortuneteller;   priest
Kahraba
Kahrabá’ and Kahrabá
amber;   electricity
Kahraba’i, Kahrabi
Kahrabá’í and Kahrabí
electric(al);   electrician
Kahrabiya, Kahrabiya
Kahrabá’íya and Kahrabíya
electricity
Kahruba’i
Kahrubáʼí
Pers.   electricity
Kaj Kulah (Kajkulah)
Kaj Kuláh (or Kaj-Kuláh)
Pers.   A beau, lit. “wearing the cap awry”;   a beloved object
Kajawa (Kajawih, Kajavih, Kijawih)
Kajawa, Kajáwa, Kazáwa
Pers.   a type of pannier, howdah or litter for women, placed on camels (sometimes mules).   See Hawdaj
Kalam
Kalám
talking, speaking;   speech;   language, mode of expression, style;  talk, conversation, discussion;   debate, dispute, controversy;   words, word, saying, utterance, statement, remark;   aphorism, maxim, phrase, idiom, figure of speech;   (grammar) sentence, clause.   Described as “speculative theology” by Momen.   In Islám “the term ‘theology’ has never been used.  Instead, the term kalám (discourse on the divine) was coined because the term ‘theology’ was identified with the doctrine of the holy trinity.”  Making the crooked straight, p. 786.
Kalantar
Kalántar
A mayor or prefecture of police?
Kalat-i-Nadiri
Kalát-i-Nádirí
Kalat Nader, city 80 km north of Mashhad
Kalb, Kilab
Kalb, pl. Kiláb
dog
Kalbasi
Kalbásí
Ḥájí Muḥammad-Ibráhím-i-Kalbásí
Kaldah, Kalda
Kaldah (Kaldih), Kalda
Pers.   dry, barren ground;   a name.   Mas’súd-Kaldih
Kalim, Kalma, Kulama
Kalím
two meanings: 1. wounded, injured;   sore;   (pl. kalmá).   2. person addressed;   speaker, spokesman, mouthpiece (pl. kulamá’). Hence, “The Interlocutor”—title of Mírzá Músá, Bahá’u’lláh’s faithful brother;   also Áqáy-i Kalím, Master of Discourse, his usual full title.
Kalima (Kalimah, Kalimat), Kalim
Kalima fem., pl. Kalimát, Kalim
(Kalim is the collective masc. pl.)   word;   speech, address;   utterance, remark, saying;   aphorism, maxim;   brief announcement, a few (introductory) words;   short treatise;   importance, weight, influence, authority, ascendancy, powerful position.   Final Arabic letter is a tá mabúta, hence singular forms Kalimah and Kalimat.
Kalimat-i-Firdawsiyyih
Kalimát-i-Firdawsíyyih
(“The Words of Paradise”) (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Kalimat-i-Maknunih
Kalimát-i-Maknúnih
“The Hidden Words” by Bahá’u’lláh. Also known as Ṣaḥífiy-i-Fáṭimíyyih (Book of Fáṭimih) and Muṣḥaf Fáṭimah.
Kalimu'llah
Kalímu’lláh
“One who converses with God”.   Title given to Moses in the Islamic Dispensation.
Kam
Kam
Pers.   few, little;   deficient, defective, mutilated, wanting, diminished, scarce, less (hence frequently imparting a negative sense);   worse;   poor, wretched;   base;   abandonment;   deficiency, destitution;   excellent, precious, glorious, honoured;   the waist, side.   Kam-kam, little by little
Kam, Chand
Kam, Pers. Chand
(interrogative and exclamatory particle with following noun in accusative) how much? how many! how much!
Kamal, Kamalat
Kamál, pl. Kamalát
perfection;   completeness;   completion, consummation, conclusion, termination, windup;   maturity, ripeness
Kamalu'd-Din-i-Naraqi
Kamálu’d-Dín-i-Naráqí
Kamana, Kamina, Kumun
Kamana and Kamina (Kumún)
to hide;   to be hidden, concealed, latent;   to have its secret seat (in);   to ambush, waylay (someone)   Form V to lie in wait (for someone), ambush, waylay (someone)   Form X to hide, lie concealed
Kamil-Muqaddam
Kámil-Muqaddam
Kamil, Kamala
Kámil, Kamala
perfect, consummate;   genuine, sterling;   complete, full, plenary, full-strength;   completed, concluded;   whole, entire, total, integral
Kamran
Kámrán
Pers.   Name.   successful, blessed, fortunate
Kana, Kawn (Kaun), Kiyan, Kainina
Kána (Kawn, Kiyán, Kainína)
to be (past tense);   to exist;   to happen, occur, take place.   Kuntu (I was)
Kanad
Kanád
Pers.   a turtle-dove
Kand
Kand
Pers.   cutting.   Village in the province of Ṭihrán.
Kangavar
Kangávar
Persian town west of Mt. Alvand and Hamadán.
Kanz, Kunuz
Kanz, pl. Kunúz
treasure
Kar, Karat
Kár, pl. Karát
Ar.   work, job, occupation, business;   calling, vocation, profession, trade.   e.g. Ustádhkár
Karaj
Karaj
becoming stale and mouldy (bread)
Karama (Kirama, Kiramat), Karamat
Karáma(t), Karámát
nobility;   high-mindedness, noble-heartedness;   generosity, magnanimity;   liberality, munificence;   honour, dignity;   respect, esteem, standing, prestige;   mark of honour, token of esteem, favour;—pl. miracle (worked by a saint)
Karand, Kirand (Kerand)
Karand, Kirand
a village about 100 km SE of Ṭihrán, home of the ‘Alíyu’lláhís (an Islamic sect, followers of the Imám ‘Alí).
Karb
Karb
pressing heavily, weighing down the spirits (grief);   drawing tight (a fetter);   ploughing;   twisting a rope;   being near setting (the sun), almost extinguished (fire);   affliction, anguish, vexation, distress
Karbala, Karbila
Karbalá, Karbilá
a Shi’ite holy city in ‘Iráq where the Imám Ḥusayn was murdered and is buried.   Imám Ḥusayn said of the name: “Anguish and distress” (a combination of karb (the land that will cause many agonies) and balá’ (afflictions)).   There are two villages of the same name in Fars and Zanjan Provinces.   See Karb and Balá’
Karbala’i
Karbalá’í
prefixed title given to those performing the pilgrimage to Karbalá
Karbala’i (Karbila’i) Mihdi Milani
Karbalá’í Mihdí Mílání
(Kerbelaiy Mehdi Milani) (Karbilá’í)
Karim, Kurama’, Kiram
Karím, pl. Kuramá’, Kirám
noble;   distinguished, high-ranking, eminent;   high-minded, noble-minded, noble-hearted;   generous, liberal, munificent, hospitable, beneficent;   benefactor;   kind, kindly, friendly, amicable, obliging, gracious;   respectable, honourable, decent;   precious, valuable, costly;   thoroughbred.   Also “All-Bountiful”
Karkh
al-Karkh
a quarter in Baghdád bounded by the west bank of the Tigris River. Bahá’u’lláh’s family moved to al-Karkh prior to His return from Kurdistán.
Karkuk (Kirkuk)
Karkúk
city in northern ‘Iráq
Karmal
Karmal
(karmel, Hebrew “garden”).   Jabal al-Karmal (Mount Carmel).   The term Mt. Carmel is defined as: 1. the 39 km-long mountain range;   2. northwestern 19 km of the mountain range;   and 3. the headland at the northwestern end of the range (Shoghi Effendi called the temple site as the “Head” of Mount Carmel and the Shrine of the Báb as the “Heart”).   The description Jabal al-Quds (the Holy Mountain) in Miracles & Metaphors, p. 45, may refer to Mt. Carmel.
Karmali
Karmalí
Carmelite.   Carmelite Monastery (Kamalí Dayr)
Karwan-saray (Karvan-saray)
Kárwán-saráy
Pers.   caravanserai (roadside inn for travellers)
Kashan
shán
One of the oldest cities of Írán, located in north central Persia.
Kashanih
shánih
town (Keşan, Turkey) that Bahá’u’lláh passed through on His way to Gallipoli (100 km south of Edirne)
Kashf, Kushuf, Kushufat
Kashf, pl. Kushúf, Kushúfát
uncovering, disclosure;   baring, exposure, unveiling;   revelation, illumination (mysticism);   investigation, inquiry, search, quest, study;   examination, scrutiny;   inspection;   boy scout movement;—(pl.) report, account;   statement, specification, enumeration;   table, schedule, chart;   list, roster, index, register, inventory;—(pl. kushúfát) discoveries
Kashfi
Kash
of or pertaining to boy scouts.   “the Discloser” or “one who discovers and explains the divine secrets”
Kashfiya
Kashfíya
alternative name for the Shaykhis because God lifted (kashf) from their intellect and from their vision the veil of ignorance and lack of insight into the Religion, and removed the darkness of doubt and uncertainty from their minds and their hearts. They are the ones whose hearts God illumined with the light of guidance. The development of Shaykhí thought in Shí‘í Islam, p. 48.
Kashghar
shghar
(Kashgar) part of Sinkiang, China
Kashi
shí
Pers.   short form of Káshání
Kashif, Kashafa
shif, pl. Kashafa
uncovering, revealing, etc.;   serving exploratory purposes, instrumental in reconnaissance, conducive to discovery, detection or disclosure;   examiner, investigator, discoverer;   supervisor, inspector
Kashifi (Kashefi)
shifí
(Pers.   with Ar influence) revelation, manifestation
Kashifu'l-Ghita
shifu’l-Ghiṭá
Muḥammad Ḥusayn Káshif al-Ghiṭá’ (b. 1294/1877–d. 1373/1953), a Shí‘a intellectual and marja‘ of Najaf.
Kashkul
Kashkúl
beggar’s bag;   scrapbook;   album.   Described as a globe-shaped alms-basket (originally made from a sea-coconut) carried by dervishes.
Kashmar
shmar
formerly Turshíz or Sulṭánábád, city (155 km SW Mashhad) and county, in Raḍawí Khurásán Province, Írán.
Kasr-i-Hudud
Kasr-i-Ḥudúd
lift or break bounds imposed by God
Kasr, Kusur
Kasr, pl. Kusúr
breaking, fracturing;   shattering, fragmentation;   (pl.) break, breach, fracture;   crack, rupture; fracture of a bone
Kasra
Kasra
defeat, breakdown, collapse;   the vowel point for the short vowel i (grammar);   nook of the house.   See ḍamma and fatḥa
Katama, Katm, Kitman
Katama (Katm, Kitmán)
to hide (something, from someone);   to conceal, secrete, keep secret (something, from someone);   to suppress, repress, restrain, check, curb, subdue (anger, passion);   to hold (one’s breath);   to lower, muffle (the voice);   to stifle, smother, quench (fire)
Kathir, Kithar
Kathír, pl. Kithár
much, many, numerous, abundant, plentiful, copious;   frequent;   a large portion, a great deal, a great many, a lot
Kathiran
Kathírán
very, much, to a large extent;   often, frequently
Kathiri
Kathírí
al-Kathírí, officially the Kathiri State of Seiyun in Hadhramaut (Arabic: al-Salṭanah al-Kathíríyah-Say’ún-Ḥaḍramawt) was a sultanate in the Hadhramaut region of the southern Arabian Peninsula, in what is now part of Yemen and the Dhofar region of Oman.
Kathr
Kathr
much;   surplus
Kathra
Kathra(t)
large quantity, great number, multitude, abundance, copiousness, numerousness, frequency, multiplicity, plurality;   majority, major portion (of)
Katib-i-Sirr
Kátibu’s-Sirr, Pers. Kátib-i-Sirr
private secretary
Katib, Katibun, Kuttab
Kátib, pl. Kátibún, Kuttáb, Kataba
writer;   scribe, scrivener;   secretary;   clerk typist;   office worker, clerical employee;   clerk, registrar, actuary, court clerk;   notary; writer, author
Katiba, Katibat
Kátiba, pl. Katibát
woman secretary;   authoress, writer
Katibpur-Shahidi
Kátibpúr-Shahídí
Ni‘matu’lláh Kátibpúr-Shahídí
Katurah
Katúráh
Abraham’s third wife
Kawih (Kavih)
Káwih
Pers.   “Kaveh” in Iranian mythology is a blacksmith (Áhangar) from Isfahan.   Pers./Kurdish Káwa.   May mean strength, vigour. May have derived from the Ar. Qahwa.
Kawkab (Kaukab, Kokab), Kawakib
Kawkab pl. Kawákib
star (also, fig., of screen, stage, etc.);   white opacity in the cornea of the eye
Kawm (Kaum), Akwam, Kiman
Kawm, pl. Akwám, Kímán
heap, pile;   hill;—pl. kímán especially garbage piles, refuse dump
Kawm as-Sa'aydah, Kawmu's-Sa'ayidih
Kawm aṣ-Ṣa‘áydah
Per.   Kawmu’ṣ-Ṣa’áyidih. A village about 8 km SW of Bibá, Egypt. A fierce attack on a small band of Bahá’ís in this village ended in being the “initial step”, Shoghi Effendi said, in “the eventual universal acceptance of the Bahá’í Faith, as one of the independent recognized religious systems of the world” (Bahá’í Administration, p. 101) by the Appellate religious court of Bibá, which delivered its judgement on 10 May 1925. (Priceless Pearl, p. 318).   See entry for Bibá and The Bahá’í World, III:48–50.
Kawmu
Kawmú
gathering, assembly, group of people
Kawn, Akwan
Kawn, pl. Akwán
being;   existence;   event, occurrence, incident.   al-kawn the existent, the existing, reality;   the world;   the cosmos, the universe   al-Kawn al-A‘lá, the Supreme Being, God.
Kawthar, Kawsar
Kawthar, Pers. Kawsar
much, ample, abundant, plentiful, large quantity;   al-Kawthar—name of a lake or river in Paradise (that Muḥammad saw on his mystic night journey, Qur’án 108:1) whence all the other rivers derive their source.
Kawus (Kavus)
Káwús
Pers.   name of an ancient king of Persia;   pure;   elegant, graceful;   radical;   firm, constant;   generous, noble;   strengthened by divine aid;   a subduer, conqueror;   a spark;   light, splendour, coruscation;   swiftness, impetuosity.
Kay (Kai), Kayan
Kay, pl. Kayán
Pers.   a star;   the point made by the compasses at the centre of a circle;   (pl.) great kings;   the surname of the second dynasty of the Persian kings
Kayani, Kayaniyan
Kayání, pl. Kayániyán
Pers.   of the Kayanian race;   imperial, royal.   Dynasty [time of Alexander the Great] of the Kayániyán (Keyanian) kings of Persia.
Kaykhusraw (Kaikhusraw)
Kaykhusraw
Pers.   Also Kay Khusraw, Kay-Khusraw.   Legendary Persian warrior
Kaysaniyya
Kaysániyya
Kaysanite, see Mukhtáriyya. Name may have been based on the kunya (surname) Kaysán, allegedly given to Al-Mukhtár (see Mukhtár) by ‘Alí, or the name of a freed Mawlá of ‘Alí who was killed at the Battle of Ṣiffín called Kaysán. More likely named after Abú ‘Amra Kaysán, a prominent Mawlá and chief of Al-Mukhtár’s personal bodyguard. The Kaysanites were also known as Ḥanafiyya (after Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥanafiyyah)
Kaywan (Kaiwan, Kayvan)
Kaywán
the planet Saturn;   like-wise his orbit;   a bow;   the seventh heaven
Kazim
Káẓim
“One who suppresses his passion or anger”   The title of the seventh Imám of the Shí‘ih.
Kazim
Kaẓím
filled with anger
Kazim-i-Rashti
Káẓim-i-Rashtí, Siyyid
Kazim-i-Zanjani
Káẓim-i-Zanjání
Kazimayn
Káẓimayn
Káẓimayn (“Kazmin” or “Kazemain”)   “the two Ká’ẓims” (Imám Músá al-Káẓim and Muḥammad al-Taqí, the seventh and ninth A’imma).   Káẓimayn was a city built around the shrines of these A’imma—Al-Káẓimiya Mosque—now a suburb of Baghdád (about 7 km north of the city centre)
Kazimi-Manshadi
Káẓimí-Manshádí
Kaziran
Kázirán
(Kazerun)   90 km west of Shíráz
Kha
Khá
Name of Arabic letter
Khabar-Dar
Khabar-Dár
Pers.   informed, appraised, certified;   aware;   careful, cautious;   an informer, scout, spy;   take care! beware! look out!
Khabar, Akhbar
Khabar, pl. Akhbár
news;   information, intelligence: report, communication, message;   notification;   rumor;   story;   matter, affair.   Traditions, sayings attributed to Muḥammad and to the Imams.
Khada (Khadih), Khawd, Khiyad
Kháḍa (Khawḍ, Khiyáḍ)
to wade (into water);   to plunge, dive, rush (into something), tackle courageously (something), embark boldly (on).   Pers.   also kháḍih.   Jalálu’lláh Kháḍih, last name also transcripted Kházih or Kházeh (1897–21 February 1990), a Hand of the Cause of God appointed by Shoghi Effendi in 1953.
Khadar
Khaḍár
green, greenness, green colour;   greens, herbs, pot-herbs
Khadhala, Khadhl, Khidhlan
Khadhala (Khadhl, Khidhlán)
to leave, abandon, forsake, desert, leave in the lurch (or someone);   to stay behind;   to disappoint;   pass
Khadi', Khudda', Khud'an, Khid'an
Kháḍi‘, pl. Khuḍḍa‘, Khuḍ‘án, Khiḍ‘án
submissive, humble;   obedient, pliant, tractable;   subject, liable, prone (to something).   Pers. may use Kházih (Khazih)
Khadi'i
Kháḍi‘í
[Doubtful Kháḍí’í in MUHJ 1963–86, p. 502.]
Khadij
Khadíj
Pers.   an abortion (of an animal)
Khadija (Khadijah or Khadijat), Khadijih
Khadíja(h or t), Khadíjih
Muḥammad’s first wife.
Khadijih Khanum
Khadíjih Khánum
Mother of Bahá’u’lláh.   Children of second marriage—Daughters Sárih Khánum and Nisá Khánum.   Sons Bahá’u’lláh, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Mihdí
Khadijih-Bagum
Khadíjih-Bagum
Wife of the Báb.
Khadijih-Sultan
Khadíjih-Sulṭán
Khadim, Khuddam, Khudama
Khádim, pl. Khuddám, Khudama
(“Khadem”) domestic servant, help;   manservant;   woman servant;   employee;   attendant;   waiter;   deacon (Christian)   (Dhikru’lláh Khádem (sic), appointed Hand of the Cause of God, 1957)
Khadimu'llah
Khádimu’lláh
(“Servant of God”)   Title given to Mírzá Áqá Ján, he was the personal attendant of Bahá’u’lláh and later His amanuensis as well.   (EGB, p. 65 by Balyuzi refers to the Tablet where the concept of Hand of the Cause of God is first mentioned in the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh)
Khadir
Khaḍir
green, verdant;   verdure, greenery;   young green crop (of grain)
Khadir, Khidir, Khidr
al-Khaḍir, al-Khiḍir (al-Khiḍr)
a well-known legendary figure (“The Green One”) or immortal saint. Identified as “One of our servants” Qur’án 18:65. His name is not mentioned in the Qur’án, but tradition gives it as Khiḍr. His knowledge is fresh and green, and drawn out of the living sources of life (Alláh). Equivalent in the Bible is considered to be Melchizedek.   Bahíyya Khánum, p. 99 states the Cave of Khiḍr is the Cave of Elijah.
Khafiya, Khafiyyih, Khafaya
Khafíya(h), (Pers. Khafiyyih), pl. Khafáyá
a secret, a secret affair
Khajih
Khájih
(“Title of honour”) Name of a fortress near the town of Nayríz.
Khal-i-A'zam
Khál-i-A‘ẓam
“the Greatest Uncle”   ‘Alí, Ḥájí Mírzá Siyyid, maternal uncle of the Báb
Khal-i-Asghar
Khál-i-Aṣghar
“Younger or Junior Uncle”
Khal, Akhwal, Khu'ul, Khu'la
Khál, pl. Akhwál, Khu’úl, Khu’úla
(maternal) uncle;— (pl. khílán) mole, birthmark (on the face);   patch, beauty spot
Khalaj
Khalaj
Pers.   the aching of the bones from excessive labour.   The Khalaj people (also spelt Xalaj or Khaladzh; Persian: Xalajhá) are primarily classified as a Turkic people likely of Indo-Iranian origin that speak the Khalaj language. Became largely Persianized in the mid-20th century.
Khalajabadi
Khalajábádí (Khalaj + Ábádí)
Pers.   Kayván Khalajábádí
Khalal, Khilal
Khalal, pl. Khilál
gap, interval, interstice;   cleft, crack, rupture, fissure;   a defective, unbalanced state, imbalance;   defectiveness, imperfection;   fault, flaw, defeat, shortcoming;   disturbance, upset, disorder;   damage, injury, harm (that something suffers or suffered);   khilála during;   between;   through
Khalaqa, (Khalq)
Khalaqa (Khalq)
to create, make, originate (something);   to shape, form, mould (something)
Khaldun
Khaldún
Ibn-i-Khaldún (“Ibn-Kaldoon”) (a famous Oriental historian)
Khali (Khalin)
Khálí (Khálin)
free, unrestrained, open, vacant (office, position), void;   idle, unemployed;   free (from), devoid
Khalid, Khwalid
Khálid, pl. Khwálid
everlasting, perpetual, eternal;   immortal, deathless, undying;   unforgettable, glorious;—pl. mountains
Khalidiya, Khalidiyyih
Khálidíya(h), Pers. Khálidíyyih
al-Khálidíya “belonging to Khálid”. Naqshbandíya Khálidíya, Khálidíya or Khálidí is the title of a branch of the Naqshbandíya Ṣúfí lineage, from the time of Khálid al-Baghdádí
Khalifa, Khulafa
Khalífa, pl. Khulafá’, Khalá’if
Caliph, literally, successor.   The vicar, deputy, successor or representative of the Messenger of God (see Khiláfa);—pl. the institution, the Caliphate
Khalifatu
Khalífatu
successor of Muḥammad
Khalij, Khulj, Khuljan
Khalíj pl. Khulj, Khulján
bay, gulf;   canal;   al-Khalíj—name of Cairo’s ancient city canal that was abandoned and leveled at the end of the 19th century.   al-Khalíj Farsí—the Persian Gulf
Khalil
Khalíl, pl. Akhillá, Khullán
friend, bosom friend;   lovers.   The Friend, Abraham.
Khalil-i-Khu'i
Khalíl-i-Khu’í
Khalilu'llah
Khalílu’lláh
the Friend of God (Abraham is known as)
Khaliq
Kháliq
creative;   Creator, Maker (God).   Used as a name, preceded by ‘Abd (servant)—‘Abdu’l-Kháliq “Servant of the Creator”.
Khalis, Khalisa, Khullas
Kháliṣ, fem. Kháliṣa(h), pl. Khullaṣ
clear;   pure, unmixed, unadulterated;   sincere, frank, candid, true;   free, exempt (from);   name of a stream in the east of Baghdád on the banks of which a castle of the same name is situated.   Persian also government revenue department office;   lands under government management.
Khalisizádih
Kháliṣízádih
itinerant traveller, Ákhúnd Turábí, Shaykh Muḥammad Kháliṣízádih
Khalji
Khaljí
‘Alá’ud-Dín Khaljí (r. 1296–1316) was the second and the most powerful ruler of the Khaljí dynasty in India
Khalkhal, Khalakhil
Khalkhál, Khalákhíl
anklet.   (Azerbaijani: Khálkhál) (formerly and local, Azerbaijani: Híruw, Persian: Híruwábád (Hírábád)) is a city and capital of Khalkhál County, in Ardabíl Province, Írán.
Khall
Khall
Ar.   vinegar.   See Pers. Sirka
Khalq
Khalq
creation;   making;   origination;   something which is created, a creation;   creatures;   people, man, mankind;   physical constitution.   Khalqan a creation
Khalq-i-Jadid
Khalq-i-Jadíd
Pers. (spiritual) rebirth
Khalwa, Khalawat
Khalwa(t), pl. Khalawát
privacy, solitude;   seclusion, isolation, retirement;   place of retirement or seclusion, retreat, recess;   secluded room;   hermitage;   religious assembly hall of the Druses;   booth, cabin
Khamir
Khamír
leavened (dough);   ripe, mature, mellow;   leaven;   leavened bread
Khammar
Khammár
vintner, wine merchant, keeper of a wineshop
Khammar, 'Udi
Khammár, ‘Údí
He placed the inscription “Greetings and salutations rest upon this mansion which increaseth in splendour through the passage of time. Manifold wonders and marvels are found therein, and pens are baffled in attempting to describe them” over his mansion’s door in ‘Akká   (David Ruhe, Door of Hope).   Grid co-ordinates 32.921563, 35.067297
Khamsa, Khams
Khamsa, fem. Khams
five;   the five fingers, the hand.   Khamsih (Khamseh) is the former name of Zanján Province.
Khan-i-'Arab
Khán-i-‘Arab
Khan-i-'Avamid
Khán-i-‘Avámíd
Inn of Pillars, ‘Akká.   Also known as Khán-i-Jurayní, or Khán al-‘Umdán.   See ‘Awámíd.
Khan-i-Ahi
Khán-i-Áhí
Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, a secretary of Russian Legation
Khan-i-Kalantar
Khán-i-Kalántar
Khan-i-Kashi
Khán-i-Káshí
Khan-i-Kirmani
Khán-i-Kirmání
Khan-i-Larijani
Khán-i-Laríjání
Khan-i-Nuri
Khán-i-Núrí
Khan-i-Qazvini
Khán-i-Qazvíní
Khan-i-Sardar
Khán-i-Sardár
Khan-i-Shavirdi
Khán-i-Shávirdí
(A caravanserai in ‘Akká)
Khan-i-Tanakabuni
Khán-i-Tanakábúní
(GPB) Khán-i-Tunukábúní, Sulaymán (MF)
Khan, Khanat
Khán, pl. Khánát
hostel, caravansary;   inn, pub, tavern.   Originally from the Mongolian term for a ruler;   a title meaning prince, chieftain or man of rank.
Khandil
Khándil
pronunciation of Turkish Kandil (candle or oil lamp).   Arabic qindíl
Khani
Khání
Khanidan
Khánidán
Pers.   to echo;   to obtain celebrity
Khanih
Khánih
Pers.   house
Khaniq, Khawaniq
Khániq, Khawániq
choking, strangling;   suffocating, asphyxiating, stifling, smothering;   throttling, throttle (in compounds;   tech.);   (pl.) choke coil, reactor (radio);   gorge, ravine, canyon
Khaniqayn
Khániqayn
A town in ‘Iráq on the border of Írán near Baghdád.
Khaniqin
Khániqín
city near eastern border of ‘Iráq, 145 km NE of Baghdád
Khaniqiyi
Khángiyí
Pers.   homemade
Khanjar, Khanajir
Khanjar, pl.Khanájir
dagger.   Shaykh Khanjar was given the name Salmán by Bahá’u’lláh—thereafter known as Shaykh Salmán
Khanum
Khánum
(Lady, wife) The feminine form of khán.
Khaqan, Khawaqin
Kháqán, pl. Khawáqín
overlord, ruler, sovereign, monarch, emperor
Khar
Khar
Pers.   an ass;   a stupid fool;   black viscous clay;   sediment;   the bridge of a violin;   the commonest, ugliest, largest, or coarsest of its kind
Kharaj
Kharáj
tax;   land tax (Islamic Law)
Kharaja, Khuruj
Kharaja, Khurúj
to go out, walk out;   to come out.   An act of rebellion against authorities.
Kharif
Kharíf
autumn, fall
Khariq-i-'Adat
Kháriq-i-‘Ádat
(Khareki-Adat) Things that are contrary, rend or change the habits of men. Hence, sometimes ‘miracles’.
Kharput
Khárpút
Harput/Khárpút, ancient fortress about 5 km ne of Elâziǧ, Turkey
Kharras (Kharraz), Kharrasun
Kharráṣ, pl. Kharráṣún
liar, slanderer, calumniator
Khartum, Kharatim
Kharṭúm, pl. Kharáṭím
proboscis, trunk (of the elephant);   hose.   al-Kharṭúm (Khartoum)—capital of the Sudanese Republic
Khasa'il-i-Sab'ih
Khaṣá’il-i-Sab‘ih
“The Seven Proofs or Qualifications” (by the Báb)
Khash
Khásh
city in SE of Írán
Khasilat, Khasa'il
Khaṣílat, pl. Khaṣá’il
Pers.   manner, custom, usage, moral
Khasm, Khusum, Akhsam
Khaṣm, pl. Khuṣúm, Akhṣám
adversary, antagonist, opponent;   opposing party (in a lawsuit)
Khass
Kháṣṣ
special, particular;   specific, peculiar;   relative, relevant
Khassa, Khawass
Kháṣṣa(h), pl. Khawáṣṣ
exclusive property;   private possession;   specialty, particularity, peculiarity, characteristic, property, attribute;   essence, intrinsic nature;   leading personalities, people of distinction, al-kháṣṣa the upper class, the educated
Khassiya, Khassiyat, Khasa'is
Kháṣṣíya, pl. Kháṣṣíyát, Khaṣá’iṣ
Ar.   specialty, particularity, characteristic, peculiarity, property, special attribute, feature, trait, qualification;   prerogative, privilege;   jurisdiction, competence
Khata
Khatá
Pers.   region in Tibet known for musk production
Khataba, Khutba, Khataba
Khaṭaba, Khuba(h), Khaṭába(t)
to deliver a public address, make a speech;   to preach, deliver a sermon
Khatam al-Nabiyin
Khátam an-Nabíyín
the Seal (of approval) of the Prophets (Muḥammad), or “the best of prophets” (khayr an-nabiyyin).   Muḥammad was the last of the Manifestations to prophesy the coming of Bahá’u’lláh, and His Dispensation the last of the prophetic cycle of religion. With the appearance of the Báb, this cycle closed. The Báb’s Mission was not to foretell the Day of God but to announce it. Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh I:66.   Christopher Buck argues, based on The Kitáb-i-Íqán, that Muḥammad was last in terms of authority rather than in the temporal sense.
Khatam al-Wasiyyin
Khátam al-Wasiyyín
Seal of the Successors (‘Alí, son-in-law of Muḥammad)
Khátam an-Nabiyin, Khatamu’n-Nabiyyin
Khátam an-Nabíyín
the Seal (i.e., the best) of the Prophets = Muḥammad.   Pers. Khátamu’n-Nabíyyín
Khatam, Khatim, Khawatim
Khátam, Khátim, pl. Khawátim
seal or signet ring;   ring, finger ring;   seal, signet;   stamp.   Khátam in Qur’án 33:40 can be interpreted as a “seal of approval”, “seal of perfection”, “beauty of” or the “best of”.   al-Tha‘labí stated that “al-khátim is the one who sealed the prophets and al-khátam is the best of the prophets in character and physical constitution”.   Umayyah ibn Abí aṣ-Ṣalt, a contemporary of Muḥammad, speaks of Muḥammad as being the one through whom ‘Allah sealed the prophets before him and after him’, thus clearly indicating an expectation of prophets after Muḥammad.   See “A Bahá’í approach to the claim of finality in Islam”, Seena Fazel and Khazeh Fananapazir, Journal of Bahá’í Studies, 5:3, pp. 17–40;   Islam and the Bahá’í Faith, Momen, chapter 3.
Khatama, Khatm, Khitam
Khatama, Khatm, Khitám
to seal, provide with a seal or signet (something);   to stamp, impress with a stamp (something);   to seal off, close, make impervious or inaccessible (something);   to put one’s seal (on), conclude, terminate (something);   to wind up, finish, complete (something);   to close, heal, cicatrize (wound).   Five forms in Qur’án 2:7, 6:46, 36.65, 42:24 and 45:23.
Khatib, Khutaba, Khuttab
Kháṭib, pl. Khuṭabá, Khuṭṭáb
suitor;   matchmaker
Khatib, Khutaba'
Khaṭíb, pl. Khuṭabá’
(public) speaker;   orator;   lecturer;   preacher;   suitor (for the hand of a girl);   fiancé
Khatiba, Khuttab
Kháṭiba(h), pl. Khuṭṭáb
woman matchmaker
Khatir, Khatirat
Kháṭir, pl. Kháṭirát
Pers.   Whatever occurs to or passes in the mind;   cogitation, thought, suggestion;   memory, remembrance;   mind, soul, heart;   inclination, propensity;   affection, favour;   pleasure, will, choice;   sake, account, behalf
Khatirat-i-Malmiri
Kháṭirát-i-Málmírí
Pers.   Memoirs of Málmírí
Khatirat-i-Nuh-Saliy-i-'Akka
Kháṭirat-i-Nuh-Sáliy-i-‘Akká
Pers.   Yúnis Khán, Memories of Nine Years in ‘Akká
Khatt-i-Murghi
Khaṭṭ-i-Murghí
writing or calligraphy in the shape of a bird
Khatt, Khutut
Khaṭṭ, pl. Khuṭúṭ
line;   stroke;   stripe, streak;   (railroad) line, line of communication;   telephone line;   frontline (military);   furrow, ridge;   handwriting;   writing, script;   calligraphy, penmanship
Khatun
Khátún
Pers.   lady, matron;   proper fem. name
Khatun Jan
Khátún Ján
wife of Hádíy-i-Qazvíní (MF)
Khatun, Khawatin
Khátún, pl. Khawátín
lady, socially prominent woman
Khawaj or Khajih
Kháwaj
Khájih   Pers.   (“eunuch, a master, a man of distinction or a teacher)   See “Arches of the years”, p. 205 and listing for Khájih above
Khawar (Khavar)
Kháwar or Khávar
Pers.   the West, but often used by poets for the east;   the sun;   a thorn
Khawari (Khavari)
Kháwarí or Khávarí
Pers.   Western;   eastern;   the sun;   surname of the poet Anwárí.   From Khávar
Khawarij
Khawárij
the Khawarij, Kharijites (the oldest religious sect of Islam);   dissenters, dissidents, backsliders, rebels, outsiders or seceders
Khawf (Khauf), Khawfan (Khaufan)
Khawf, Khawfan
fear, dread (of);   khawfan for fear (of), fearing (for).   al-Khawf—mystical station of fear of the wrath and displeasure of God.
Khawwam, Khavvam
Khawwám, Pers. Khavvám
a surname
Khaybar
Khaybar
The name of a famous oasis, and of its principle settlement, near Medina.
Khayli (Khaili)
Khaylí
Pers.   many, very much;   very long
Khayli Khub
Khaylí Khúb
Pers.   (“Kheili Khoob”) very good, very well, all right
Khayli khush (khosh) amidad
Khaylí khush ámadíd
Pers.   a very blessed/welcome arrival that can be translated as “your coming gives me most great pleasure and delight”.   See Khwush
Khayma (Khaima), Khaymat
Khayma, pl. Khaymát, Khiyám, Khiyam
tent;   tarpaulin;   arbor, bower;   pavilion
Khayr (Khair), Khiyar, Akhyar, Khuyur
Khayr, pl. Khiyár, Akhyár
good;   excellent, outstanding, superior, admirable;   better;   best;   (pl. Khuyúr) good thing, blessing;   wealth, property;   good, benefit, interest, advantage;   welfare;   charity
Khayriya (Khairiya)
Khayríya
charity, charitableness, benevolence, beneficence
Khayrkhah
Khayrkháh
Ibráhím Khayrkháh from Bábulsar
Khayru'l-Qura (Kheirol-Gora)
Khayru’l-Qurá
“best of villages”.   Name given by Bahá’u’lláh to Zírak, a small village 13 sw Bushrúyih.
Khayru'l-Ummah (Khairu'l-Ummah)
Khayru’l-Ummah
good people/community Qur’án 3:110
Khayru'llah (Khairu'llah)
Khayru’lláh
“God’s Blessing” (“Kheiralla”).   Dr Ibrahim George Kheiralla (11 November 1849–6 March 1929)
Khayru'n Nisa' (Khairu'n Nisa')
Khayru’n Nisá’
“The Most Virtuous among Women”—a title that Bahá’u’lláh gave to Khadíjih Bagum (wife of the Báb), and forbade all women, save Fáṭimih Bagum (the Báb's mother) from adopting the title.
Khayyam
Khayyám
tentmaker
Khayyat, Khayyatun
Khayyáṭ, pl. Khayyáṭún
tailor
Khazana, Khazn
Khazana (Khazn)
to store, stock, lay up, hoard, amass, accumulate;   to keep secret, keep (a secret) Form II and VIII to store, stock, lay up, warehouse (something);   to store up, accumulate (something);   to dam (something);   to put in safekeeping, keep (something)
Khazar
Khazar
a member of a confederation of Turkic-speaking tribes that in the late 6th century ce established a major commercial empire covering the southeastern section of modern European Russia. Baḥr al-Khazar (the Caspian Sea)
Khazina (Khazinih), Khaza'in
Khazína, pl. Khazá’in
treasure house;   public treasury, exchequer;   treasury, treasury department (of an official agency), any office for the deposit and disbursement of funds;   cashier’s office;   vault, coffer, safe;   cashbox, till (of a merchant).   Persian also khazínih, translated as “pool” (see root khazana and khuzzán).
Khazraj
Khazraj
Banú al-Khazraj, a tribe of Arabia up to the time of Muḥammad;   renowned for their generosity and hospitality
Khidiw, Khudaiwi, Khidaywi
Khidíw, Khudaiwí
viceroy.   Eng. khedive.   Pers. Khidív (a king, great prince, sovereign;   a benevolent, excellent man;   master, possessor, rich man;   a friend), (adjective Khidíwí, Eng. khedivial) and plural Khidaywí (“ay” or “í” may better represent the ي after the letter d in the singular and plural forms)
Khidma, Khidam, Khidamat
Khidma(t), pl. Khidam, Khidamát
a service (rendered);   attendance, service;   operation;   office, employment, occupation, job;   work
Khilafa
Khiláfa
vicarship, deputyship;   succession;   caliphate, office or rule of a caliph;   (formerly) administrative department of caliphate
Khilafat
Khiláfat
Pers.   vicegerency of the Prophet
Khilt, Akhlat
Khilṭ, pl. Akhláṭ
component of a mixture;   ingredient;—pl. mixture, blend   (Siyyid Muhammad Akhlate)
Khirqat, Khirqa
Khirqat, Khirqa
Pers.   a patch, rag;   a garment made of shreds and patches;   a religious habit
Khirqiy-i-Sharif
Khirqiy-i-Sharíf Mosque
the Mosque of the Prophets’ Cloak, Istanbul.   See Khirqa
Khitab, Khitabat, Akhtiba
Khiṭáb, pl. Khiṭábát, Akhṭiba
public address, speech;   oration;   letter, note, message.   Khiṭábát (Talks of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, corresponds to Paris Talks)
Khitabat dar Urupa va Imrika
Khiṭábát dar Urúpá va Imríká
Letters to Europe and America (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Khitam
Khitám
sealing wax;   end, close, conclusion, termination.   Qur’án 83:26
Khivah, Khiwah
Khivah
Pers.   city in Uzbekistan. One of many former names is Khwárizm
Khiyaban (Kheyaban)
Khíyábán
Pers.   a parterre (formal garden), flower-bed;   an avenue (modern meaning).   Two central intersecting avenues in Mashhad (Bala-Khíyábán (upper) and Pa’in-Khíyábán (lower)—since renamed);   a village in eastern Írán 200 km se of Mashhad.
Khub
Khúb
Pers.   good;   beautiful, elegant, pleasant, graceful, lovely, amiable, charming, excellent, gracious;   beautifully, excellently;   firm, strong
Khuda (Khoda)
Khudá
Pers.   master, prince, Lord, God
Khuda Bakhsh
Khudá Bakhsh
Gift of God
Khudarahm
Khudáraḥm
Pers.   compassion of God
Khujand, Khuqand, Khukand
Khujand, Khúkand
city in Chinese Turestan about 110 km sse Tashkent
Khujasta, Khujastah (Khujasteh)
Khujasta (Khujastah)
Pers.   (ends with an “h”)   happy, fortunate, auspicious, blessed;   a flower yellow without and black within;   a woman’s name.
Khul
Khul
Pers.   bent, curved, crooked;   mad;   ashes;   fundament.   Possible word for ‘ashes’ in Arches of the years, p. 304.
Khulafa'u'r Rashidun
Khulafá’u’r-Ráshidún
(The) Rightly-Guided Caliphate—consisting of the first four caliphs in Islám’s history—was founded after Muḥammad’s death in 632.   (sometimes al-Khulafá’a’r-Ráshidín or Khulafá’ Ráshidún).   See Caliphs section below this list.
Khuld
Khuld
infinite duration, endless time, perpetuity, eternity
Khulq, Khuluq, Akhlaq
Khulq, Khuluq, pl. Akhláq
innate peculiarity;   natural disposition, character, temper, nature;—pl. character (of a person);   morals;   morality
Khulus
Khulúṣ
clearness, purity;   sincerity, candor;   frankness
Khulusiya
Khulúṣíya(t)
purity, candour, honesty.
Khumasi
Khumásí
fivefold, quintuple;   consisting of five consonants (grammar)
Khumayn
Khumayn
Persian (Khomein, Khowmeyn, and Khumain) a city in and the capital of Khumayn County, Markazí Province, Írán
Khumayni
Khumayní
Pers.   “Khomeini” of or from Khumayn
Khums, Akhmas
Khums, pl. Akhmás
one fifth.   An additional religious tax (one-fifth) paid by Shí‘í Muslims to the Imám or his deputies
Khun
Khún
Pers.   blood;   bloody;   killing;   revenge;   a shedder of blood;   life, soul;   selfishness;   pride;   a table;   reading;   singing
Khun-Baha
Khún-Bahá
blood price or value, “blood-money”.   See Bahá’i Khun
Khur
Khur
Pers.   the sun
Khurasan
Khurásán
(Khorasan)   “where the sun arrives from”.   Province in the north-eastern part of Írán until 2004—replaced by North Khurásán, South Khurásán and Razavi (Raḍawí) Khurásán Provinces.
Khurasani
Khurásání
Khurma
Khurmá
Pers.   date (fruit)
Khurma'i
Khurmá’í
Mrs Írán Raḥímpúr (née Khurmá’í)
Khursand, Khursanda
Khursand, Khursandra
Pers.   (ends with an “h”)   content, satisfied, pleased.   Town 190 km west of Kirmán
Khurshid (Khorshid, Khurshed)
Khurshíd
Pers.   fem. name, khur-shíd, the sun;   sunshine.   See Áftáb
Khuruj
Khurúj
exit;   egression, emergence;   departure;   exodus;   emigration;   raid, foray, sortie (against), attack, assault (on)
Khushk
Khushk
Pers.   dry, withered;   useless, barren;   pure, mere, genuine;   avaricious, tenacious
Khushk-i-Nusrat
Khushk-i-Nuṣrat
a village between Ṭihrán and Qum
Khushkhu
Khushkhú (Khwush-Khú)
Pers.   good-natured, of an excellent disposition
Khusraw (Khusrav, Khusrau)
Khusraw
Pers.   A celebrated Persian king (Khosrow, Khosroe, Khosru or Cyrus).   Kay Khusraw Khudádád, believed to be the first to embrace the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh from the Zoroastrian community
Khusraw Parviz
Khusraw Parvíz
(Chosroes II), the Sásánian monarch (Parvez)
Khusus
Khuṣúṣ
specialness
Khutan (Khotan, Khoten)
Khutan
Pers.   Ancient Buddhist city/region west of modern Hotan, Tibet, known for musk production
Khutba, Khutbih, Khutab
Khuṭba(t), Pers. Khuṭbih, pl. Khuṭab
public address;   speech;   lecture, discourse;   oration;   sermon, specif., Muslim Friday midday sermon
Khutbat at-Tutunjiyya
Khuṭbat aṭ-Ṭutunjíyya
Ar.   loosely “Sermon of the Gulf” or “Sermon of the Twin Gulfs”—a sermon or discourse attributed to Imam ‘Alí who delivered it between Kufah and Medina. Name derived from the occurrence (5x—in singular and dual forms) of the Arabic quadrilateral طتنج (Ṭ-T-N-J= ṭutunj? or تطنج = T-Ṭ-N-J = taṭanj?).   Pers. Khuṭbih-i-Ṭutunjíyya or Khuṭbatu’l-Ṭutunjíyyah.
Khutbatu’sh-Shiqshiqiyya
Khuṭbatu’sh-Shiqshiqiyya
A sermon preached by Imám ‘Alí (a favourite among Shí‘í Muslims because it is a rare statement by ‘Alí on the usurpation of the caliphate by Abú Bakr) that was interrupted by a member of the audience asking a question. When begged by Ibn ‘Abbás to continue his address, ‘Alí answered, “The shiqshiqa has roared and subsided”, meaning the inspiration of the moment has gone.
Khutbiy-i-Dhikriyyih
Khuṭbiy-i-Dhikríyyih
“Sermon of Remembrance” (by the Báb).   Also called Tafsír-i-Há’ (Interpretation of the Letter Há’) and Ṣaḥifiy-i-Ja‘faríyyih (Epistle of Ja‘far)
Khutbiy-i-Jiddah
Khuṭbiy-i-Jiddah
“Sermon of Jiddah” (by the Báb)
Khutbiy-i-Qahriyyih
Khuṭbiy-i-Qahríyyih
“Sermon of Wrath” (by the Báb)
Khutbiy-i-Tutunjiyyih
Khuṭbiy-i-Ṭutunjíyyih
Pers.   Sermon of the Gulf by Imám ‘Alí.   See Khuṭbat al-Ṭutunjíyya
Khuy
Khuy
(Khoy) city in and the capital of Khoy County, West Azerbaijan Province, Írán
Khuza’i
Khuzá‘í
Sa‘d bin Ḥárith al-Khuzá‘í (martyred 61/680 in Karbala), agent of Imám ‘Alí, the companion of Imám al-Ḥasan and Imám al-Ḥusayn.   Brigadier-General Ḥusayn Khuzá‘í, army commander in Mashhad, 1924.
Khuzistan
Khúzistán
Iranian Province at the north end of Persian Gulf (Khuzestan)
Khuzzan, Khuzzanat, Khazazin
Khuzzán, pl. Khuzzánát, Khazázín
dam;   reservoir;   basin, sump, pool;   storage tank (also for oil);—(pl. khuzzánún) storehouse man, warehouse man.   See khazínih and root khazana.
Khwaja
Khwája
(khajeh) Khwája Naṣíru’d-Dín Ṭúsí
Khwarazm
Khwárazm
a large oasis region on the Ámú Daryá (Amu River, formerly Oxus River) delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the east by the Kyzylkum (“Red sand”) desert, on the south by the Karakum (“Black sand”) desert, and on the west by the Ustyurt Plateau.
Khwarizmi
Khwárizmí
Muḥammad ibn Músá al-Khwárizmí (c. 780–c. 850), a Persian scholar who produced works in mathematics, astronomy, and geography.   “Algorithm” derived from Latin form of surname.   See Khivah
Khwush-Amadi (Khush Amadid)
Khwush-Ámadí (“Khush Ámadíd”)
Pers.   (“Khushamadid”) flattery;   assenting;   you are welcome.   A blessed arrival?
Khwush-Qadam (Khush Ghadam)
Khwush-Qadam (“Khush Ghadam”)
Pers.   a person who brings good fortune, welcome news, good omen (Maḥmúd’s Diary)
Khwush, Khwash
Khwush, Khwash
Pers.   good, sweet, excellent, beautiful, fair, charming, pleasant, delightful, agreeable, cheerful, amiable, lovely, delicate, tender, kind, gentle, humane, mild, meek, elegant;   healthy, wholesome, temperate;   happy, well, pleased;   willingly
Kifl
Kifl
part, portion, share.   Kifl occurs in Qur'án 21:85 and 38:48 as Dha’l-Kifl, who is believed to be the name of Elijah, Joshua, Zachariah or Ezekiel.   Kifl can be interpreted as a prophet or Messenger of God.
Kiflayn
Kiflayn
dual noun of kifl.   Two share, double share or large share.   That is, Qur’án 57:28 can be understood as referring to two Messengers of God.
Kinan, Kinanat
Kinán, pl. Kinánát, Akinna
shed roof, pent roof, awning
Kinana, Kanan'in
Kinána (Kinánih), pl. Kaná’in
quiver (for arrows).   The Banú Kinánah is a tribe south of Mecca.
Kinar
Kinár
Pers.   the lap;   the bosom;   an embrace;   dalliance
Kinar-gird
Kinár-gird
A small fortress and village near Ṭihrán.
Kinari
Kinárí
Pers.   (gold or silver) lace
Kinyat, Kunyat, Kuna, Kaniy, Kani
Kinyat, Kunyat, pl. Kuná, Kaníy, Kaní
Pers.   calling or naming (anyone) by a word that has another meaning, especially by the designation of father (abú) or son (ibn, vulg. bin), a filionymic (a name derived from that of a son), a patronymic (a name derived from the name of a father or ancestor).   (Also (Kunyah, Kunyih)
Kirdar
Kirdár
Pers.   work, business, continued labour;   employment in which a man is constantly engaged;   profession, trade, art, occupation;   effect; manner, conduct;   action (good or bad)
Kirin, Kirind
Kirin, Kirind
(southern Kurdish: Kirin, Persian: Kirind-i-Gharb (“Kerend-e Gharb”);   also known as Kerend (“Krend”), Karand, and Karínd.   A city 75 km west of Kirmánsháh in Kermanshah Province
Kirman
Kirmán
capital city of Kirmán province, Írán
Kirmanshah (Kermanshah)
Kirmánsháh
Province and city in western Írán.
Kisa'
Kisá’, pl. Aksiya
garment;   dress
Kishik
Kishík
Pers.   a guards-man, a guard
Kishikchi
Kishíkchí
Pers.   a sentinel, night watchman
Kishon
Kishon River, Nachal HaKishon
Flows to the north side of Haifa into the Mediterranean Sea.   Arabic Nahr al-Muquṭṭa‘ (the river of slaughter or dismemberment) or al-Kíshwan.
Kisra, Akasira, Akasir
Kisrá, pl. Akásira, Akásir
Khosraw (Chosroes);   designation of the Persian kings in general
Kiswa, Kusan, Kisan, Kasawin
Kiswa, pl. Kusan, Kisan, Kasáwin
clothing, clothes, apparel, attire, raiment;   dress, garment;   suit of clothes;   uniform;   draping, lining, casing, facing, panelling, wainscoting (e.g., of walls).   Persian Kiswat (Kisvat), Kuswat, pl. Kusá
Kitab al-Yawaqit Wa al-Jawahir
Kitáb al-Yawáqít Wa al-Jawáhir
(Pers. Kitábu’l-Yawáqít-i-Wa’l-Javáhir, also with v instead of w) by Siyyid ‘Abd al-Wahháb ibn Aḥmad ash-Sha‘rání (1492/3–1565, AH 898–973) was an Egyptian Sháfi‘í scholar and mystic, founder of an Egyptian order of Sufism, eponynously known as Sha‘ráwiyyah. Full title: Kitáb al-Yawáqít wa al-jawáhir fí bayán ‘aqá’id al-akábir (The book of rubies and jewels: an explanation of the tenets of faith of mystic luminaries).
Kitab-i-'Ahd
Kitáb-i-‘Ahd
“Book of the Covenant” or Testament (Bahá’u’lláh)
Kitab-i-'Ahdi
Kitáb-i-‘Ahdí
“Book of My Covenant”
Kitab-i-Asma'
Kitáb-i-Asmá’ or Kitabu’l-Asma’
“Book of Divine Names” (by the Báb)
Kitab-i-Badi'
Kitáb-i-Badí‘
“The Wondrous Book” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Kitab-i-Haykal
Kitáb-i-Haykal
“Book of the Temple” (by the Báb).   Alternative name, Kitáb-i-Hayákil (Book of Temples (or Talismans)), or more loosely, as Kitábí dar Hayákil-i-Wáḥid (Book concerning the Temples (Talismans) of Unity).   Information provided by Bahá’u’lláh “… serve to identify the work referred to by these varying titles as … the final five sections … of the” Kitáb-i-Panj-Sha’n, pp. 405–47.   The sources for early Bábí doctrine and history, Denis MacEoin p. 89.
Kitab-i-Iqan
Kitáb-i-Íqán
“Book of Certitude” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Kitab-i-Mubin
Kitáb-i-Mubín
a selected compilation of Bahá’u’lláh’s Writings in the handwriting of Mírzá Muḥammad-‘Alí. He was sent to Bombay to have the compilation printed. He changed passages (easily exposed when compared with the originals) that alluded to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s exalted station.   See The Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, p. 130.
Kitab-i-Natiq
Kitáb-i-Náṭiq
“The Speaking Book”
Kitab-i-Panj-Sha'n
Kitáb-i-Panj-Sha’n
“Book of the Five Modes of Revelation” (by the Báb)1
1  God Passes By uses an ‘Ayn: Kitáb-i-Panj-Sha‘n
Kitab-i-Samit
Kitáb-i-Sámit
“The Silent Book”
Kitab, Kutub
Kitáb, pl. Kutub
piece of writing, record, paper;   letter, note, message;   document, deed;   contract (esp. marriage contract);   book.   Kitábun, a book
Kitabu'l-Aqdas, Kitab-i-Aqdas
al-Kitábu’l-Aqdas, Pers. Kitáb-i-Aqdas
“The Most Holy Book” (by Bahá’u’lláh, written in Arabic). Published in English as The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
Kitabu'l-Asma'
Kitábu’l-Asmá’
“Book of Divine Names”(by the Báb)
Kitabu'l-Fara'id
Kitábu’l-Fará’id
Priceless Things” (by Mírzá Abu’l-Faḍl)
Kitabu'l-Fihrist
Kitábu’l-Fihrist
“Indexical Tablet” (by the Báb)
Kitabu'l-Haramayn
Kitábu’l-Ḥaramayn
“The Book of the Two Holy Places”   DB 62
Kitabu'l-Muqaddas
al-Kitábu’l-Muqaddas
The Most Holy Book
Kitabu'r-Ruh
Kitábu’r-Rúḥ
“Book of the Spirit” (by the Báb)
Kitman
Kitmán
Persian.   The act of paying lip service to authority while holding personal opposition.   Saying something that is not true.   See Taqíya (Ar)
Kiya
Kiyá
Pers.   a king, protector, defender;   a hero, champion;   a lord, master;   a lord marcher, landgrave, margrave;   a peasant;   powerful;   work, labour;   the four elements;   pure, clear, innocent;   heat, cold, dryness, or moisture;   the mouth;   mastic.   [MUHJ 521 has Kíyá]
Kiyan
Kiyán
(keyan) being, existence;   essence, substance;   nature.
Kiyani
Kiyání
Khujastah Khursand (Khojasteh Khorshand) Kiyání (1917–2002) and Ḥusayn-Qulí (Hossein-Gholi) Kiyání.   See MBW p. “141” (143) and Hugh C. Adamson, Historical Dictionary of the Bahá’í Faith, p. 276.
Kiyasar
Kiyásar
(“Kiasar”, “Kíásar”, “Keyásar” and “Kíya Sar”) is a small city 57 km se Sárí, in Sari County, Mázandarán Province
Kub
Kúb, pl. Akwáb
drinking glass, tumbler, (‘Iráq) cup, or any vessel without spout or handle, an ewer
Kubidan
Kúbídan
Pers.   to beat, strike, bruise, pound
Kubra, Kubrayat
Kubrá, pl. Kubrayát
fem. of Akbar
Kuchak (Kuchik)
chak (also Kúchik)
Pers.   small, little;   a musical mode or style;   diminutive;   younger, junior;   a youngster, a child
Kuchik-Chakmachih
chik-Chakmachih
Küçükçekmece (“little depression”), now an eastern suburb of Istanbul, 23 km west of the city centre, on the European shore of the Sea of Marmara, Turkey
Kufa, Kufah, Kufih
Kúfa(h), Pers. Kúfih
al-Kúfah city on the west bank of the Euphrates River 110 km south Baghdád. The Imám ‘Alí made it the centre of his operations, and was murdered in its mosque.   Gave name to Kufic—ancient Arabic letters.
Kufiya, Kufiyat
Kúfíya, pl. Kúfíyát
English keffiyeh or kaffiyeh, square kerchief diagonally folded and worn under the ‘iqál as a headdress
Kufr, Kufran
Kufr and Kufrán
unbelief, infidelity
Kuh (Koh)
Kúh
Pers.   A mountain, hill
Kuh-i-Nur
Kúh-i-Núr
Mountain of Light—Shrine of the Báb, and the name of a famous diamond.   Also spelt Koh-i-Noor, Kohinoor and Koh-i-nur
Kujur
Kujúr
a village in Mázindarán Province, Írán
Kulah
Kuláh
Pers.   a conic hat of (usually) black lambskin worn by Muslim priests, dervishes, government employees and civilians;   any head-gear, a Tartar cap, a turban;   a mitre, tiara, fillet, wreath;   a crown;   a night-cap
Kulah-i-farangi
Kuláh-i-farangí
(European hat—PDC p. 92)
Kulayn
Kulayn
A village southwest of Ṭihrán.
Kull
Kull
totality, entirety;   everyone, each one, anyone;   (with following definite noun) whole, entire, all;   (with following indefinite noun) every
Kulli
Kulli
total, entire, all-round, overall, sweeping, comprehensive, complete;   absolute, universal
Kulliya, Kulliyat
Kullíya, Pers. Kullíyat, pl. Kullíyát
totality, entirety;   integrity, wholeness, entireness, completeness;   (pl.) faculty, school (of a university);   college;   institute of higher learning, academy, secondary school
Kulliyya
Kulliyya fem.
totality, entirety;   completeness, fullness, wholeness;   universality, generality;   integrity
Kullu-Shay', Kull-i-Shay'
Kullu-Shay’, Pers. Kull-i-Shay’
“all things”, numerical value of 361 (19×19) and a time period of 361 years).   See Váḥid (unity 19)
Kullu't-Ta'am
Kullu’ṭ-Ṭa‘ám
“Tablet of All Food” by Bahá’u’lláh.   Qur’án 3:93 is known as Kullu’ṭ-Ṭa‘ám, begins with “All food …”.
Kulthum
Kulthúm
full of flesh about the face and cheeks;   an elephant;   the silken pennant at the top of a standard
Kumayl
Kumayl bin-i-Ziyád an-Nakha’í
Companion of Imám ‘Alí. Known as Kumayl.   It is also the name of a prayer that he wrote.
Kun
Kun
(imperative Be!)   The word Kun contains the consonants Káf and Nún (káf u nún), which in English, by happy circumstance, can be represented by “B” and “E”.
Kunya, Kunan, (Pers. Kunyah, Kunyih)
Kunya, pl. Kunan
Ar.   surname, agnomen (honourable adult nickname consisting of abú (father) or umm (mother) followed by the name of the eldest child (often a son), e.g. Abú Bahá’u’lláh). By extension, it may also have hypothetical or metaphorical references, e.g. as a nickname or reference of an attachment (Abú Bakr, “father of the camel foal”, given because of this person’s love for camels), without literally referring to a son or a daughter.
Kur
Kúr
Pers.   blind;   one-eyed;   blind in a moral sense
Kura, Kurat
Kura(h), pl. Kurát, Kuran
globe, sphere;   ball. Hence, kura al-athíríy (the ethereal globe);   kura al-hawá (the atmospheric globe);   kura al-má’ (the water globe);   kura at-turáb (the earth globe)
Kurash (Kurush)
Kúrash (Kúrush)
Pers.   Cyrus, king of Persia
Kurd
al-Kurd
the Kurds
Kurdi, Akrad
Kurdí, pl. Akrád
Kurdish;—pl. Kurd.   Pers.   kurdí a native of Kurdistán
Kurdistan
Kurdistán
Pers.   Kurdistan
Kurdistan, Bilad al-Kurd
Kúrdistán, Ar. Bilád al-Kurd
country of the Kurds, English Kurdistan
Kurji (Gurji)
Kurjí
Georgian (adj and n).   al-Kurj the Georgians
Kursi, Karasiy
Kursí, pl. Karásíy, Karásin
chair;   throne;   seat;   professorial chair;   base, pedestal, socle (architecture);   bearing (technology).   A low, square wooden table over which a large quilt is spread. Under the kursí is placed a brazier of charcoal fire covered with ashes. People sit on mattresses round the kursí and lean against cushions, their legs stretched under the kursí and covered with the quilt.   Fire on the mountain-top, p. 71.
Kurur
Kurúr
return, comeback, recurrence;   succession, sequence, order.   Pers.   A crore (500,000 in Persia)
Kurush
Kurush
Cyrus II of Persia c. 600–530 BC, commonly known as Cyrus the Great.   Koresh in the Bible.
Kush
Kush
Pers.   A male;   (imp. of kushtan (“kill”) in compound words) a killer, who kills, slays, murders, oppresses, as in azhdaha-kush, a dragon-killer
Kushk
Kushk
Pers.   an upper chamber, gallery, or balcony on the top of a house;   a hall, parlour
Kusti (Kasti, Kushti)
Kustí
Pers.   wrestling;   a belt or sacred cord worn by the Zoroastrians and Brahmins;   also by the wrestlers of Khurásán.   See ṣadrí
Top -s ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic attributes (“names”) of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots · Underscores · Vowel sounds · Word transcription macros
Plain text
Transcripted text
Word meanings & comments
L
La
La
(intensifying particle) truly, verily;   certainly, surely
La
(particle) not, no!
La ilaha illa Huwa
Lá iláha illá Huwa
“There is no God but He” [10 letters]
La ilaha illa'llah
Lá iláha illá’lláh
(There is no God [Letters of Denial (5)] but/save God [Letters of Affirmation (7)])   All else besides the Letters of Paradise is in Denial, while whatsoever appertaineth to the Letters of Paradise is Affirmation.   Lá iláha illa’lláh, Muḥammadun rasúlu’lláh (There is no God but God and Muḥammad is his messenger), the Shí‘a call to prayer (adhán) contains the additional statement: ‘Alíun valíu’lláh (‘Alí is God’s (friend/helper/defender/vice-gerent)
La'in and Mal'un, Mala'in
La‘ín and Mal‘ún, pl. Malá‘ín
cursed;   confounded;   damned;   outcast, execrable;   detested, abhorred, abominable
Labad
Labád
Pers.   any outer wet weather garment
Labada (Labbadih)
Labáda
Pers.   (for Arabic lubbádát) a rain cloak;   a quilted cloak;   a great-coat, pelisse;   a wrapper
Laban, Alban, Liban
Laban, pl. Albán, Libán
milk;   (Syrian) leban, coagulated sour milk;—pl. albán dairy products, milk products
Labbad
Labbád
felt-maker;   felt
Labib, Alibba'
Labíb, pl. Alibbá’
understanding, reasonable, sensible, intelligent
Labid
Labíd
Pers.   boast, brag;   a historian;   a poet
Labs
Labs
proposing to anyone anything obscure or confused, mystifying;   mixture, confusion, ambiguity
Ladud, Aladd, Ladda', Lidad, Alidda'
Ladúd, Aladd, fem. Laddá’, pl. Ludd
(other plurals: Lidád, Aliddá’) fierce, grim, dogged, tough.   City of Lod 15 km se Tel Aviv (formerly Lydda (Latin)), Arabic: al-Ludd.
Lafzi
Lafẓí
of or pertaining to words, verbal;   literal;   pronounced;   oral
Lahab, Lahib, Luhab
Lahab, Lahíb, Luháb
flame, blaze, flare.   Abú Lahab (the ‘Father of Flame’) is known for his hatred of his nephew, Muḥammad.
Lahay, Lahih
Láháy, Pers. Láhih
The Hague (city in SW Netherlands)
Lahijan
Láhíján
Caspian sea resort in and the capital of Láhíján County
Lahijani
Láhíjání
‘Alí Ashraf Láhíjání (1853–1919), famous as a poet and known as ‘Andalíb (“nightingale”)
Lahm, Luhum, Liham
Laḥm, pl. Luḥúm, Liḥám
flesh;   meat
Lahut
Láhút
godhead, deity;   divine nature, divinity.   (world of the Heavenly Court (‘álami láhút)—realm of being, “divinity”).   See Háhút, Jabarút, Malakút, and Násút
Lail, Layali
Lail, pl. Laylálí
(usually masc.)   nighttime, night;—pl. (syr.) a certain vocal style
Laila, Lailat, Layalin, Laya'il
Laila, pl. Lailát, Layálin, Layá’il
(fem.)   night;   evening;   soirée
Lakhm
Lakhm
a cutting, amputation;   a box, a blow
Lakhmiyun
al-Lakhmíyún
Lakhmids or Lakhmid (“Lakhmite”) dynasty AD 300–602.   Lakhmids (al-Lakhmíyún (اللخميون—“íwn” transcripted as “íyún”), in Arabic usually referred to as al-Manádhirah or Banú Lakhm) in southern ‘Iráq (capital al-Ḥírah, near modern al-Kúfah).
Lakin, Lakinna
Lákin, lákinna
however, yet, but
Lam
Lám
Arabic letter transcripted as L
Lami
Lámí
lám-shaped, resembling the letter ل.
Lang
Lang
Pers.   lame;   maimed;   the halting of a caravan for a day or two
Lar
Lár
city in province of Fárs
Larijan
Láríján
district of Mázindarán Province
Las-Furush
Lás-Furúsh
silk dealer in The Child of the Covenant and BKG 144.   Possible spelling is Láẓ-Furúsh.   See Láẓat and Farsh
Lashkar-Nivis
Lashkar-Nivís
Paymaster-General
Latafa, lutf, Altaf
Laṭafa, Luṭf, pl. Alṭáf
to be kind and friendly;—pl. benefits, favours;   kindnesses
Latafah
Laṭáfa(h)
thinness fineness, delicateness;   gracefulness, loveliness, charm;   kindness, benevolence;   friendliness;   politeness, esprit, intellectual refinement, sophistication;   suavity, urbaneness
Latif, Litaf, Lutafa'
Laṭíf, pl. Liṭáf, Luṭafá‘
thin;   fine;   delicate, dainty;   little, small, insignificant;   gentle, soft, light, mild;   pleasant, agreeable;   amiable, friendly, kind, nice;   civil, courteous, polite;   affable, genial;   pretty, charming, lovely, graceful;   intellectually refined, full of esprit, brilliant, witty; elegant;   al-Laṭíf the Kind (one of the attributes of God)
Lavasan
Lavásán
rural district east of Ṭihrán
Law (Lau)
Law
(conjunction) if (as a rule, introducing hypothetical conditional clauses)
Lawh (Lauh), Alwah (Alavah), Alawih
Lawḥ, pl. Alwáḥ, Aláwíḥ
(masc.)   board, blackboard;   slate;   tablet, epistle;   slab;   plate, sheet;   pane;   plank, board;   panel;   small board, signboard;   shoulder blade, scapula.   Sometimes singular transcripted as Lauḥ.
Lawh-i-'Abdu'l-'Aziz-Va-Vukala
Lawḥ-i-‘Abdu’l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá
“Tablet to ‘Abdu’l-‘Azíz and ministers” by Bahá’u’lláh
Lawh-i-'Abdu'l-Vahhab
Lawḥ-i-‘Abdu’l-Vahháb
“Tablet to ‘Abdu’l-Vahháb” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-'Abdu'r-Razzaq
Lawḥ-i-‘Abdu’r-Razzáq
“Tablet to ‘Abdu’r-Razzáq” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-'Ahd va Mithaq
Lawḥ-i-‘Ahd va Mitháq (Imríká)
“Will and Testament” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-'Ammih
Lawḥ-i-‘Ammih
“Tablet to the Aunt” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-'Ashiq-va-Ma'shuq
Lawḥ-i-‘Ashiq-va-Ma‘shúq
“The Tablet of the Lover and the Beloved” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Aflakiyyih
Lawḥ-i-Aflákíyyih
“Tablet of the universe” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Ahbab
Lawḥ-i-Aḥbáb
“Tablet for the Friends” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ahmad
Lawḥ-i-Aḥmad
“Tablet of Aḥmad” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Amr
Lawḥ-i-Amr
“Tablet of the Command” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Amvaj
Lawḥ-i-Amváj
“Tablet of the Waves” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Anta'l-Kafi
Lawḥ-i-Anta’l-Káfí
“Tablet of ‘Thou the Sufficing’, known as the long healing prayer, Tablet of protection” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Aqdas
Lawḥ-i-Aqdas
“The Most Holy Tablet”, sometimes referred to as ‘Tablet to the Christians’ (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ard-i-Ba
Lawḥ-i-Arḍ-i-Bá
“Tablet of the Land of Bá”—Beirut (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ashraf
Lawḥ-i-Ashraf
“Tablet for Ashraf (the Noble)” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ayat
Lawḥ-i-Áyát
“Tablet of the Verses” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Ayiy-i-Nur
Lawḥ-i-Áyiy-i-Núr
“Tablet of the Verse of Light” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Baha
Lawḥ-i-Bahá
“Tablet of Glory” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Baqa
Lawḥ-i-Baqá
“Tablet of Eternity” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Basitatu'l-Haqiqih
Lawḥ-i-Basíṭatu’l-Ḥaqíqíh
“Tablet of the Uncompounded Reality, of the Ground of Being” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Bisharat
Lawḥ-i-Bishárát
“Tablet of Glad Tidings” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Bismilih
Lawḥ-i-Bismilih
“Tablet of ‘In the Name of God’” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Bulbulu'l-Firaq
Lawḥ-i-Bulbulu’l-Firáq
“Tablet of the Nightingale of Bereavement” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Burhan
Lawḥ-i-Burhán
“Tablet of the Proof” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Du-Niday-i-Falah va Najah
Lawḥ-i-Du-Nidáy-i-Faláḥ va Najáḥ
“Tablet of Supplication” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá). More literally the Tablet of two Calls (the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh) for salvation and emancipation”
Lawh-i-Dr Forel
Lawḥ-i-Dr Forel
“Tablet to Dr Forel” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Dunya
Lawḥ-i-Dunyá
“Tablet of the World” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Fitnih
Lawḥ-i-Fitnih
“Tablet of the Test” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Fu'ad
Lawḥ-i-Fu’ád
“Tablet to Fu’ád Páshá” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ghulamu'l-Khuld
Lawḥ-i-Ghulámu’l-Khuld
“Tablet of the Deathless Youth, Eternal Youth, Youth of Paradise” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Habib
Lawḥ-i-Ḥabíb
“Tablet of the Beloved” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Haft Sham' Wahdat
Lawḥ-i-Haft Sham‘ Waḥdat
“Tablet of the Seven Candles of Unity” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Haft-Pursish
Lawḥ-i-Haft-Pursish
“Tablet of Seven Questions” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Hajj
Lawḥ-i-Ḥajj
Tablet of Visitation to be recited at Baghdád (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Hawdaj
Lawḥ-i-Hawdaj
“Tablet of the Howdah” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Haykal
Lawḥ-i-Haykal
“Tablet of the Temple”, i.e. the body
Lawh-i-Hikmat
Lawḥ-i-Ḥikmat
“Tablet of Wisdom” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Hirtik
Lawḥ-i-Hirtík
“Tablet to Georg David Hardegg” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Hizar Bayti
Lawḥ-i-Hizár Baytí
“Tablet of One Thousand Verses” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Huriyyih
Lawḥ-i-Ḥúríyyih
“Tablet of the Maiden” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Hurufat
Lawḥ-i-Ḥurúfát
“Tablet of the Letters” (by the Báb)
Lawh-i-Husayn
Lawḥ-i-Ḥusayn
(by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhi'b
Lawḥ-i-Ibn-i-Dhi’b
“The Epistle to the Son of the Wolf” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ishraqat
Lawḥ-i-Ishráqát
“Tablet of Splendours” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Ittihad
Lawḥ-i-Ittiḥád
“Tablet of Unity” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Jamal
Lawḥ-i-Jamál
Tablet to Áqá Jamál-i-Burújirdi, “Tablet of Beauty” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Karim
Lawḥ-i-Karím
“Tablet for Karím (the Noble)” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Karmil
Lawḥ-i-Karmil
“Tablet of Carmel” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Khurasan
Lawḥ-i-Khurásán
(by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Kullu't-Ta'am
Lawḥ-i-Kullu’ṭ-Ṭa‘ám
“Tablet of All Food” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Lahih
Lawḥ-i-Láhih
“Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace, The Hague” (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Laylatu'l-Quds
Lawḥ-i-Laylatu’l-Quds
“Tablet of the Holy (Sacred) Night” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Madinatu'r-Rida
Lawḥ-i-Madínatu’r-Riḍá
“The City of Radiant Acquiescence” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Madinatu't-Tawhid
Lawḥ-i-Madínatu’t-Tawḥíd
“Tablet of the City of Unity” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Mahfil-i-Shawr
Lawḥ-i-Maḥfil-i-Shawr
Tablet (or prayer) for spiritual assemblies, regarding gathering and consulting (by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Lawh-i-Mahfuz
Lawḥ-i-Maḥfúẓ
Guarded or Preserved Tablet
Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus
Lawḥ-i-Malik-i-Rús
“Tablet to the Czar Alexander III” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Malikih
Lawḥ-i-Malikih
“Tablet to Queen Victoria” (by Bahá’u’lláh)
Lawh-i-Mallahu'l-Quds
Lawḥ-i-Malláḥu’l-Quds
“Tablet of the Holy Mariner” (by Bahá’u’lláh)