Arabic & Fársí transcription
list & glossary for Bahá’ís
Introduction · What is transcription? · Accuracy · Capitalization · Information sources · Hybrid word/names · List arrangement · Searching the list · Phonetic or common spelling · Suffixes
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Feedback and suggestions   are welcomed and encouraged.
Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic “names” of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots and underscores · Vowel sounds · Microsoft Word
This document lists the Roman script transcription forms of many of the Arabic and Fársí (including some that are of Turkish origin) names and words used in the Bahá’í Writings, books by Bahá’ís and the Qur’án as a GUIDE to their transcription. Hence, there is no need to include all possible combinations of those words used in the names of people and places. However, additional root words have been added as a guide to an understanding of the meaning of the words.
Additional glossary terms, and information on them, can be found in the Glossary of This Decisive Hour: Messages from Shoghi Effendi to the American Bahá’ís 1932–1946.
What is transcription?
The Romanization of Arabic in Latin script makes use of various diacritics and non-standard Latin characters to represent Arabic letters since most Arabic phonemes do not exist in English. Other issues are the representation of the Arabic definite article, which is always spelled the same way in written Arabic but has numerous pronunciations in the spoken language depending on context; and the representation of short vowels (usually i u or e o, accounting for variations such as Muslim/Moslem or Mohammed/Muhammad/Mohamed), which vary from place to place and are usually not noted (they are in the Qur’án) in written Arabic.
Romanization is often termed “transliteration”, but this is not technically correct. Transliteration is the direct representation of foreign letters using Latin symbols, while most systems for Romanization of Arabic are actually transcription systems, which represent the sound of the language. Technically, transliteration is concerned primarily with accurately representing the graphemes1 of another script, whilst transcription is concerned primarily with representing its phonemes.2 In addition, transliteration is concerned with scripts, whilst transcription is concerned with writing systems (the way a script is applied to a particular language). As an example, مناظرة الحروف العربية is transcripted as munáẓaratu’l-ḥurúfi’l-‘arabíyah, indicating the pronunciation, and an example of transliteration would be mnaẓrḧ alḥrwf al‘rbyḧ.
Regarding the transliteration of Persian and Arabic words the House of Justice requests that the method adopted by the beloved Guardian, and which is described in the various volumes of The Bahá’í World, be followed, as it permits all languages which use the Roman alphabet to transliterate such terms in the same way throughout the Bahá’í world.3
Whatever “house styles” Publishing Trusts and other Bahá’í publishers may adopt, transliteration of oriental terms into languages using the Roman alphabet must at present be according to the system chosen by the Guardian and described in volumes of The Bahá’í World4
Shoghi Effendi introduced a system of transcription that is an adaptation of the system recommended by the Tenth International Congress of Orientalists held in September 1894 at Geneva. More detailed information on transcription is given in Muḥammad and the Course of Islám, pp. xiii–xvi.
The terms “Guardian” and “Universal House of Justice” are explained in the alphabetical list below.

1 The smallest meaningful contrastive unit in a writing system.
2 Any of the perceptually distinct units of sound in a specified language that distinguish one word from another.
3 From a letter written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama, 16 July 1979.
4 The Universal House of Justice, 21 July 1998, Current Guidance on Baha’i Publishing.
Any variations in transcription by the authors listed under the Information sources heading, and information from all other Bahá’í authors have been subjected to the following progressive checks:
a)Consistency with transcription rules as used by Shoghi Effendi, and similar words.
b)An internet search of transcripted forms of the words.
c)An internet search for the original Arabic of the words that are then manually transcripted.
d)A search for the words in Arabic dictionaries (e.g. The Hans Wehr dictionary of modern written Arabic).
e)Consulting knowledgeable Bahá’ís who are Arabic and/or Fársí speakers. However, this information needs to be cross checked with the above sources.
Entries in this document are amended when new information becomes available, or new names and words are found in relevant publications. Hence, it is recommended that you use the latest available Word copy from or
My thanks go to Romane Takkenberg ( for noting inconsistencies in the list while converting, and regularly updating, this list to HTML.
Corrections, additions and suggested improvements to the list are welcomed.
Arabic and Fársí do not have capital letters. When transcripted, capital letters should only be used for proper names and attributes of God, otherwise, lower case letters should be used. This document uses capital letters for all words/names as if they were proper names—these should be converted to lower case for other uses.
Information sources
Some sources of information are given in brackets. The most reliable sources of information are to be found in documents issued by the Universal House of Justice; and books by Shoghi Effendi, Hasan Balyuzi and Adib Taherzadeh (caution: there are some errors in all published documents). Entries are checked using digital copies of Arabic (Hans Wehr, also a printed copy) and Persian (Steingass) dictionaries. If these sources lack the required information, then information is sought from the internet and a few knowledgeable individuals.
Hybrid word/names
Most words (there are some commonly accepted exceptions, e.g. Bahá’ís) that have an English suffix should not be transcripted (e.g. Islamic, Qur’anic, Shi’ite, Shi’ism). Adding an ‘s’ to many words to represent the plural form is more recognizable to the English reader (bábs) than the often very different transcripted Arabic plural word (abváb). These and some other words are often better replaced by an English equivalent, e.g. Gate-hood for Bábíyyat instead of the incorrect hybrid forms: “Bábhood” or “Babhood”, etc.
List arrangement
The first column of the following list contains a form of the words/names without acute accents, initial ‘Ayns or underdots. This makes it possible to make a simple search for a word without having any knowledge of the correct transcription, and it is used to make an alphabetical sort (the sorting used by Word is not the desired order) of the list itself.
Searching the list
It is easier to search for words if you:
a)remove all accents and underdots.
b)Remove the definite article (“al-”, “ul-”, etc.; refer to the entry for “al-” and the description of the sun letters in the Arabic letters and abjad values section at the end of this list.)
c)Remove final letters such as “ah”, “ih”, “yah” and “yih” (usually Persian forms), and “h” and “t” that often represent a tá’ marbúṭa (refer to the tá’ marbúṭa entry).
d)Replace “o” and “e” by “u” and “i” respectively. Then replace double vowels (representing á, í, ú) with á, í and ú respectively. Also try replacing “v” (Persian) with “w”. In some cases “u” following a vowel should also be replaced by “w”.
e)Use the following table for the replacement of transliterated Persian letters with single or double (diaeresis below) underdots with the letters in the letter(s) in the transcription column. The transliterated letter z may represent ḍ, z or dh.
Transliteration Transcription Plain text Transliteration Transcription Plain text
th th d
t z z z
z z dh dh
Phonetic or common spelling
Words in brackets in the third column may indicate an old-style phonetical spelling found in some older Bahá’í publications. Others are variations of place names found in books or on maps—these can be useful to determine correct transcription or to locate the places when searching Google maps.
Transcripted Roman script forms of Arabic/Fársí words/names
Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic “names” of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots and underscores · Vowel sounds · Microsoft Word
Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
-dan -dán Pers.   (suffix and prefix) denoting what holds or contains anything (i.e container/box);   know thou;   (in compound) knowing, intelligent.
-hood -hood 1. A condition or state of being the thing or being in the role denoted by the word it is suffixed to, usually a noun, e.g. childhood.   2. A group sharing a specified condition or state, e.g. brotherhood
-i-, -yi- -i-, -yi- Persian –i- (“-e”) sound inserted in pronunciation (not represented in Persian script) at the end of a word to indicate that the following words stands in a possessive or adjectival relation to it;   equivalent to “of” in English.   If the noun ends in a long vowel (not a y) or a silent h, the suffix -iy- (“-ey”) is used, e.g. Ághá-yi-Karand (formal) and Ághá Karand (informal).
-istan -istán home or place
-parast, -parastan -parast, pl. parastán Pers.   a non-joining suffix roughly equivalent to -ist, frequently denoting a worshiper or follower of, but often with unpredictable meanings. Example: átish-parast, a fire-worshipper;   a physician.
-ship -ship English suffix of nouns denoting condition, character, office, skill, etc.
-stan -stán Pers.   “place of” or “country”
-un, -an, -in -un, -an, -in subjective/nominative, objective/accusative and possessive/genetive singular noun case endings (respectively) where they exist.
-yy-, -yya (-iya), -yyih -yy-, -yya(t or h) fem., Pers. –yyih nisba, a suffix used to form adjectives in Arabic grammar. Sometimes –íya is used. Often denotes either a group of people who follow a certain person, or a group with a certain ideological system. The feminine nisbah is often used as a noun relating to concepts, most frequently to ones ending in -ism, with the m. and fem. nisbah being used as adjectival forms of the concept-noun (e.g. -ist) depending on agreement. Thus al-ishtirákiyyah “socialism”, and ishtirákiyy (m.) and ishtirákiyyah (fem.) socialist.
Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic “names” of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots and underscores · Vowel sounds · Microsoft Word
Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
A'isha, 'A'ishih ‘Á’isha(h or t), Pers. also ‘Á’ishih wife of Muḥammad and daughter of Abú-Bakr.   Also written as Aisyah, Ayesha, Aishat, Aishah, or Aisha.
A'la, Ulya, Ulan, A'alin, A'lahu A‘lá, fem. ‘Ulyá, pl. ‘Ulan, A‘álin higher, highest;   upper, uppermost;   ‘Álin the highest portion of something;   heights, peaks (fig.).   A‘láhu further up, above.   “The Most Exalted One” is a title of the Báb.
A'rabi, A'rab A‘rábí, pl. A‘ráb an Arab of the desert, a Bedouin
A'raj, 'Arja, 'Urj, 'Urjan A‘raj, fem. ‘Arjá, pl. ‘Urj, ‘Urján lame, limping;—jack (in a deck of cards)
A'war, 'Aura'. 'Ur A‘war, fem. ‘Aurá’, pl. ‘Úr one-eyed
A'zam,   (see Azim) A‘ẓam, f. ‘Uẓmá, pl. A‘áẓim greater, bigger;   more significant, more important;   greatest, major, supreme;   most significant, paramount.   Comparative form of ‘aẓuma’ (to make great)
A'zami A‘ẓamí Ghulám Ḥusayn A‘ẓamí
Ab Áb August (month;   Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Írán).   Father (in parts of Írán).
Ab-Gusht, Abi-Gusht, Abi-Gosht Áb-Gúsht Pers.   gravy, broth
Ab, Aba', Abu, Abi Ab, Abí, Abú, pl. Ábá’ father (also ecclesiastical): ancestor, forefather.   Abú (father of), Abu’l (the father of) and Abí (partial names) must be followed by another name.
Ab, Aban Áb, pl. Ábán Pers.   water;   river;   largesse, gift, price.   Name of eighth month of Persian solar year
Aba-Basir ‘Abá-Baṣír Áqá Naqd-‘Alí, blind martyr from Zanján, given the name Abú-Baṣír (father of insight) by Bahá’u’lláh
Aba, A'bi'a ‘Abá’, pl. A‘bi’a loose outer garment, cloak, mantle.   In Writings translated from Persian, ‘Abá is used.   English aba or abba
Aba’a, ‘Aba’at ‘Abá’a(h) fem., pl. ‘Abá’át loose outer garment, cloak, mantle.   English aba or abba
Abad Ábád Pers.   a city, building, habitation;   cultivated, peopled, full of buildings and inhabitants;   replenished, well filled (treasury);   an open plain;   good, elegant, fair, beautiful, convenient;   salutation, congratulation;   praise, eulogium, well done!
Abad Abad, pl. Ábád Ar.   endless, eternal, eternity.   Pers.   populous, thriving, prosperous, developed, inhabited.   ábád suffix used in compound Persian names of towns and populated or inhabited areas
Abada, 'Ibada, 'Ubuda, 'Ubadiya ‘Abada (‘Ibada, ‘Ubúda, ‘Ubádíya) to serve, worship (a god), adore, venerate (someone, a god or human being), idolize, deify (someone);   form II to enslave, enthral, subjugate, subject (someone);   to improve, develop, make serviceable, make passable for traffic (a road);   form V to devote oneself to the service of God;   form X to enslave, enthral, subjugate (someone)
Abadan Ábádán Pers.   nearly synonymous with but more emphatic than ábád, and never used in forming compounds. City in Írán to the north of Kuwait City
Abadi Ábádí Pers.   pleasantness;   a follower of Ábád or Mahábád, the first prophet sent to Persia, and alleged author of the Dasátír.
Abadih Ábádih “Abadeh” city in Fars Province, Írán.   170 km north of Shíráz, 185 km SW Yazd and 200 km SSE Iṣfahán.
Abadih'i Ábádih’í Layla Ábádih’í, Mírzá Ḥusayn Khán Ábádih’í
Abahab, 'Adhabat, A'dhiba ‘Adháb, pl. ‘Adhábát, A‘dhiba pain, torment, suffering, agony, torture;   punishment, chastisement, castigation
Abarkuh (Abarqu, Abarquh, Abargu) Abarkúh (Abar-Kúh) village between Yazd and Shíráz
Abasa, 'Abs, 'Ubs ‘Abasa (‘Abs, ‘Ubs) to frown, knit one’s brows;   to glower, lower, scowl, look sternly
Abbas ‘Abbás The lion, also stern looking, formidable, stentorian.   Derived from ‘abasa, originally meaning a furious lion, hence with a lion’s characteristics.
Abbas Abad, Abbas-Abad, Abbasabad ‘Abbás Ábád, ‘Abbás-Ábád, ‘Abbásábád villages in Írán: Caspian Sea, part of Ṭihrán.
Abbas-'Ali ‘Abbás-‘Alí
Abbas-i-Nuri ‘Abbás-i-Núrí Mírzá Buzurg-i-Vazír
Abbas-Quli-i-Larijani ‘Abbás-Qulí-i-Laríjání sniper who killed Mullá Ḥusayn, 1 February 1849
Abbasi, Abbasyun ‘Abbásí, pl. ‘Abbásyún Abbaside, descendant of al-‘Abbás, uncle of the Prophet Muḥammad.   Abbasid (Abbaside) Caliphs (750–861).
Abbasiyan ‘Abbásíyán Pers.   The princes of the house of ‘Abbás, the Abbasides.
Abbasiyya ‘Abbásiyya al-‘Abbásiyya(h), formerly al-Yahúdiya(h), former Palestinian village, now Israeli city of Yehud.
Abbud ‘Abbúd, Ilyás devoted or obedient worshipper of God.   Derived from ‘abada.   Ilyás ‘Abbúd was a christian merchant of ‘Akká. His house in ‘Akká is joined on the eastern side to the smaller house of ‘Údí Khammár. The common wall has been opened. Both are now known as the House of ‘Abbúd.   Grid co-ordinates 32.921563, 35.067297
Abd-i-Hadir ‘Abd-i-Ḥáḍir “Servant in Attendance”
Abd, 'Abid, 'Ubdan, 'Ibad ‘Abd, pl. ‘Abíd, ‘Ubdán, ‘Ibád slave, serf;   bondsman, servant, worshipper;—(pl. ‘ibád) servant (of God), human being, man.   al-‘ibád humanity, mankind
Abda, 'Abdat ‘Abda, pl. ‘Abdát woman slave, slave girl, bondwoman
Abda' Abda‘ more amazing, more exceptional;   of even greater originality.   See Badí‘
Abdar Ábdár Pers.   watery, moist, juicy;   of a good water (as a diamond or a sword);   a keeper of water, a servant whose office is to keep water cool (hence water-carrier or butler);   keen, sharp;   glancing, dazzling, resplendent;   flowing (verse);   a sociable and convivial man;   a man of understanding, reflection or wealth;   a species of plant resembling the fibres of a palm-tree
Abdi'llah ‘Abdi’lláh variation of ‘Abdu’lláh (servant of God)
Abdu Manaf, Abd-i-Manaf ‘Abdu Manáf, Pers. ‘Abd-i-Manáf name of an Arabian tribe
Abdu'dh-Dhikr ‘Abdu’dh-Dhikr “the Servant of Remembrance”—a designation of the Báb
Abdu'l- (“Abdil”, “Abdul”) ‘Abdu’l- partial name [Abd (slave or servant) + u’l (the) = slave of the …] followed by a name (of God).
Abdu'l-'Ali ‘Abdu’l-‘Alí
Abdu'l-'Aliy-i-Harati ‘Abdu’l-‘Alíy-i-Harátí
Abdu'l-'Azim ‘Abdu’l-‘Aẓím
Abdu'l-'Azim-i-Khu'i ‘Abdu’l-‘Aẓím-i-Khu’í
Abdu'l-'Aziz ‘Abdu’l-‘Azíz (1830–1876) Sulṭán of Turkey
Abdu'l Baghi ‘Abdu’l-Baghí Mírzá ‘Abdu’l Baghí, father of Mírzá Aḥmad Suhráb (known as Mirza Ahmad Sohrab)
Abdu'l-Baha ‘Abdu’l-Bahá “The Servant of Glory” (of Bahá).   ‘Abbás Afandí (Effendi).   Wife Munírih Khánum.   4 daughters: Ḍíyá’íyyih (mother of Shoghi Effendi), Ṭúbá, Rúḥá and Munavvar.
Abdu'l-Baqi ‘Abdu’l-Báqí “servant of the everlasting”
Abdu'l-Baqir ‘Abdu’l-Báqir
Abdu'l-Fattah ‘Abdu’l-Fattáḥ not Faṭṭáḥ as in Eminent Bahá’ís in the Time of Bahá’u’lláh, Memorials of the Faithful and Bahá’u’lláh: The King of Glory.
Abdu'l-Ghaffar ‘Abdu’l-Ghaffár (MF)
Abdu'l-Ghani ‘Abdu’l-Ghaní
Abdu'l-Ghani Baydun ‘Abdu’l-Ghaní Bayḍún
Abdu'l-Hadi ‘Abdu’l-Hádí
Abdu'l-Hamid ‘Abdu’l-Ḥamíd ‘Abdu’l-Ḥamíd Khán (1842–1918), Sulṭán of Turkey. Nephew and successor of ‘Abdu’l-‘Azíz (both responsible for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s 40 year imprisonment). Known as the “Great Assassin”.
Abdu'l-Haqq ‘Abdu’l-Ḥaqq
Abdu'l-Husayn ‘Abdu’l-Ḥusayn
Abdu'l-Husayn-i-Avarih ‘Abdu’l-Ḥusayn-i-Ávárih
Abdu'l-Husayn-i-Shushtari ‘Abdu’l-Ḥusayn-i-Shushtarí
Abdu'l-Jalil ‘Abdu’l-Jalíl
Abdu'l-Javad ‘Abdu’l-Javád
Abdu'l-Karim ‘Abdu’l-Karím
Abdu'l-Karim-i-Iravani ‘Abdu’l-Karím-i-Íravání
Abdu'l-Karim-i-Qazvini ‘Abdu’l-Karím-i-Qazvíní
Abdu'l-Karim-i-Tihrani ‘Abdu’l-Karím-i-Ṭihrání
Abdu'l-Khaliq ‘Abdu’l-Kháliq “Servant of the Creator”
Abdu'l-Khaliq-i-Isfahani ‘Abdu’l-Kháliq-i-Iṣfahání he cut his throat when Ṭáhirih put aside her veil at the conference of Badasht
Abdu'l-Khaliq-i-Yazdi ‘Abdu’l-Kháliq-i-Yazdí
Abdu'l-Majid ‘Abdu’l-Majíd Sulṭán of Turkey (1823–1861)
Abdu'l-Majid-i-Nishaburi ‘Abdu’l-Majíd-i-Níshábúrí
Abdu'l-Majid-i-Shirazi ‘Abdu’l-Majíd-i-Shírází
Abdu'l-Malik ‘Abdu’l-Malik Fifth Umayyad Caliph
Abdu'l-Muhammad ‘Abdu’l-Muḥammad
Abdu'l-Muttalib ‘Abdu’l-Muṭṭalib
Abdu'l-Qadir ‘Abdu’l-Qádir BKG 124
Abdu'l-Vahhab ‘Abdu’l-Vahháb
Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Qazvini ‘Abdu’l-Vahháb-i-Qazvíní
Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Sha'rani ‘Abdu’l-Vahháb-i-Sha‘rání
Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Shirazi ‘Abdu’l-Vahháb-i-Shírází Pers.   ‘Abdu’l Wahab
Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Turshizi ‘Abdu’l-Vahháb-i-Turshízí
Abdu'l-Vasi' ‘Abdu’l-Vási‘
Abdu'llah ‘Abdu’lláh servant of God
Abdu’llah ibn Ubayy ‘Abdu’lláh ibn Ubayy ibn Salúl a powerful Medinite chief and a bitter opponent of Muḥammad, whose hopes of sovereignty were defeated when the Medinites asked Muḥammad to rule over them. He was the leader of the Hypocrites (munáfiqún) who secretly resisted Muḥammad at Medina.
Abdu'llah Khan-i-Turkaman ‘Abdu’lláh Khán-i-Turkamán a commander of forces attacking at Shaykh Ṭabarsí (he was killed during the conflict)
Abdu'llah Pasha ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá his house in ‘Akká is now a Bahá’í centre.   Grid co-ordinates 32.923799, 35.068098
Abdu’llah-i-Ghawgha' ‘Abdu’lláh-i-Ghawghá’ Final hamza omitted in The Dawn-Breakers 182, BKG 132
Abdu'llah-i-Qazvini ‘Abdu’lláh-i-Qazvíní
Abdu'r-Rahim-i-Qannad ‘Abdu’r-Raḥím-i-Qannád
Abdu'r-Rahim-i-Yazdi ‘Abdu’r-Raḥím-i-Yazdí (MF)
Abdu'r-Rahman Afandi Alusi ‘Abdu’r-Raḥmán Afandí Álúsí
Abdu'r-Rahman-i-Karkuti ‘Abdu’r-Raḥmán-i-Kárkútí
Abdu'r-Rasul-i-Qumi ‘Abdu’r-Rasúl-i-Qumí
Abdu’r-Razzaq (“‘Abdu’l-Razzak”) ‘Abdu’r-Razzáq The “l” of “al” is not pronounced when it comes in front of letters called “solar letters” such as letters r, t, d, z, etc.
Abdu's-Sahib ‘Abdu’ṣ-Ṣáḥib
Abdu's-Salam ‘Abdu’s-Salám
Abdu's-Salih ‘Abdu’ṣ-Ṣáliḥ the Gardener of the Riḍván Garden, ‘Akká
Abdu's-Samad ‘Abdu’ṣ-Ṣamad (Sammad)
Abdu's-Samad-i-Hamadani ‘Abdu’ṣ-Ṣamad-i-Hamadání
Abdu'sh-Shams ‘Abdu’sh-Shams
Abduhu ('Abduh) ‘Abduhu (from aná ‘abdu-hu) (I am) his servant or slave. Muḥammad ‘Abduh (1849–1905) an Egyptian Islamic jurist, religious scholar and liberal reformer, a key founding figure of Islamic Modernism, sometimes called Neo-Mu’tazilism after the medieval Islamic school of theology based on rationalism, Mu’tazila. He broke the rigidity of the Muslim ritual, dogma and family ties. He was a Freemason and had a close relationship with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and the Bahá’í Faith. See Salafíya
Abdus, 'Ubdus ‘Abdús, ‘Ubdús ‘abdús = ‘abd aws (gift) alláh (ú from w). This is a theophoric name (from Greek: “bearing or carrying a god”) where the final sound(s) (the apocopate) are omitted. ‘Abdús ibn Abí ‘Uthmán
Abgusht Ábgúsht stew
Abha Abhá more splendid, more brilliant.   “Most Glorious”.   al-Abhá (El-Abha) “The Most Glorious”.   Abhá Beauty—Jamál-i-Abhá—a title of Bahá’u’lláh.   Abhá Kingdom—The Most Glorious Kingdom (also Abhá Paradise).   See Alláh-u-Abhá and Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá
Abhar Abhar (Ar.)   more brilliant, more magnificent.   Ḥájí Mírzá Muḥammad-Taqí-i-Abharí is known as Ibn-i-Abhar.
Abhar Abhar Pers.   a water-mill;   a vein in the back, the jugular vein;   the back of a bow
Abi-'Abdi'llah Abí-‘Abdi’lláh Arabic term used in reference to Imám Ja‘far Ṣádiq
Abi-Ghafray-i-Ta'i Abí-Ghafráy-i-Ṭá’í Pers.   (see Ṭayy’).   See SDC 48.
Abi-Quhafih Abí-Quḥáfih The Dawn-Breakers liv
Abid, Abidin ‘Ábid, pl. ‘Ábidín an adorer, or servant of God;   worshipper—see as used in conjunction with Zayn.
Abid, Abidun, 'Ubbad, 'Abada ‘Ábid, pl. ‘Ábidún, ‘Ubbád, ‘Abada worshipper, adorer
Abidu'l-'Ulama Abídu’l-‘Ulamá literary man of the ‘Ulamá.   Title given to Mírzá Muḥammad Ḥasan, known as Adíb, Hand of the Cause of God.
Abir ‘Ábir, pl. ‘Ábirún passing;   crossing, traversing, etc.;   fleeting (smile);   transient, transitory, ephemeral;   bygone, past, elapsed (time);—pl. passerby.   ‘ábir ṭaríq wanderer, wayfarer.   See Áwárih
Abiward, Abivard Abíward, Abívard Pers.   now Dargaz, Raḍawí Khurásán Province, Írán
Abiy Abíy disdainful, scornful;   proud, lofty, lofty-minded
Abjad Abjad alphabet of consonants, name derived from the consonants alíf, bá’, jím and dál
Abraha al-Ashram ‘Abraha(h) al-‘Ashram (“Abraha al-Ashram”) an Abyssinian prince, who built a Christian church in Ṣaná‘ to rival the Ka‘ba at Mecca. According to traditional Arab belief, he made an unsuccessful attack with his forces of elephants to destroy the Ka‘ba ad 570 (known as the year of the elephant and date of the birth of Muḥammad).
Absat Absaṭ simpler;   wider, more extensive
Abtar Abtar curtailed, docked, clipped, trimmed;   imperfect, defective, incomplete;   without offspring.   See root batara.
Abu 'Abdu'llah ash-Shi'i Abú ‘Abdu’lláh ash-Shí’í Abú ‘Abd Alláh al-Ḥusayn ibn Aḥmad ibn Zakaríya ash-Shí‘í (died 911) was a Da‘í (missionary) for the Isma‘ilis in Yemen and North Africa
Abu 'Ali Abú ‘Alí
Abu 'Amir al-Ashari Abú ‘Ámir al-Asharí father of Ḥanẓala
Abu 'Imran Musa ibn Maymun Abú ‘Imrán Músá ibn Maymún Maimonides (originally Moshe ben Maimon)
Abu al-Dawahi Abú al-Dawáhí “Father of Iniquities”, Abú Bakr.   See Dáhiya
Abu al-Fida', Abu'l-Fida' Abú al-Fidá’, Pers. Abu’l-Fidá’ Abú al-Fidá’ Ismá‘íl ibn ‘Alí ibn Maḥmud al-Malik al-Mu’ayyad 'Imád ad-Dín (1273–1331), better known in English as Abulfeda, was a Kurdish historian, geographer and local governor of Hama. He was a prince of the Ayyubid dynasty and the author of The memoirs of a Syrian prince: Abu’l-Fidáʼ, Sulṭán of Ḥamáh. The moon crater, Abulfeda, is named after him.
Abu Dharr al-Ghifari al-Kinani Abú Dharr al-Ghifárí al-Kinání (“Abouzar”) (also known as also Jundab ibn Junádah) illiterate shepherd (of the Banú Ghifár,a Jewish tribe) who became a disciple (4th or 5th) of Muḥammad (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, p. 183) (“Abu-Dhar Ghefan”)
Abu Nuwas Abú Nuwáṣ (usually given as “Nuwás”) nickname (“father of the forelocks”) of al-Ḥasan ibn Hání (Háni’) al-Ḥakamí (756–814), was a classical Arabic poet.   See náṣiya and háni’.
Abu Sinan (Abu-Sinan) Abú Sinán (Abú-Sinán) a Druze village (Hebrew Abu Snan) about 7.5 km east of Bahjí and 4 km west the Druze village of Yarká (Yirká)
Abu-'Umar-'Uthman Abú-‘Umar-‘Uthmán
Abu-Bakr Abú-Bakr
Abu-Bakri's-Siddiq Abú-Bakri’ṣ-Ṣiddíq The Dawn-Breakers liv
Abu-Hanifa, Abu-Hanifih Abú-Ḥanífa (or Ḥanífih) al-Nu‘mán famous Persian theologian and jurist
Abu-Ja'far-i-Tusi Abú-Ja‘far-i-Ṭúsí follower of Imám Ṣádiq who handed down his traditions
Abu-Jahl Abú-Jahl (Abudjahl) (“father of ignorance”)   Abu’l-Ḥakam ‘Amr Ibn Hishám
Abu-Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi Abú-Naṣr Muḥammad al-Fárábí (Alpharabius in the West)   Persian philosopher and writer (c. 872–between 14 December 950 and 12 January 951)
Abu-Rahim Abú-Raḥím
Abu-Sufyan Abú-Sufyán Ṣakhr ibn Ḥarb, more commonly known as Abú Sufyán (580–640), was the leader of the Quraysh of Mecca, the most powerful tribe of pre-Islamic Arabia. He was a staunch opponent of Muḥammad, until later accepting Islám and becoming a warrior later in his life during the early Muslim conquests.
Abu-Talib Abú-Ṭálib Abú-Ṭálib, Mullá   sons ‘Alí-Ashraf and Áqá Bálá
Abu-Talib-i-Sang-Sari Abú-Ṭálib-i-Sang-Sarí Siyyid Abú-Ṭálib-i-Sang-Sarí (The Dawn-Breakers, p. 426)
Abu-Talib-i-Shahmirzadi Abú-Ṭálib-i-Shahmírzádí
Abu-Turab Abú-Turáb
Abu-Turab-i-Qazvini Abú-Turáb-i-Qazvíní
Abu'd-Dawahi Abu’d-Dawáhí Father of Misfortunes
Abu'l-Bashar Abu’l-Bashar “the father of man”—one of the titles given by Muslims to Adam
Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpaygani Abu’l-Faḍl-i-Gulpáygání, Mírzá
Abu'l-Fath-i-Shahristani Abu’l-Fatḥ-i-Shahristání
Abu'l-Fida Abu’l-Fidá’
Abu'l-Futuh Abu’l-Futúḥ (“the Father of Victories”) name given to Enoch Olinga by Shoghi Effendi
Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani Abu’l-Ḥasan-i-Ardikání, Mullá Hájí Amín, Amín-i-Iláhí (“Trustee of God”) (Trustee of Ḥuqúqu’lláh)
Abu'l-Hasan-i-Bazzaz Abu’l-Ḥasan-i-Bazzáz
Abu'l-Hikam Abu’l-Ḥikam “the Father of Wisdoms”.   See Ḥikma
Abu'l-Huda Abu’l-Hudá, Shaykh
Abu'l-Qasim-i-Hamadani Abu’l-Qásim-i-Hamadání
Abu'l-Qasim-i-Kashi Abu’l-Qásim-i-Káshí a learned Bábí from Káshán (Abu’l Káẓim)
Abu'l-Qasim-i-Khurasani Abu’l-Qásim-i-Khurásání
Abu'l-Qasim-i-Mazkani Abu’l-Qásim-i-Mazkání
Abu'l-Qasim-i-Qa'im-Maqam Abu’l-Qásim-i-Qá’im-Maqám
Abu'l-Qasim-i-Shirazi Abu’l-Qásim-i-Shírází
Abu'l-Qasim-ibn-i-Haji-Zayna Abu’l-Qásim-ibn-i-Ḥájí-Zayná
Abu'sh-Shurur Abu’sh-Shurúr “the father of iniquities or wickedness”   (EGB, Balyuzi)
Abuqir Abúqír Abú Qír is a village NE of Alexandria, Egypt
Abwab al-Arba'ah, Abwab-i-Arba'ih al-Abwáb al-Arba‘a(h) Pers.   Abwáb-i-Arba‘ih.   “the Four Gates” DB 178.   Persian sometimes written Abváb-i-Arba‘ih.   See Arba‘
Abyad (“Abiyad”), Baida, Bid Abyaḍ, fem. Baiḍá’, pl. Bíḍ white;   bright;   clean, shiny, polished;   blameless, noble, sincere (character);   empty, blank (sheet of paper);—pl. al-bíḍán the white race.   al-abyaḍ egg white
Abyan Abyan clearer, more distinct, more obvious.   Root bána, bayán
Ad ‘Ád Traditionally, a fourth generation descendent of Noah;   an ancient Arabian tribe
Ad'iyyih va Munajat Ad‘iyyih (or Ad‘íyih) va Munáját “Prayers and Supplications” by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Ada, 'Adat, 'Awa'id, 'Adatan ‘Áda(t), pl. ‘Ádát, ‘Awá’id habit, wont, custom, usage, practice;   ‘Ádatan usually, customarily, ordinarily, habitually;—pl. ‘Awá’id taxes, duties;   charges, fees, rates
Ada’ ‘Adá’ enmity, hostility, antagonism, animosity;   aggression
Adab ‘Adab good manners, as in etiquette
Adall Aḍall more or most astray;   more or most tending to lead astray
Adalla Aḍalla “to leave in error or lead astray”
Adam Ádam Adam
Adasi ‘Adasí lenticular
Adasiyah, Adasiyyih ‘Adasíya(h), Pers. ‘Adasíyyih (Adassiya)—a town in Jordan 17 km SE of Tiberias. This is the resting place of a half brother of Bahá’u’lláh, and one of three villages where ‘Abdu’l-Bahá grew corn and wheat during the First World War.
Adha Aḍḥá ‘Íd al-Aḍḥá   Festival of Sacrifice
Adhab-i-Qabr ‘Adháb-i-Qabr chastisement in the grave
Adham, Dahma', Duhm Adham, fem. Dahmá’, pl. Duhm black, deep-black
Adhan Adhán Muslim announcement or call to prayer
Adhan, Adhah Aḍḥan (collective; nomen unitatis Aḍḥáh)   slaughter animal, blood sacrifice, immolation
Adhar (Azar), Adhur (Azur) Ádhar, Ádhur Pers.   fire;   name of the angel presiding over fire, and the day ádhar;   affairs of the month and day ádhar, the former being the ninth solar month, the latter being the ninth day of any month, but particularly of the fourth month
Adharbayjan, Adhirbayjan Ádharbayján, (Ázarbayján) Pers.   Azerbaijan or Azerbayjan, country, and a province in NW Írán.   Also Ádhirbayján, Ázarbayján Ázarbaygān
Adhari Ádharí native of Ádharbayján
Adi ‘Ádí customary, usual, common, ordinary, normal, regular;   undistinguished, run-of-the-mill;   ordinary, regular (e.g., meeting, as opposed to extraordinary, special, emergency);   simple, plain, ordinary (man);   old, ancient, antique
Adi-Ghazal (Adi-Guzal) ‘Ádí-Ghazál Mírzá ‘Alíy-i-Sayyáḥ-i-Marághih’í
Adib Ádib host
Adib, Adiba, Udaba' Adíb, fem. Adíba, pl. Udabá’ cultured, refined, educated;   well-bred, well-mannered, civil, urbane;   a man of culture and refined tastes;   man of letters, writer, author (superlative form of ‘Aduba’ [to learn])
Adibu'l-'Ulama Adíbu’l-‘Ulamá littérateur or literary man of the ‘Ulamá
Adil ('Adilih) ‘Ádil, fem. ‘Ádila just, fair, equitable;   upright, honest, straightforward, righteous.   Persian also ‘Ádilih
Adirna, Adirnih Adirna, Pers. Adirnih Hadrianopolis (Adrianople in English), now known as Edirne.   Same numerical value, 260, as Sirr (Mystery)
Adiya, ‘Adiyat, ‘Awadin ‘Ádiya, pl. ‘Ádiyát, ‘Awádin wrong, offense, misdeed, outrage;   adversity, misfortune, reverse;   obstacle, impediment, obstruction;—pl. vicissitudes.   Root ‘adá’
Adja' Adjá‘ father of Qarád   SDC 49
Adl, 'Udul ‘Adl, pl. ‘Udúl straightness, straightforwardness;   justice, impartiality;   fairness, equitableness, probity, honesty, uprightness;   equitable composition, just compromise;—(pl.) just, equitable, fair, upright, honest;   person of good reputation, person with an honourable record (Islamic Law);   juristic adjunct assigned to a cadi (Maghrib)
Adliya ‘Adlíya justice, administration of justice, jurisprudence
Adna, Dunya, Adanin, Adnun, Dunan Adná, fem. Dunyá (pl. m. Adánin, Adnún pl. f. Dunan) nearer, closer;   situated lower down, nether;   lower, inferior;   lowlier;   smaller, of less significance;   more appropriate, better suited, more suitable
Adrianople Adrianople now Edirne
Adu'dh-Dhikr ‘Adu’dh-Dhikr Ar.   Servant of the Remembrance. A designation of the Báb.
Adud, A’dad ‘Aḍud, pl. A’ḍád help, aid, assistance, support, backing;   helper, aide, assistant, supporter, backer.   (pl.) upper arm;   strength, power, vigour, force
Adudu'd-Dawlih ‘Aḍudu’d-Dawlih (ad 978–983)
Afandi (Effendi) Afandí, pl. Afandíyá Effendi in English.   Gentleman (when referring to non-Europeans wearing Western clothes and the tarboosh);   (after the name) a title of respect.   Efendi (pronounced effendi), Turkish title of nobility meaning a lord, master or gentleman.   It designates a higher rank than Big.
Afaqi Áfáqí coming from a distant country or region.   See ufq
Afchih Afchih or Afjih A village northeast of Ṭihrán in Lavásán District, TN p. 31
Affa, Iffa ‘Affa (‘Iffa(t), ‘Afáf) to refrain, abstain (from something forbidden or indecent);   to be abstinent, continent, virtuous, chaste, modest, decent, pure.   ‘Iffat, a daughter of Badí‘u’lláh
Affan ‘Affán Pers.   name of the father of the caliph ‘Usmán (Othmán or ‘Uthmán)
Afghani Afghán, Afghání adjective and noun.   al-afghán (the Afghans; Afghánistán)
Afghanistan Afghánistán Afghanistan
Afifi ‘Afífí Muḥammad al-‘Afífí, Persian Consul in ‘Akká
Aflatun Afláṭún Plato, from the Greek name
Afnan-i-Kabir Afnán-i-Kabír
Afranj Afranj Pers.   Elegance, dignity, grace;   magnificence, grandeur, power;   maguitude;   a throne;   a crown;   provisions, necessaries.   The Franks, French;   the crusaders;   all Europeans.   Khán-i-Afranj in ‘Akká.
Afrasiyab (“Afrasyab”) Afrásiyáb Pers.   name of an ancient king celebrated in Persian poetry, sovereign of Túrán, and a Scythian or Turk by birth;   one who moves leisurely on the road;   a travelling companion
Afrukhta (Afrokhta) Afrúkhta(h) Pers.   inflamed, lighted;   shining, radiant;   polished, furbished
Afruz (Afroz) Afrúz Pers.   burning;   illuminating, dazzling, animating.   Feminine name.
Afsah, Fusha Afṣaḥ, fem. Fuṣḥá of purer language;   more eloquent
Afsana (Afsanih, Afsaneh) Áfsána, Afsána Pers.   fem. name.   A charm, incantation;   a fiction, tale, fable, romance, parable;   a narrative, a story of past events;   public, notorious, noted.
Afshar Afshár a branch of the Turkic Oghuz people
Afshin Afshín Pers.   name of a person known for his liberality
Aftab Áftáb Pers.   masc. name, sunlight or sunshine;   the sun;   a day;   wine;   the soul.   See Khurshíd
Aftab-parast Áftáb-Parast Pers.   a worshipper of the sun;   sun-flower;   a chameleon (or iguana);   a water-lily;   in India, any blue flower
Aftabah (Aftabih) Áftábah Pers.   a ewer, water-pot, or kettle
Aftah, Mufattah Afṭaḥ and Mufaṭṭaḥ broad-headed, broad-nosed
Afus Afús village near Iṣfahán
Afuw ‘Afúw one who forgives much.   al-‘Afúw, attribute of God, The Pardoner, The Effacer, The Forgiver
Afw ‘Afw, Pers. also ‘Afú, ‘Ufú effacement, obliteration, elimination;   pardon, forgiveness;   waiver of punishment (Islamic Law);   amnesty (for);   boon, kindness, favour;   surplus
Agah Ágáh Pers.   aware, wary;   intelligent, knowing, acquainted with;   prudent;   vigilant, attentive;   notice, news, indication, information
Agahu'llah Ágáhu’lláh Ágáhu’lláh Tízfahm, executed May 1982
Agar, Ar Agar, Ar Pers.   if;   although
Agha, Aghawat Ághá, pl. Aghawát (Ar.)   lord, master, sir;   eunuch, harem chamberlain
AH ah—Anno Hejirae (in the year of the Hijira—small caps and precedes the date)
Ahad, Ihda Aḥad, fem. Iḥdá, pl. Áḥád one;   somebody, someone, anybody, anyone (especially in negative sentences and questions).   al-Aḥad, an attribute of God.
Ahadiya (Ahadiyya) Aḥadíya(h or t) unity, oneness (also absolute unity), singularity;   concord, alliance
Ahamid (Ahamed) Aḥamid highly praised (?)
Ahang Áhang aḥám Pers.   concord, symphony, harmony, modulation, melody, pitch, tune;   design, institution, purpose, intention;   canon, regulation;   rule, custom, manner of proceeding;   a row, a series;   the side (of a cistern);   the curve or arch of a cupola or dome;   a tether, stable, stall;   haste, expedition;   behold!
Ahangar Áhangar Pers.   blacksmith, a dealer in iron
Ahd, ‘Uhud ‘Ahd, pl. ‘Uhúd translated as Covenant in Bahá’í Writings.   Knowledge;   acquaintance, contact (with);   the well-known, familiar nature (of something);   close observance, strict adherence (to), keeping, fulfilment (of a promise);   delegation, assignment, committing (of something to someone), vesting (in someone of something), commissioning, charging, entrusting (of someone with something);   commission;   (pl.) commitment, obligation, liability;   responsibility;   pledge, vow;   promise; oath;   contract, compact, covenant, pact, treaty, agreement;   time, epoch, era.
Ahda Ahdá better guided;   more correct, more proper, better.   Qur’án 28:49: Qur’án gives ahdá, “clearer” guidance; not afṣáḥ, “eloquent” language—this is the criterion for judging the inimitability (i‘jáz) of the Qur’án: “its ability to guide humanity to the truth, to Allah and to salvation, its ability to inspire people with devotion and to constrain people to act in ways that are moral and righteous.” Islam and the Bahá’í Faith, p. 230.
Ahdiyih (Ahdieh) ‘Ahdiyih Pers.   the one who keeps his covenant or word, a faithful one.   Hushang Ahdieh
Ahi Áhí Pers.   a fawn
Ahkam Aḥkam wiser, stronger, strongest;   very firm;   more, most, or very stable;   most able to decide
Ahl al-Kisa’ Ahl al-Kisa’ people of the cloak: Muḥammad;   his daughter, Fáṭima;   his cousin and son-in-law ‘Alí;   and his two grandsons Ḥassan and Ḥusayn.
Ahl at-Tariq Ahl aṭ-Ṭaríq “people of the path” or “people of true religion” (Islamic)
Ahl-i-Baha Ahl-i-Bahá “people of Bahá”
Ahl-i-Bayan Ahl-i-Bayán “people of the Bayán”
Ahl-i-Haqq Ahl-i-Ḥaqq lit. people of the truth
Ahl, Ahlun, Ahalin, Ahali Ahl, pl. Ahlún, Ahálin, Ahálí relatives, folks, family;   kin, kinfolk;   wife;   (with following genitive) people, members, followers, adherents, possessors, etc.;   inhabitants;   deserving, worthy (of something);   fit, suited, qualified (for);—pl. the natives, the native population;—pl. ahálí inhabitants, citizens, commons;   persons, individuals, members;   family-folk;   consorts, spouses, wives;   domestics, dependants, followers
Ahla Aḥlá spouses, wives;   domestics, dependants, followers
Ahli Ahli (the) people, or (of the) people
Ahli Ahlí domestic, family (adjective);   native, resident;   indigenous;   home, national
Ahlu'l-Kitab Ahlu’l-Kitáb “people of the Book”
Ahmad Aḥmad more laudable, more commendable, more praised [comparative form of ‘ḥamida’ (to praise)]—one of five names of Muḥammad
Ahmad Big Tawfiq Aḥmad Big Tawfíq
Ahmad Sohrab Ahmad Sohrab Mírzá Aḥmad-i-Iṣfahání (1893–1958). Later adopted the name Ahmad Sohrab. Was declared a Covenant-breaker by Shoghi Effendi in 1939.
Ahmad-i-'Allaf Aḥmad-i-‘Alláf
Ahmad-i-Ahsa'i, Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Aḥsá’í, Shaykh Shaykh Aḥmad al-Aḥsá’í
Ahmad-i-Azghandi Aḥmad-i-Azghandí
Ahmad-i-Bahrayni Aḥmad-i-Baḥrayní
Ahmad-i-Ibdal Aḥmad-i-Ibdál
Ahmad-i-Ibdal-i-Maraghi'i Aḥmad-i-Ibdál-i-Marághi’í
Ahmad-i-Kashani Aḥmad-i-Káshání
Ahmad-i-Katib Aḥmad-i-Kátib
Ahmad-i-Khurasani Aḥmad-i-Khurásání
Ahmad-i-Kirmani Aḥmad-i-Kirmání
Ahmad-i-Mu'allim Aḥmad-i-Mu‘allim
Ahmad-i-Nukhud-Biriz Aḥmad-i-Nukhud-Biríz
Ahmad-i-Payvandi Aḥmad-i-Payvandí
Ahmad-i-Qazvini Aḥmad-i-Qazvíní
Ahmad-i-Ruhi Aḥmad-i-Rúḥí
Ahmad-i-Saffar Aḥmad-i-Ṣaffár
Ahmad-i-Yazdi Aḥmad-i-Yazdí
Ahmad-ibn-i-Abi-Talib-i-Tabarsi Aḥmad-ibn-i-Abí-Ṭálib-i-Ṭabarsí
Ahmadiy, Ahmadi Aḥmadíy, Aḥmadí belonging to Aḥmad;   a Muslim;   name of a gold coin
Ahmadiyya Aḥmadiyya(h) al-Jamá‘ah al-Islámiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah (the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community), founded by Mírzá Ghulám Aḥmad in Qádiyán, Punjab, India
Ahmar, Hamra, Humr Aḥmar, f. Ḥamrá, pl. Ḥumr red, red-coloured, ruddy;   rosy, pink.   Alhambra (Spanish), the Citadel of Granada, (“the Red Palace”;   al-Ḥamrá, lit. “the red one”)
Ahrari Aḥrárí Ḍíyá’u’lláh Aḥrárí executed 1982.   Aḥrár is pl. of Ḥurr
Ahsa Aḥsá al-Aḥsá, al-Ḥasá, or Ḥadjár (locally al-Aḥasá) is a traditional oasis region in eastern Saudi Arabia whose name is used by the Al-Aḥsá Governorate, which makes up much of that country's Eastern Province. The al-Ḥasá or al-Aḥsá Oasis is located about 60 km inland from the coast of the Persian Gulf. al-Hufúf is the major urban center in the oasis.   Birthplace of Shaykh Aḥmad al-Aḥsá’í.
Ahsa'i Aḥsá’í of or from al-Aḥsá
Ahsan, Ahasin Aḥsan, pl. Aḥásin better;   nicer, lovelier, more beautiful;   more excellent, more splendid, more admirable
Ahsanu'l-Qisas Aḥsanu’l-Qiṣaṣ The Best of Stories [Ar.]: a name for the Surih of Joseph.—Tafsír-i-Aḥsanu’l-Qiṣaṣ: the Báb’s commentary on the Súrih of Joseph, the Qayyúmu’l-Asmá’, called the Qur’án of the Bábís. Translated into Persian by Ṭáhirih.
Ahu Áhú Pers.   a vice, fault, defect, stain, spot, villainy;   flight, escape;   an exclamation, cry for help;   an asthma ;   a deer, roe, gazelle ;   any object of pursuit or chase;   a beautiful eye;   a mistress
Ahvaz Ahváz a city in south-west Írán
Aja'ibu'l-Makhluqat ‘Ajá’ibu’l-Makhlúqat “The marvels of creation” by Qazwíní
Ajab, A'jab ‘Ajab, pl. A‘jáb astonishment, amazement;—(pl.) wonder, marvel
Ajal Ajal, pl. Ájál appointed time, date, deadline;   instant of death;   respite, delay
Ajam ‘Ajam (collective) barbarians, non-Arabs, Persians.   (collective;   noun denoting an individual) stone kernel, pit, pip, seed (of fruit)
Ajami, A’jam ‘Ajamí, pl. A‘jám barbarian, non-Arab;   Persian (adj. and n.)
Ajda' Ajda‘ mutilated (by having the nose, or the like cut off).   SDC p. 49.
Ajiba, 'Aja’ib ‘Ajíba, pl. ‘Ajá’ib wondrous thing, unheard of thing, prodigy, marvel, miracle, wonder;—pl. remarkable things, curiosities, oddities
Ajja, Ajij Ajja, Ajíj to burn, blaze, flame (fire).   e.g. Má’ ujáj bitter, salty water.
Ajudan Ájúdán Pers.   aide-de-camp, adjutant
Ajudan-Bashi Ájúdán-Báshí Pers.   chief adjutant
Ajuz, 'Ajz, A'jaz ‘Ajuz, ‘Ajz, pl. A‘jáz backside, rump, posteriors.   Also stem, stump, trunk (of palm tree)   Qur’án 54:20 & 69:7
Ajwibatu'l-Masá'il, Ajwibatu'l-Masa'il Ajwibat al-Masá’il “Answers to some questions”, book by Shaykh Aḥmad.   Pers.   Ajwibatu’l-Masá’il (Ajvibatu’l-Masa’il).   See Jawáb
Ajz ‘Ajz weakness, incapacity, disability, failure, impotence (for, to do something);   deficit
Akbar-ibn-i-'Abid Akbar-ibn-i-‘Ábid
Akbar, Akbarun, Akabir, Kubra, Kubrayat Akbar, pl. Akbarún, Akábir greater, bigger, larger;   older;   senior-ranking [comparative form of ‘kabura’ (to elevate)].   Note: akbar, اكبر, consists of four consonants ر ب ك ا (right to left in Arabic, or Alif, Káf, Bá’ and Rá’ in English)—the first a is an Alif.   Fem. Kubrá, pl. Kubrayát.
Akh, Ikhwa, Ikhwan Akh, pl. Ikhwa, Ikhwán brother;   fellow man, neighbour;   friend;—pl. ikhwán specifically, brethren or members of an order;   al-ikhwán religious brotherhood of the Wahabi sect, militant in character, established by Ibn Sa‘úd in 1910
Akhar Ákhar another, different, second
Akhbari Akhbárí school, founded by Mullá Muḥammad-Amír of Astarábád, in opposition to the mujtahids or the Uṣúlís.   Akhbár (pl. of Khabar) means ‘news’ or ‘traditions’, and uṣúl means ‘principles’.   The Akhbárí followers only accept the traditions ascribed to the Prophet and the Imáms;   whereas the Uṣúlís (they constitute the vast majority of the Twelvers), maintain that the mujtahid has the right, as the deputy of the Hidden Imám, to deduce principles from the Qur’án as well as the traditions, and to use qiyás or ‘analogy’ to make an authoritative statement.
Akhdar (Akhzar), Khadra', Khudr Akhḍar (f.), Khaḍrá’, pl. Khuḍr green.   al-Khaḍrá’ “the Verdant” (epithet of Tunis);   the sky.   Persian forms are similar and the ḍ is replaced by a ẓ.   Khaḍrá’—final Hamza is left out in some books.
Akhir Akhír last;   latest;   rearmost;   the second of two
Akhir, Akhirun, Akhirat, Awakhir Ákhir, pl. Ákhirún, Ákhirát, Awákhir last, ultimate, utmost, extreme;   end, close, conclusion;   foot, bottom (of a paper).   ‘Abdu’l-Bahá substituted ákhur on a number of occasions when referring to the ‘ulamá—see akhúr. “They have held to this stable (stability?) but they have not seen the ultimate of things.” Diary of Juliet Thompson, p. 102.
Akhirah Ákhira(h) afterlife.   See dunyá and awwal
Akhtar-Khawari (Akhtar-Khavari) Akhtar-Kháwarí
Akhtar, Akhtaran Akhtar, pl. Akhtarán Pers.   a star;   horoscope, predominant star at anyone’s nativity;   an omen, augury;   an ensign, standard;   name of an angel.   Name of a newspaper
Akhtaran Taban Akhtarán-i-Tábán Pers.   brilliant stars
Akhu’th-Thamarah Akhu’th-Thamarah “the Brother of the Fruit”.   Báb: “Akhu’th-Thamarah, 238”—The fruit is Mírzá Yaḥyá and 238 equals Ḥusayn-‘Alí (Bahá’u’lláh)
Akhund Ákhúnd Muslim priest [akhond]   See ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí
Akhur Ar. Akhúr, Pers. Ákhur a stall, stable or barn for horses;   the collar-bone.   See Ákhir
Akif, Akifan ‘Ákif, pl. ‘Ákifán Pers.   assiduous, diligent;   constantly staying in the mosque and employed in devotion
Akk ‘Akk sultry, muggy, sweltering
Akka, 'Akk ‘Akka (‘Akk) to be sultry, muggy (day)
Akka, 'Akka' ‘Akka(h), ‘Akká’ and ‘Akká ‘Ako (Hebrew, more commonly spelt Akko) or Acre (seaport in Israel).   ‘Akká is Arabic form used by Bahá’ís.   Houses in ‘Akká used by the Bahá’ís: Malik, Khavvám and Rábi’ih, ‘Údí Khammár and ‘Abbúd.   Bahá’u’lláh’s family left in 1877 for Mazra‘ih
Akthar Akthar more;   oftener, more frequently;   more numerous;   longer;   most;   major portion, greater part, majority
Al Ál family, relatives, kinsfolk, clan;   companions, partisans, people;   mirage, fatamorgana.   Not the Arabic definite article al-
Al- al- the definite article in Arabic, often translated as “the” in English.   The letter “l” is replaced by a sun letter if the following word starts with one of the 14 sun letters—refer to the Arabic letters & abjad values section at the end of this list.
Al-i-Muhammad Ál-i-Muḥammad children (or family) of Muḥammad
Ala ‘Alá (preposition) on, upon, on top of, above, over (place, rank);   at, on, by;   in, in the state of, in the manner of, in possession of;   to, toward, for;   in addition to;   to the debit of, to the disadvantage of;   against, in spite of, despite;   on the basis of, on the strength of, by virtue of, due to, upon;   by, through;   according to, in accordance with, pursuant to;   to (one’s taste, one’s mind, one’s liking, etc.);   during
Ala ‘Alá’ high rank, high standing, nobility;   loftiness
Ala, Uluw ‘Alá, ‘Ulúw to be high, elevated, rise high, loom, tower up;   to rise, ascend;   to ring out (voice);   etc.
Ala' Álá’ Pers.   benefits, favours, kindnesses
Ala'i ‘Alá’í Shu‘á‘u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Hand of the Cause of God
Ala'u'd-Dawlih ‘Alá’u’d-Dawlih, Yúsúf
Alam Alam, pl. Álám pain, ache, suffering, agony
Alam al-Hayawan ‘Álam al-Ḥayawán the animal kingdom
Alam al-Ma'adin ‘Álam al-Ma‘ádin the mineral kingdom
Alam an-Nabat ‘Álam an-Nabát the vegetable kingdom
Alam, A'lam ‘Alam, pl. A‘lám sign, token, mark, badge, distinguishing mark, characteristic;   harelip;   road sign, signpost, guidepost;   flag, banner, standard, ensign, streamer, pennants;   mountain (Qur’án 55:24);   a distinguished, outstanding man;   an eminent personality, an authority, a star, a luminary;   proper name
Alam, Alamun, Awalim ‘Álam, pl. ‘Álamún, ‘Awálim world;   universe, cosmos.   Pl. ‘Álamún—inhabitants of the world, specifically human beings.   al-‘álamán the two worlds = Europe and America.
Alama, Alamat, Ala'im ‘Aláma, pl. ‘Alámát, ‘Alá’im mark, sign, token;   badge, emblem;   distinguishing mark, characteristic
Alami ‘Álami worldly, secular, world (adj.);   international;   world-wide, world-famous, enjoying world-wide renown
Alamu'l-amr ‘Álamu’l-Amr (lower) world of creation
Alamu'l-Haqq ‘Álamu’l-Ḥaqq (upper) eternally inaccessible world of God that is exalted beyond the grasp of the minds of men
Alamu'l-Huda ‘Alamu’l-Hudá “distinguished guide”
Alamu'l-Khalq ‘Álamu’l-Khalq (intermediate) world of the revelation of the divine command
Alamut Alamút eagle-nest.   Name of a region in Írán on the western edge of the Alborz (Elburz) range and a ruined fortress (55 km NE of Qazvín and 110 km NW of Ṭihrán.
Alaniya ‘Aláníya openness, overtness, publicness, publicity (as opposed to secrecy)
Alaq, 'Alaqun, 'Alaqat ‘Alaq(at), ‘Alaqun, pl. ‘Alaqát medicinal leech;   leech;   (coagulated) blood, blood clot.   Note: the tá’ marbúṭa here is represented by ‘at’.
Alast (Alastu) Alast (Alastu) “Am I not?”   Cycle of alast is a reference to a pre historic Covenant between God and man. According to Qur’án 7:172, God called all the men in his presence before their creation and asked them alastu bi-rabbikum?  “Am I not your Lord?” and all the men confirmed that by saying “yes, yes, thou art our Lord”. This demonstrates the total and inherent essential dependence of man to the continuous grace of God. So alast and the cycle of alast is a reference to this Covenant.
Alawi (Alavi), 'Alawiya ('Alawiyih), 'Alawiyn ‘Alawí, fem. ‘Alawíya (‘Alawíyyih) upper;   heavenly, celestial;   a descendent of ‘Alí;   Alawi (adj. and n.);—pl. ‘Alawíyn, the Alawis (official name of the Nusairis inhabiting the coastal district of Latakia in NW Syria)
Alawiyan (Alaviyan) ‘Alawiyán (Pers. with Ar. influence) princes, lords (descendants of ‘Alí)
Alayhi ('Alaihi) ‘Alayhi upon, against, with him (or it);—‘alayhi’s-salám, Peace be upon him! (formula of reverence added after the name of any prophet). Abbreviation in English pbuh.
Alburz Alburz, Alborz the principal mountain range in northern Írán
Alf, Uluf Alf, pl. Ulúf, Áláf thousand;   millennium
Alfi, 'Id Alfí, ‘Íd millennial celebration, millenary
Alfiyyih Alfíya, Pers. Alfíyyih al-Khulása al-Alfíyya by Ibn-i-Malik
Ali ‘Alí High, eminent.   ‘Alí was the first Imám, the fourth Caliph and the son-in-law of Muḥammad.   al-‘Alí, the Divine name for the All-Knowing.
Ali ‘Álí high, sublime, eminent, excellent, grand;   the upper part;   above
Ali an-Naqi, Ali-Naqi ‘Alí an-Naqí, ‘Alí-Naqí ‘Alí ibn Muḥammad ibn ‘Alí, commonly known as ‘Alí al-Hádí and ‘Alí an-Naqí, 10th Imám
Ali Big Yuz-Bashi ‘Alí Big Yúz-Báshí
Ali ibn Abi Talib ‘Alí ibn Abí Ṭálib Cousin and son-in-law of Muḥammad
Ali Pasha ‘Álí Páshá ‘Álí Páshá, Muḥammad Amín
Ali-'Askar-i-Tabrizi ‘Alí-‘Askar-i-Tabrízí Merchant from Tabríz
Ali-Abad (Aliabad) ‘Alí-Ábád a village 35 km SW of Ṭihrán
Ali-Ahmad ‘Alí-Aḥmad
Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání
Ali-Akbar-i-Mazgani ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Mázgání (MF)
Ali-Akbar-i-Najjar ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Najjár (MF)
Ali-Akbar-i-Quchani ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Qúchání
Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí Hájí Ákhúnd, a Hand of the Cause
Ali-Asghar ‘Alí-Aṣghar (MF)
Ali-Baba ‘Alí-Bábá
Ali-Hamzih ‘Alí-Ḥamzih
Ali-ibn-i-Abi-Talib ‘Alí-ibn-i-Abí-Ṭálib
Ali-ibn-i-Muhammad ‘Alí-ibn-i-Muḥammad
Ali-ibn-i-Musa'r-Rida ‘Alí-ibn-i-Músá’r-Riḍá
Ali-Jan ‘Alí-Ján
Ali-Khan ‘Alí-Khán
Ali-Mardan ‘Alí-Mardán
Ali-Mirzay-i-Shirazi ‘Alí-Mírzáy-i-Shírází
Ali-Muhammad ‘Alí-Muḥammad
Ali-Murad ('Alimurad) ‘Alí-Murád (Sometimes shortened to ‘Alímurád)
Ali-Qabl-i-Muhammad ‘Alí-Qabl-i-Muḥammad
Ali-Quli Khan (Ali-Kuli Khan) ‘Alí-Qulí Khán Better known as Ali-Kuli Khan, married Florence Breed (parents of Marzieh Gail)
Ali-Rida ‘Alí-Riḍá
Ali-Shawkat ‘Alí-Shawkat (GPB 241)
Alid ‘Alid or Alid Eng. (from mid 18th century) descendents of ‘Alí ibn Abí Ṭálib
Alif Alif first consonant with abjad = 1.   In writing it serves as a prop for vowel-signs: اَ a, اِ i, اُ u, اُو ú, o, au, ای í, e, ai.
Alil, A'illa' ‘Alíl, pl. A‘illa’ sick, ill, ailing;   sick person, patient;   soft, gentle, mild, pleasant.   meaning with place names: “lower”
Alim, Ulama ‘Álim, pl. ‘Ulamá’ (Pers. ‘Ulamá) (adj. or noun)   knowing;   familiar, acquainted (with), cognizant (of);   expert, connoisseur, professional.—pl. learned, erudite;   scholar, savant, scientist.   al-‘Alím, the omniscient (one of the attributes of God).   The ‘Ulamá’ is a body of Muslim scholars who are recognized as having specialist knowledge of Islamic sacred law and theology. The ‘ulamá are collectively known in Persian society as the Jámi‘a-i Rúḥáníyat (the spiritual concourse).
Alima ‘Álima fem. woman of learning, woman scholar, e.g. singer, chanteuse
Alima ('Ilm) ‘Alima (‘Ilm) to know;   teach;   tell, notify;   to learn, study;   to inquire, ask
Alin ‘Álin high, tall, elevated;   loud, strong (voice);   higher (as opposed to elementary);   lofty, exalted, sublime, high-ranking, of high standing;   excellent, first-class, first-rate, outstanding, of top quality (commodity)
Alipur ‘Alípúr village in Razavi Khorasan Province, Írán
Aliy-i-Baraqani ‘Alíy-i-Baraqání
Aliy-i-Barfurushi ‘Alíy-i-Bárfurúshí entitled Quddús
Aliy-i-Bastami ‘Alíy-i-Basṭámí ‘Alíy-i-Basṭámí, Mullá   A Letter of the Living
Aliy-i-Kani ‘Alíy-i-Kání
Aliy-i-Kirmanshahi ‘Alíy-i-Kirmánsháhí
Aliy-i-Las-Furush ‘Alíy-i-Lás-Furúsh
Aliy-i-Miri ‘Alíy-i-Mírí
Aliy-i-Mudhahhib ‘Alíy-i-Mudhahhib
Aliy-i-Qazvini ‘Alíy-i-Qazvíní
Aliy-i-Sabzivari ‘Alíy-i-Sabzivárí
Aliy-i-Salmani ‘Alíy-i-Salmání
Aliy-i-Sardar ‘Alíy-i-Sardár
Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghih'i ‘Alíy-i-Sayyáḥ-i-Maraghih’í
Aliy-i-Tabib-i-Zanjani ‘Alíy-i-Ṭabíb-i-Zanjání
Aliy-i-Tafrishi ‘Alíy-i-Tafríshí
Aliy-i-Turshizi ‘Alíy-i-Turshízí Mullá Shaykh ‘Alíy-i-Turshízí, surnamed ‘Aẓím
Aliy-i-Zanjani ‘Alíy-i-Zanjání
Aliy-i-Zargar ‘Alíy-i-Zargar
Aliy-i-Zunuzi ‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí
Aliy, 'Aliya, 'Ilya ‘Alíy, fem. ‘Alíya(h), pl. ‘Ilya(h) (“‘Aliyy”, “‘Alí”) high, tall, elevated, exalted, sublime, lofty, august, excellent.   Pers. fem. also ‘Alíyyih.
Aliyu'llah ‘Alíyu’lláh ‘Alí is chosen by, or from God
Aliyu'llahi ‘Alíyu’lláhí Sect of Islám
Aliyyu'l-'Ala ‘Alíyyu’l-‘Alá
Alizadih ‘Alízádih Maqṣúd ‘Alízádih
Alladhi, Allati, Alladhina Alladhí, fem. Allatí (relative pronoun) he who, that which;   who, which, that.   Plurals: m. alladhína, fem. allátí, allawátí (“allawati”), allá’í (“alla’i”)
Allaf ‘Alláf seller of provender (dry food such as hay and oats for livestock)
Allah Alláh (originally al-Iláh) God: The God, by way of eminence (being compounded of the article ال al, The, and الهٰ iláh, a God).   See iláh
Allah-Vardi, Allah-Virdi Alláh-Vardí, Alláh-Virdí
Allah-Yar Alláh-Yár Ḥájj Alláh-Yár.   A village in Kirmánsháh Province.
Allahu-‘Azam, Allah-u-‘Azam Alláhu-‘Aẓam, Pers. Alláh-u-‘Aẓam God is great
Allahu-A’zam, Allah-u-A’zam Alláhu-A‘ẓam, Pers. Alláh-u-A‘ẓam (greeting response to Alláh-u-Akbar—men)   God is the Most Mighty
Allahu-Abha, Allah-u-Abha Alláhu-Abhá, Pers. Alláh-u-Abhá (greeting response to Alláh-u-Ajmal—women)   God is Most Glorious, God is All-Glorious.   A form of the Greatest Name.   Bahá, or any of its derivatives such as Abhá, Yá Bahá’u’lláh, or Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá, are all referred to as the Greatest name. Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá (O Glory of Glories or O Glory of the All-Glorious) is an invocation used in the calligraphy designed by Mishkín-Qalam.
Allahu-Ajmal, Allah-u-Ajmal Alláhu-Ajmal, Pers. Alláh-u-Ajmal (greeting response to Alláh-u-Abhá—women)   God is the Most Beautiful.
Allahu-Akbar, Allah-u-Akbar Alláhu-Akbar, Pers. Alláh-u-Akbar greeting by a man to a man.   God is the Most Great or God is the Greatest.   See Alláh-u-A‘ẓam above
Allahu-Aqdam, Allah-u-Aqdam Alláhu-Aqdam, Pers. Alláh-u-Aqdam God is the Most Ancient
Allahu-Athar, Allah-u-Athar Alláhu-Aṭhar, Pers. Alláh-u-Aṭhar God the Most Pure
Allahu-Azhar, Allah-u-Azhar Alláhu-Aẓhar, Pers. Alláh-u-Aẓhar God is Most Manifest
Allahumma Alláhumma “O God”, “O Thou My God”.   Permitted (for Bábís) by the Báb to be tattooed on chest of men (ar-Raḥmán for women) in the most beautiful calligraphy.   Gate of the Heart, p. 169.
Allam ‘Allám knowing thoroughly
Allama ‘Alláma most erudite, very learned (of the ulama);   learned in every branch of the Islamic sciences
Allamiy-i-Hilli ‘Allámiy-i-Ḥillí “the very erudite Doctor”, a title of the famed Shí’ih theologian, Jamálu’d-Dín Ḥasan ibn-i-Yúsuf ibn-i-‘Alí of Hilla (ad 1250–1325) (MF p. 169)
Allamiy-i-Nuri ‘Allámiy-i-Núrí
Alliyu'llahi ‘Allíyu‘lláhí a sect
Alus Álús Pers.   amorous or angry side-glance
Alusi Álúsí (Alossy) Ibn-i-Álúsí, Muftí of Baghdád
Alvah-i-Laylatu'l-Quds Alváḥ-i-Laylatu’l-Quds Tablets of the Holy Night by Bahá’u’lláh
Alvah-i-Salatin Alváḥ-i-Saláṭín Tablets of the Sultans
Alvah-i-Tablighi-i-Amrika Alváḥ-i-Tablíghí-i-Amríká Pers.   collection of Tablets by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá to America, translated as Tablets of the Divine Plan.   Amríká also given as Imríká
Alvah-i-Vasaya Alváḥ-i-Vaṣáyá Tablets of Commandments by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Alwai, Alawiyyah ‘Alwaí, pl. ‘Alawíyyah upper;   heavenly, celestial;   Alawi or Alawite (Eng.);—pl. Alawis (Eng., official name of the Nusayris (Nuṣayríyyah), Islamic sect in Syria founded by Ibn Nuṣayr)
Ama ‘Amá’ Ar.   heavy clouds.   [Pers.   deviation, aberration, loss of the way;   contention, litigation;   a cloud, high, dense, rainy, thin;   a black or white cloud;   a cloud which has shed rain;   blindness.]   See root word ‘amiya.   Hence, ‘Amá’ can be translated as blindness, secrecy, obscurity, etc.;   though it also has the sense of “cloud”, possibly “heavy and thick clouds (which hide and obscure) or (the opposite!) light diaphanous clouds.   See
Ama, Ima, Amawat Ama, pl. Imá’, Amawát Ar.   bondmaid, slave girl
Amad Ámad Pers.   he came;   arrival
Amada ‘Amada to baptize, christen
Amadan Ámadan Pers.   to come, to arrive;   to exist, to be found;   to become
Amadan az fawq Ámadan az fawq Pers.   “come from on high” or “come down from on high”
Amal, A'mal ‘Amal, pl. ‘A‘mál doing, acting, action, activity;   work, labour;   course of action, way of acting, practice;   achievement, accomplishment;   activity (for), work (in the service of something);   making, production, manufacture, fabrication;   performance, execution;   make, workmanship;   practical work, practice;—(pl.) act, action;   operation (military);   work, job, chore, labour;   deed, feat, achievement, exploit;   occupation, business;   trade, craft, handicraft;   vicegerency, province, district;   administrative district
Aman Amán Ar.   Security, safety;   peace;   shelter, protection;   clemency, quarter (mil.);   safeguarding, assurance of protection;   indemnity, immunity from punishment
Aman'u'llah Amán’u’lláh the protection of God
Amanat Amánat Per.   A deposit, charge, anything given in trust;   security, safety, protection;   safe-guard, safe-conduct;   sincerity, faith, religion.
Amara, Amr, Awamir, Umur Amara, Amr, pl. Awámir, Umúr to order, command, bid, instruct (someone to do something), commission, charge, entrust (someone with something or to do something);—pl. Awámir order, command, instruction (to do something);   ordinance, decree;   power, authority;   (grammar) imperative;—pl. Umúr matter, affair, concern, business.   Hence, can be defined as “divine order” and “acts of obedience and pious deeds that are ordained” by God.
Amasiya Amásiyá (Amasya) city in Turkey, 84 km sw of Samsun
Amat, Amih Amat, Amih Pers.   A female servant, a handmaid.   Ar. Ama
Amatu'l-A'la Amatu’l-A‘lá (“the Handmaid of the Most High”)   Title given to Dr Susan Moody by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Amatu'l-Baha Amatu’l-Bahá Hand of the Cause of God, Amatu’l-Bahá Rúḥíyyih Khánum Rabbani (née Mary Sutherland Maxwell) (8 Aug. 1910–19 Jan. 2000).   [“It was Amatu’l-Bahá’s preference that Rabbani not be” transcripted. Letter from her Literary Executors, 9 Jan. 2007 to M.W.T.]   “The Handmaiden of the Glory”, “Spiritual” and “Lady”
Amatu'llah Amatu’lláh (The Handmaiden of God)
Amid, 'Umada ‘Amíd, pl. ‘Umadá’ support;   head, chief;   dean (of a faculty);   principal, headmaster, director (of a secondary school);   doyen, dean (as, of a diplomatic corps;   high commissioner
Amil, Awamil, Ummal ‘Ámil, pl. ‘Awámil, ‘Ummál active;   effective;   (pl. ‘Awámil) factor, constituent, element, (causative) agent, motive power;   word governing another in syntactical regimen, regent (gram.);   (pl. ‘Ummál) maker, producer, manufacturer;   doer, perpetrator, author;   worker, workman, workingman, labourer;   wage earner, employee;   governor.
Amin-i-Halabi Amín-i-Ḥalabí, Shaykh [Amín Ḥalabí]
Amin-i-Ilahi Amín-i-Iláhí Trusted of God
Amin, Amina Ámin, fem. Ámina(h) peaceful.   Áminah bint Wahb, mother of Muḥammad; died ad 577
Amin, Umana Amín, pl. Umaná’ reliable, trustworthy, loyal, faithful, upright, honest;   safe, secure;   authorized representative or agent;   trustee;   guarantor (of);   chief, head;   superintendent, curator, custodian, guardian, keeper;   chamberlain;   master of a guild   [Superlative form of amuna or amána (to be faithful, reliable, trustworthy)]
Amini Amíní Persian name.   Office of amín;   trust, guardianship, custody;   security;   commission, deputation;   secure, safe.
Aminu'd-Dawlih Amínu’d-Dawlih
Aminu'l-'Ulama Amínu’l-‘Ulamá
Aminu'l-Bayan Amínu’l-Bayán “Trusted of the Bayán”
Aminu'llah Amínu’lláh “Trust of God”
Aminu's-Sultan Amínu’s-Sulṭán (MF)
Amir ‘Ámir inhabited;   peopled, populated, populous;   full, filled, filled up;   jammed, crowded, filled to capacity (with);   amply provided, splendidly furnished;   civilized; cultivated (land);   flourishing, thriving, prosperous
Amir Ámir commander;   lord, master;   orderer, purchaser, customer, client
Amir al-Mu'minin Amír al-Mu’minín Commander of the Faithful, Caliph. Sunnis believe the first to hold the title was ‘Umar ibn al-Khaṭṭáb, and Shí‘i believe the title applies exclusively to ‘Imám ‘Alí.
Amir-Divan Amír-Díván
Amir-i-Kabir Amír-i-Kabír Great Prince
Amir-Kiya Amír-Kíyá
Amir-Nizam Amír-Niẓám Grand Vizir or General of the Army
Amir-Tuman Amír-Túmán
Amir-Zadih Amír-Zádih or Amírzádih Pers.   see Mírzá
Amir, Umara, Amirat Amír, pl. Umará’, pl. fem. Amírát commander, governor, lord;   prince, emir;   title of princes of a ruling house;   tribal chief
Amira'l-Mu'minin Amíra’l-Mu’minín Commander of the Faithful
Amiru’l-Kuttab Amíru’l-Kuttáb Prince of Calligraphers
Amiru'sh-Shu'ara' Amíru’sh-Shu‘ará’ (The Emir of Poets) (sing. shá‘ir)
Amiya, ‘Aman ‘Amiya (‘Aman) to be or become blind, lose one’s eyesight;   to be blind (to something);   to be obscure (to someone);   form II to blind, render blind (someone);   to blindfold (someone);   to obscure, render cryptic, enigmatic or mysterious, mystify (something);   form IV to blind, render blind (someone);   to blindfold (someone);   to make (someone) blind (to a fact);   form V to be or become blind, lose one’s eyesight;   form VI to shut one’s eyes (on something), pretend not to see (something);   to be blind (to). That is, ‘to become blind, to be obscure’
Amma, 'Ammatan, 'Awamm ‘Ámma, pl. ‘Awámm singular: (noun) generality;   commonalty;   the masses, the people;—‘ámmatan (adverb) in general;   generally;   commonly, altogether, in the aggregate, collectively.   Plural: al-‘Awámm the common people, the populace;   the laity (Christian)
Amman ‘Ammán Ancient Philadelphia, capital city of Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Ammar Ammár constantly urging, always demanding (to do something);   inciting, instigating
Amr va Khalq Amr va Khalq Revelation and creation, compilation by Fáḍil Mázandarání
Amr-i-Abda' Amr-i-Abda‘ (the Most Wondrous New Cause)
Amr-i-Badi' Amr-i-Badí‘ (the Wondrous New Cause)
Amr, 'Amru ‘Amrú (pronounced ‘Amr) the final و being employed solely to distinguish this word from ‘umar, Omar.   A proper name.   See Ḥadíth-i-Jábir.
Amran ‘Amrán a small city in western central Yemen
Amrani ‘Amrání Muḥammad Muḥammad Ṣa‘íd al-Baqqálí al-‘Amrání, Bahá’í arrested in Morocco, 1962
Amrika Amríká America
Amru'llah Amru’lláh “command of God”, “House of God’s command” or “cause of God”
Amu ‘Amú Mullá Ḥasan ‘Amú (SAQ 34–5) (Ámú?)
Amu Ámú Pers.   a tumour, swelling, inflation;   name of Oxus River
Amud, A'mida, Umud ‘Amúd, pl. A‘mida, ‘Umud flagpole, shaft (of a standard);   pale, post, prop, shore, pier, buttress;   lamppost;   (telephone, telegraph) pole;   column, pillar, pilaster;   stem (of a glass);   (pl.) column (of a newspaper)
Amud, Awamid (Avamid) ‘Ámúd, pl. ‘Awámíd (Pers.   dictionary, column)   Arabic dictionary = ‘Amúd, steering column, steering mechanism (of an automobile)
Amul Ámul companion.   A town in Mázindarán province, on the Haraz River, near the Caspian Sea.
An ‘An (preposition) off, away from;   from (designating the source);   out of (a feeling);   about, on (a topic);   according to, as attested or declared by, from what … says, on the authority of;   on the basis of, on the strength of;   for, in defence of;   as a substitute for
Anahita Anáhítá Old Pers.   immaculate, undefiled.   Venus, Aphrodite (Greek) and Venus Erucina (Roman).   See modern form Náhíd
Anas Anas Anas ibn Málik ibn Naḍr al-Khazrají al-Ansárí (c. 612-c. 712) was a well-known ṣaḥábí (companion) of Muḥammad.
Anbar, 'Anabir ‘Anbar, pl. ‘Anábir ambergris;—pl. sperm whale
Anbar, Nibr, Anabir Anbár, Nibr, pl. Anábir, Anábír barn, shed, granary, storeroom, storehouse, warehouse
Andalib, 'Anadil ‘Andalíb, pl. ‘Anádil Pers.   a nightingale
Andar Andar Pers.   in, into, within;   added to the words
Andarun Andarún Pers.   within;   the inside;   the heart, bowels;   intrinsic, interior, internal.   Village 190 km ESE Ahváz, Írán
Andaruni Andarúní interior;   inner women’s apartments.   See bírúní
Andirmani (Andarmani) Andirmání probably Andarmání.   Andarmán is a village on the south side of Ṭihŕan.
Andulus al-Andalus Spain
Anfusihim Anfusihim themselves
Angiz Ángiz Pers.   raised, elevated;   (in compounds) exciting, raising.   village 84 km SW Ardabíl, and 95 km east of Tabríz, Írán
Angur Angúr Pers.   a grape, a raisin;   granulations in a healing sore [angoor]
Anis, Anisa Anís, fem. Anísá close, intimate;   close friend;   friendly, kind, affable, civil, polite, courteous.   Close Companion is the title of Muḥammad-‘Alí-i-Zunúzí, the companion of the Báb in martyrdom, and Ḥájí Muḥammad-Ismá‘íl (referred to as Anís in Súriy-i-Ra’ís).   ‘Abdu’l-Bahá: By the symbolic Tree of Anísá is meant the divine Lote-Tree, the Tree of Life (Bahá’u’lláh)—see The Hidden Words, Persian 19 and Qur’án 24:35
Anjuman Ánjuman Pers.   a company, assembly, society, banquet, congregation, synagogue, congress, any place where people meet and converse;   a multitude
Ankabut, Anakib ‘Ankabút, pl. ‘Anákib spider
Anqurah Ánqurah (modern Ankara)
Ansari, Ansariyyah Anṣárí, pl. Anṣaríyyah Related to Anṣár, the Helpers.   Those who rallied around Muḥammad after His flight from Mecca to Medina.   Anṣaríyyah is believed to be a mistranscription of Nuṣayríyyah.   See See Náṣir and ‘Alwaí
Anton Haddad Anṭún Ḥaddád known in the West as Anton Haddad
Anud ‘Anúd (“anoud”, not ánúd)   contumacious (stubbornly or wilfully disobedient to authority), refractory, wayward;   a cloud big with rain
Anushirwan (Anushirvan, Nushirvan) Anúshírwán (Núshírván) Sásáníyán king of Persia known for his just rule (AD 531–578).   The Prophet Muḥammad was born in Arabia at the time of his reign (about 570-1).—SDC p. 68.   Persians some times use Anúshírván or even Núshírván.   There are instances of Núshíraván, Núshíruván and Nawshíraván (MF 20).
Anwari (Avari) Anwárí (Anvárí) Name of a famous Persian poet, who died ah 586/ad 1190.   See núr
Anyabuli Anyábulí now Inebolu.   A Black Sea port in Turkey, 225 km WNW of Sámsún
Anzali Anzalí Bandar-i-Anzali, Port of Enzeli, SW end of Caspian Sea, Írán.
Aqa Baba (Aqa-Baba, Aga Baba) Áqá Bábá (Áqá-Bábá) small villages in Qazvín Province: “Aka-Baba” 21 km south Qazvín and “Aga-Baba” (Ágha Bábá) 22 km SNW Qazvín
Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí (he was from Khurásán), son of Ḥájí ‘Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Níshápúrí, Bahá’u’lláh’s messenger to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, who was then martyred. He was given the titles Badí‘ (Wonderful) and Fakhru’sh-Shuhadá’ (Pride of Martyrs)
Aqa Fatu'llah Áqá Fatu’lláh (Fatollah)
Aqa Jan Áqá Ján Mírzá Áqá Ján, Bahá’u’lláh’s amanuensis, later known as Khádimu’lláh (“Servant of God”)
Aqa Mirza 'Abdu'-r-Rahim-i-Burujirdi Áqá Mírzá ‘Abdu’-r-Raḥím-i-Burújirdí (Boroodjerdy)
Aqa Najaf-'Aliy-i-Zanjani Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání
Aqa Siyyid Áqá Siyyid [Asseyid is an abbreviation]
Aqa, Aqayan Áqá, pl. Áqáyán Pers.   master, sir, gentleman;   when affixed to a name means Mr   (A male honorific title—‘the Master’ was given to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá by Bahá’u’lláh)
Aqaba ‘Aqaba to follow (someone, something or after someone, after something), succeed (someone, something);   to come after, ensue;   to continue.   al-‘Aqaba only coastal city in Jordan at the northern end of the Gulf of Aqaba.
Aqasi Áqásí Turkish proper name, e.g. Ḥájí Mírzá Áqásí (Grand Vizier of Persia, the Antichrist of the Bábí Revelation)
Aqay-i-Kalim Áqáy-i-Kalím faithful brother of Bahá’u’lláh
Aqay-i-Munir Áqáy-i-Munír
Aqay-i-Rikab-Saz Áqáy-i-Rikáb-Sáz
Aqay-i-Tabrizi Áqáy-i-Tabrízí (MF)
Aqdas Aqdas more hallowed, more sacred, holier.   The Most holy.   See Quds
Aqida, Aqa'id ‘Aqída, pl. ‘Aqá’id article of faith, tenet, doctrine;   dogma;   creed, faith, belief;   conviction;   ideology (modern)
Aqil, 'Uqala' ‘Aqil, pl. ‘Uqalá’ intelligent, wise, judicious (persons)
Aql al-Awwal al-‘Aql al-Awwal first intellect
Aql, 'Uqul ‘Aql, pl. ‘Uqúl intellect, intelligence, reason, insight, mind, rationality and wisdom;—(pl.) sense, sentience, reason, understanding, comprehension, discernment, insight, rationality, mind, intellect, intelligence
Aqli, 'Aqliyun ‘Aqlí, pl. ‘Aqlíyún reasonable, rational;   ratiocinative;   mental;   intellectual;—pl. rationalist;   an intellectual
Aqliya ‘Aqlíya mentality, mental attitude
Aqsa, Quswa, Aqasin Aqṣá, fem. Quṣwá, pl. Aqáṣin more distant, remoter, farther (away);   “The Most Remote”.   al-Masjid al-Aqṣá—Aqṣá Mosque at southern end of the Temple Mount, Jerusalem. Name by which the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem is referred to in the Qur’án and in the Writings.   See aṣ-Ṣakhrah
Ara Árá Pers.   (in compound, from árástan), embellishing, adorning;   ornament (e.g. majlis-árá, gracing the banquet, etc.)
Arab, Urab, A’rub, Urban ‘Arab (coll.), pl. ‘Urúb, A‘rub Arabs;   true Arabs, Arabs of the desert, Bedouins.   Other plurals: ‘Urbán, A‘ráb.
Arabi, al-'Arabiya ‘Arabí Arab, Arabic, Arabian;   truly Arabic;   an Arab.   al-‘Arabíya, the language of the ancient Arabs;   classical, or literary, Arabic.   ibn ‘Arabí (26 July 1165–16 November 1240), full name Abú ‘Abd Alláh Muḥammad ibn ‘Alí ibn Muḥammad ibn ‘Arabí al-Ḥátimí aṭ-Ṭá’í, was an Arab Andalusian Muslim scholar, mystic, poet, and philosopher.
Arabistan ‘Arabistán the land of Arabia
Arad, A'rad ‘Araḍ, pl. A‘ráḍ accident (philosophy);   contingent, non-essential characteristic;   something non-essential, a contingent, something accidental;   symptom, manifestation of disease
Arafa ('Arfa), Arafih ‘Arafa(h or t), Pers. ‘Arafih wind;   diligent inquiry.   Yawm ‘Arafah, the ninth day of the month of Dhi’l-Ḥijjih, the day before the festival of Immolation of ‘Ídu’l-Aḍḥá (vigil of the Feast of Sacrifice, when Mecca pilgrims proceed to Mount ‘Arafát).
Arafa, Ma'rifa, 'Irfan ‘Arafa (Ma‘rifa, ‘irfán) to know (someone, something);   to recognize, perceive (someone, something);   to be cognizant, be aware (of something), be acquainted (with something), to discover, experience, find out (something)
Arafat ‘Arafát Jabal ‘Arafát (Moun Arafat) is a granite hill east of Makkah
Araja, 'Uruj ‘Araja, ‘Urúj to ascend, mount, rise
Arak Arák capital of Markazi Province, Írán (formerly Sulṭánábád)
Aramram ‘Aramram strong, violent, vehement
Aran Árán now Aran va Bidgol, 9 km NE of Káshán
Ararat Ararat European name of the Ararat peaks in Turkey. Prior to the 6th century, the traditional Armenian name was Masis, derived from the name of King Amasya.   Genesis 8:4 refers to Noah’s ark resting “upon the mountains of Ararat”—the mountainous region of Armenia, Urartu, known to the Greeks as Ararat.
Aras Aras name of a river near Tiflís, the Araxes of the ancients.   See Ras and Rass
Arastan Árástan Pers.   to adorn, decorate, embellish;   to set in order
Arastu Arastú Pers.   a swallow;   swallow-wort.   Dr Arastú Khán Ḥakím.
Araysh al-‘Aráysh Larache, harbour town, Morocco
Arba'a, Arba' Arba‘a(h or t) (fem. Arba‘) four.   Pers. also Arba‘ih
Arba'un Arbá‘ún, Pers. Arbá‘úna, Arbá‘ína forty;   a ceremony held on the 40th day after someones death.   “Arba‘in” in The Kitáb-i-Íqán p. 242.
Arbil Arbíl (Erbil, Irbil) city 80 km ESE of Mosul, ‘Iráq
Ard al-Muqaddasa al-Arḍ al-Muqaddasa the Holy Land, Palestine.   Shoghi Effendi stated it became the Most Holy Land (al-Arḍ al-Aqdas) after the arrival of Bahá’u’lláh.
Ard wa Sama' Arḍ wa Samá’ earth and heaven.   ‘Earth’ is the earth of knowledge and understanding, the earth of new insight, etc. ‘Heaven’ is the heaven of new teachings and religion. By the shattering of the heaven (sky) on the day of resurrection, is meant that the heaven of the old religion is removed and a new one is raised through the Advent of a new Manifestation and the earth of recognition of God is decorated with Faith.
Ard-i-A'la Arḍ-i-A‘lá the Exalted Spot, the Shrine of the Báb and Zanján
Ard-i-Jannat Arḍ-i-Jannat the Land of Paradise, Mílán
Ard-i-Sirr Arḍ-i-Sirr the Land of Mystery, Adrianople.   See Adirna.
Ard, Arz, Aradin, Aradun, Arazi Arḍ fem., pl. Aráḍín, Aráḍún earth;   land, country, region, area;   terrain, ground, soil.   Pers.   arẓ, pl. aráẓí
Ardabil Ardabíl or Ardibíl city 175 km east of Tabirz,in the province of Ádhirbáyján, near the Caspian Sea
Ardakan Ardakán or Ardikán city 55 km NW of Yazd
Ardakani Ardakání
Ardashir, Ardishir Ardashír, Ardishír Pers.   name of Persian rulers (Ardshír and Ardashír are derived from Middle Persian Artakhishatr, which was derived from the Greek Artaxerxes) and a village in East Azerbaijan Province, Írán.
Ardibili Ardibíl city on west side of Caspian Sea, Írán
Ardikan (Ardakan) Ardikán city 55 km NW of Yazd
Ardistan Ardistán Province in Írán
Ardshir Ardshír Pers.   intrepid, courageous
Arf ‘Arf fragrance, perfume, scent, aroma
Arg Arg Pers.   the inner fortress or citadel of a walled city
Arghun Arghún an organ;   a wild horse
Arid, Irad ‘Aríḍ, pl. ‘Iráḍ broad, wide;   extensive, vast
Arif ‘Áríf Pers.   one who knows;   an acquaintance ;   the next man to a chief or general, a deputy, lieutenant;   an usher at a school.
Arif, 'Urafa' ‘Aríf, pl. ‘Urafá’ knowing (something), cognizant, aware (of something);   expert, authority, specialist;   teaching assistant, monitor (an older pupil assisting the teacher of a Qur’anic school)
Arish, ‘Urush, 'Ara'ish ‘Arísh, pl. ‘Urush, ‘Ará’ish arbor, bower;   hut made of twigs;   booth, shack, shanty;   trellis (for grapevines);   shaft, carriage pole.   al-‘Arísh, city on the northern coast of the Sinai Peninsula.
Aristu, Arasta, Arastu Arisṭú, Pers. Arasṭá, Arasṭú Aristotle.   Dr Arisṭú Khán, brother of Dr Luṭfu’lláh Ḥakím
Arjmand (Arjumand) Arjmand Pers.   rare, excellent, worthy of great price, valuable, exquisite, beloved, dear, brave, generous, noble, distinguished;   wise
Arjumand, Arjmand, Arzaman Arjumand, Arjmand, Arzamán Pers.   town, formerly Arzamán, in and the capital of Arjumand District, in Fírúzkúh County, Ṭihrán Province, Írán.   Also written “Arjomand”.
Arjumandi Arjumandí of, from Arjumand
Arman Ármán Pers.   desire;   a sigh;   grief, sorrow;   remorse
Arsh, Urush, A'rash ‘Arsh, pl. ‘Urúsh, A‘rásh a throne, chair of state;   the throne of God;   the empyrean (heaven);   a palace, citadel;   roof of a house;   a canopy;   a tent;   a prop, buttress, stay, support;   a leader or chief of the people
Arshin Árshín Russian cubit (арши́н)
Arshiyyih ‘Arshíyyih followers of Mullá Ṣadrá, DB, p. 207.   See ‘Arsh
Arslan Árslán, Arslán Pers.   from Turkish.   A lion;   surname adopted by several kings of Persia
Arus, 'Urus, 'Ara'is, 'Arusan ‘Arús, pl. ‘Urus bridegroom;   f. (pl. ‘ará’is) bride;   doll;   al-‘arúsán bride and groom, the newlyweds
As ‘Áṣ ‘Amr ibn al-‘Áṣ (c. 585–6 January 664) was an Arab military commander who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640. He was a contemporary of Muḥammad and one of the Ṣaḥába (“Companions”).
As'ilah wa Ajwiba As’ilah wa Ajwiba Questions and Answers
Asad, Usud, Usd Asad, pl. Usud, Usd, Usúd, Ásád lion;   Leo (astron.)
Asadu'llah Asadu’lláh Lion of God.   Compound proper name
Asadu'llah-i-Isfahani Asadu’lláh-i-Iṣfahání
Asadu'llah-i-Mazandarani Asadu’lláh-i-Mázandarání Mírzá Asadu’lláh Fáḍil Mázandarání (c. 1880–1957) was a prominent Iranian Bahá’í scholar in Írán
Asadu'llah-i-Sabbagh Asadu’lláh-i-Ṣabbágh (GPB 297)
Asadu'llahzadih Asadu’lláh-i-Zádih, Ḥusayn Ḥusayn Asadu’lláhzádih
Asadyari Asadyárí, ‘Abdu’l-‘Alí
Asafu'd-Dawla Áṣafu’d-Dawla
Asala, Asalatan Aṣála(t) firmness, steadfastness, strength of character;   nobility of descent, purity of origin (originality);   aṣálatan immediately, directly, personally
Asalat-i-Naw' Aṣálat-i-Naw‘ originality of species
Asara, 'Asr ‘Aṣara (‘Aṣr) to press (out), squeeze (out) (something, e.g., grapes, olives, etc.);   to wring (something, especially wet clothes);   to compress (something).   See ‘Aṣr listing for other Forms.
Asas, Usus Asás, pl. Usus foundation (also, of a building), fundament, groundwork, ground, basis;   keynote, tonic (music)
Asaturiyan Marcard Ásátúriyán Márcárd (Dr Marcard Assadorian)
Asbah, Asbahi Aṣbaḥ Pers.   Of a handsome face;   a tearing lion;   red-coloured;   name of a king of Yemen.   [Aṣbahí (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, p. 158) Aṣbaḥí (Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh, 4:438)
Asbaq Asbaq earlier, antecedent;   preceding, previous, prior;   former, ex‑;   foremost, more or most excellent;   surpassing;   previous;   past times
Asdaq Aṣdaq Ibn-i-Aṣdaq (Mírzá ‘Alí-Muḥammad, 1850–1928). Designated by Bahá’u’lláh as Shahíd Ibn-i-Shahíh (Martyr, son of the Martyr). Son of Mullá Ṣádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání—both named a Hand of the Cause of God.
Asdaqi Aṣdaqí
Asfal, Sufla, Asafil Asfal, fem. Suflá, pl. Asáfil lower;   lowest;   lower or lowest part, bottom
Asfiya', 'Asfiyyih Aṣfiyá’, Pers. Aṣfiyyih Druse village of ‘Isfiya, east side Mt Carmel.   See Ṣafíy
Asghar, Sughra, Asaghir Aṣghar, fem. Ṣughra, pl. m. Aṣághir smaller, younger [Comparative form of ṣaghíra (to belittle)].   Ṣughra is the name of a half-sister of Bahá’u’lláh and mother of ‘Alí Akbar Furútan.
Asgharzadih Aṣgharzádih Pers.   surname, e.g. Ḍíyá’u’lláh Aṣgharzádih
Ash-i-kashk Ásh-i-kashk (MF p. 68) barley soup with whey
Ash'ar Ash‘ar hairy, hirsute, long-haired, shaggy
Ash'ari Ash‘arí Abú al-Ḥasan ‘Alí ibn Ismá‘íl ibn Isḥáq al-Ash‘arí (c. 874—936)
Ash'ariyya, 'Asha'ira al-‘Ash‘aríyya(h) or al-‘Ashá‘ira(h) Ash‘arism or Ash‘ari theology—a foremost theological school of Sunni Islam founded by Abú al-Ḥasan ‘Alí ibn Ismá‘íl ibn Isḥáq al-Ash‘arí.   Followers: Ash‘arites.   See Sha‘r
Ash'ath Ash‘ath Pers.   one whose hair is dishevelled and soiled with dust
Ashab al-Aykah Aṣḥáb al-Aykah “Companions of the Wood”, a name given to the Midians
Ashab al-Kahf Aṣḥáb al-Kahf “Companions of the cave”, a Christian and Islamic tradition (Qur’án 18:9–26) that tells the story of the ‘Seven Sleepers’ (unknown number of youths according to Qur’án 18:22) who hide in a cave near a city around ad 250 to escape religious persecution and to emerge 300 years later. Identified as a cave 1 km east of Ephesus by Christians, and as a south facing (Qur’án 18:17) cave 7 km SE of Amman (31.898860, 35.973800) by Muslims.   See ṣáḥib.
Ashab, Sahba', Suhb Aṣhab, f. Ṣahbá’, pl. Ṣuhb reddish;   wine
Ashar Ashar liveliness, high spirits, exuberance;   wildness;   insolence, impertinence
Ashiq, Ushshaq, Awashiq (Avashiq) ‘Áshiq, pl. ‘Ushsháq, ‘Awáshiq lover;   fancier, fan;—pl. knucklebone;   (game of) knucklebones.   ‘Aváshiq is a village near Baghdád.
Ashiqa, Ishq ‘Ashiqa (‘Ishq) to love passionately (someone, something), be passionately in love (with someone, with something)
Ashjari Ashjárí ‘Azízu’lláh Ashjárí
Ashraf, Sharfa' Ashraf, fem. Sharfá’ more or most noble;   eminent;   a person of noble birth, nobleman;   gentleman.   City in Írán, see Bihshahr.   ‘Alí Ashraf Garden—a large garden on the west side of the Riḍván Garden (SE east of ‘Akká), with the Firdaws (Paradise) Garden to its north. Original owner Mullá Abú-Ṭálib. ‘Alí-Ashraf, his son, later donated it to the Faith.   Áqá Siyyid Ashraf-i-Zanjání (mother: Umm-i-Ashraf).
Ashrafi Áshrafí, Ashrafí Pers.   a gold coin
Ashtiyan (Ashtian) Áshtiyán Pers.   capital city of Áshtiyán County, Markazí Province, Írán.   81 km WSW of Qum.
Ashu (Asho) Ashu Pers.   heavenly Ashu Zarathushtra
Ashura, Ashara ‘Áshúrá, ‘Áshárá the tenth day of the Muslim month Muḥarram—Shí‘ih Muslims observe the first 10 days of the month as a period of mourning for the Imáms, ending with the Yawm ‘Áshúrá (on the 10th day), the commemoration of the martyrdom of the Imám Ḥusayn
Ashyab, Shaiba, Shib Ashyab, fem. Shaibá, pl. Shíb Ar.   white, grey (hair);   white-haired, grey-haired (person);   old, aged;   old man.
Asi, Asiyih Ásí, fem. Ásíyih Pers. Melancholy, solicitous, sorrowful;   a physician, surgeon.   Ásíyih is the name of Pharaoh’s daughter who rescued Moses.   See Navváb, title given to Bahá’u’lláh’s wife (Ásíyih Khánum)
Asif ‘Áṣif blowing violently
Asifu'd-Dawlih Áṣifu’d-Dawlih
Asiya Ásiyá Asia
Asiyah (Asiyih, Asiya) Ásiyah (آسیه) (Ar.), Ásíya (Pers.) Pers.   Ásiya name of Pharaoh’s wife who educated Moses.   Ásíyih Khánum (1820–1886, née Ásíyih Yalrúdí) was the wife of Bahá’u’lláh. She is also know also known by her titles of Navváb, the Most Exalted Leaf, Búyúk Khánum or Ḥaḍrat-i-Khánum.
Askar, Asakir ‘Askar, pl. ‘Asákir army, host, troops
Askari ‘Askarí, pl. ‘Askariyún, ‘Asákir military, army- (in compounds);—(pl. al-‘askariyún) the military;—(pl. ‘asákir) soldier;   private (military);   policeman;—pl. enlisted men, ranks.   The hidden Imám Mahdí, Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-‘Askarí (disappeared ad 874)
Asl-i-Qullu'l-Khayr Aṣl-i-Qullu’l-Khayr “Words of Wisdom” by Bahá’u’lláh
Asl, Usul Aṣl, pl. Uṣúl root;   trunk (of a tree);   origin, source;   cause, reason;   descent, lineage, stock (esp., one of a noble character);   foundation, fundament, basis;   the origins!;—pl. principles, fundamentals, rudiments, elements (e.g., of a science)
Aslam Aslam (adj. of salím)   safer;   freer;   sounder;   healthier (“most peaceful”)
Aslas Aslas more tractable, more pliable, more obedient;   more flexible, smoother, more fluent.   See salis
Asli Aṣlí original, primary, primal, initial;   genuine, authentic, pure;   basic, fundamental, principal, chief, main
Asliyat (Asliyah) Aṣlíyat Pers.   originality;   genuineness;   nobleness.   Variation of aṣála.
Asma'u'l-Husna Asmá’u’l-Ḥusná Most Beauteous Names (of God).   According to a ḥadíth, Muḥammad said, “Verily there are 99 names of God, and whoever recites them shall enter Paradise.” The traditions also maintain that the “Almighty has a hundredth name, the ‘Most Great Name’, and that whoever calls on God by this Name shall obtain all his desires. Bahá’u’lláh revealed that the Greatest Name (Ism-i-A‘ẓam) is Bahá’.
Asman Ásmán Pers.   heaven, the celestial orb;   the ceiling of a house;   name of the angel of death
Asmar, Samra', Sumr, Samrawat Asmar, f. Samrá’, pl. Sumr brown;   tawny;—pl. Samráwát brown-skinned women
Aspa Aspa Pers.   a cold, a horse nearing two years old
Asqalan, Ashkelon, Ashqelon, Ascalon ‘Asqalán, Heb. Ashkelon city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, 50 km south of Tel Aviv
Asr, 'Asar, 'Usur ‘Aṣr, ‘Aṣar, pl. ‘Uṣúr (fem.) afternoon;   afternoon prayer (Islamic Law
Asr, A'sur, 'Usur, A'sar ‘Aṣr, pl. A‘ṣur, ‘Uṣúr, A‘ṣár (act of) pressing (out), squeezing (out); (act of) wringing (out);—pl. age, era, time; period; epoch; afternoon
Asrar-i-Shihadat-i-Imam Asrár-i-Shihádat-i-Imám
Ast Ast Pers.  is (from búdan, to be);   he willeth, he seeketh
Astan Ástán Pers.   the place where the shoes or slippers are pulled off;   a threshold;   lying supine;   a king’s court, royal palace;   the Ottoman Porte;   the tombs of prophets and other holy men
Astani Ástání Yadu’lláh Ástání
Astar Astar Pers.   a mule;   a bone;   a seed, a kernel
Astarabad (Gurgan, Gurgin or Gorgan) Astarábád “City of Mules”, on south eastern Caspian Sea border of Írán.   Since 1937 called Gúrgán (Gorgán).
Aswad, Sawda (Sauda), Sud, Sudan Aswad, fem. Sawdá, pl. Súd black;   dark-coloured;—pl. súdán a black, Negro
Ata, A'tiys, Ata'atat ‘Aṭá’, pl. A‘tiys gift, present;   (pl. ‘Aṭá’át) offer, tender.   Pers.   ‘Atá’íyyih, “Ataieh”.   ‘Alí Akbar Furútan married ‘Aṭá’íyyih ‘Azíz-Khurásání in 1931.
Ata'u'llah ‘Aṭá’u’lláh Gift of God
Ataba, 'Atab, A'tab ‘Ataba(h), pl. ‘Atab, A‘táb doorstep, threshold;   (door) lintel;   also al-‘Ataba(h) al-‘ulyá step, stair;   ‘Utbah masc. name
Atabak Atábak Pers.   (from atá, a father, and bak, a lord), the lord father (a title given to the governors of Shíráz);   a guardian, preceptor, teacher;   the prime minister, or vizír;   honorary title of an ámir
Atabak-i-A’zam (Atabik-i-A’zam) Atábak-i-A‘ẓam Title of Mírzá ‘Alí-Asghar Khán
Atabat ‘Atabat, pl. ‘Atabát Pers.   A gate, a port;   the threshold;   the lintel of a door;   the round of a ladder, a step;   a royal court;   anything adverse or disagreeable.   Plural: Steps, thresholds.   The Shi‘ite holy shrines in ‘Iráq and the cities of their location: Karbalá’, Najaf, Káẓimayn, and Sámarrá—locations of the tombs of the first six Imams.
Atabat-i-Aliyat ‘Atabát-i-‘Álíyát (lit. Supreme Shrines) applied by Shí’ih Muslims to cities of Karbalá’, Najaf, Káẓimayn, and Sámarrá.   Bahá’í Shrines of Báb and Bahá’u’lláh.
Athar Aṭhar Pers.   more or most pure
Athar Athar, pl. Áthár track, trace, vestige;   sign, mark;   touch;   impression, effect, action, influence (on);   tradition (relating the deeds and utterances of Muḥammad and his Companions);   work (of art, especially of literature);   ancient monument;—pl. also: antiquities;   remnants, vestiges;   (religious) relics
Athari Atharí, Áthárí archaeologic(al);   archaeologist;   old, ancient, antique
Athim, Athama, Uthama' Áthim, pl. Athama, Athím, Uthamá’ sinful, criminal, wicked, evil;   sinner
Athir Athír marking;   marked, chosen, selected;—(from Greek αίθήρ) sky, ether;   fire as an element.   Pers.   the sphere of fire;   the sun;   tears
Athiriy Athíriy ethereal
Atifi ‘Áṭifí sentimental;   emotional;   emotive, feeling;   tender, affectionate, loving
Atish Átish Pers.   fire;   light, splendour;   rage;   levity, fickleness;   valour, value, dignity;   dearness, scarceness;   (metaphorically) the Devil;   a courageous man, bold, brave;   a lover;   fire of Jove;   desire, appetite, greed;   digestive heat;   sulphur.   ‘Abdu’l-Bahá said Marzieh Gale had átish and namak.  Arches of the years, p. 87.
Atish-Parast (Atishparast, Atishparastan) Átish-Parast, pl. Átish-Parastán fire-worshippers
Atiya, 'Ataya ‘Aṭíya(h or t), pl. ‘Aṭáyá Pers.   also ‘Atíyya(h) gift, present
Atqan Atqan more perfect, more thorough
Atri ‘Aṭrí distiller of ‘Aṭṭár according to Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh, vol. IV
Attar ‘Aṭṭár perfumer, perfume vendor;   druggist;   sweet-smelling, fragrant, aromatic.   Abú Ḥamíd bin Abú Bakr Ibráhím (c. 1145–c. 1221), better known by his pen-names Faríd ud-Dín and ‘Aṭṭár (apothecary), was a 12th-century Persian poet, theoretician of Sufism, and hagiographer from Níshápur who had an immense and lasting influence on Persian poetry and Sufism. Manṭiq-uṭ-Ṭayr (“The Conference of the Birds”) and Iláhí-Náma (“The Book of Divine”) are among his most famous works.
Attari ‘Aṭṭárí Pers.   of or relating to a druggist;   the business of a perfumer or druggist
Avih, Aveh, Awah Ávih villages in the provinces of Fárs, Markazí and Qazvín.   The village mentioned in God Passes By, p. 298, is 26 km SSE Sávih (Sáveh) and 45 km NW of Qum.
Aw (Au) Aw or (with following subjunctive) unless, except that
Awarih (Awarah), Avarih (Avareh) Áwárih, Ávárih Pers.   straggler, gadabout, immigrant, runabout, wanderer.   After the death of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, a prominent Iranian Bahá’í, Mírzá ‘Abdu’l-Ḥusayn Áyatí (1290/1873–1953), titled Ávárih (wanderer) by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, pressed for a position of leadership in the Bahá’í community. When he failed, he withdrew from the Bahá’í Faith and began to publicly denounce it and published Kashfu’l-Hiyal (The Uncovering of Trickery) in three volumes.   See Ṭaríq
Awj (“Auj”), Awji Awj noun.   highest point, acme, pinnacle;   culmination, climax;   apogee (astron.);   peak (fig.;   of power. of fame).   Adj. Awjí
Awrang (Aurang) Awrang Pers.   a throne;   wisdom, understanding;   beauty, gracefulness;   life;   a manufacturing village;   fraud, deceit;   mirth;   a worm which eats into wood;   a line whereon things are hung to dry;   glory, honour;   a man's name;   (metaphorically) heaven.   A low mountain near the village of Tákur, in the province of Núr, Persia, the summer residence of Bahá’u’lláh.
Awraq-i-Nariyyih Awráq-i-Náríyyih Pers.   form “the Infernal Letters”   See waraq (paper) and nárí
Aws (Aus) Aws giving in exchange or return, requiting, repaying;   a gift;   name of an Arab tribe (Banú Aws)
Awsat (“Ausat”), Awasit, Wusta, Wusat Awsaṭ, pl. Awsaṭ middle, central;   the middle finger
Awtad Awtád pegs or tent stakes.   See Watad/Autád
Awwal, Ula, Awwalun, Awa'il Awwal, f. Úlá, pl. m. Awwalún, Awá’il first;   foremost, most important, principal, chief, main;   first part, beginning;   (with definite article also) earlier, previous, former.   al-úlá “pre-existence”—ad-dunyá (earthly life) and al-ákhirah (afterlife), pl. also Awwalín
Ay Ay that is (to say), i.e.;   namely, to wit
Aya, Ay, Ayat Áya(h or t), collective Áy, pl. Áyát sign, token, mark;   miracle;   wonder, marvel, prodigy;   model, exemplar, paragon, masterpiece.   Commonly used to refer to each of the 6,236 verses in the Qur’án (6,348 áyát if all the Bismi’lláh [no plural] verses are included).   Muslims regard each áya of the Qur’án as a sign from Alláh. (The Bahá’í Proofs).
Ayadiyi-Amru'llah Ayádiyi-Ámru’lláh Pers.   Hands of the Cause of God   (Cause or Command)
Ayatu'l-Kursi Áyatu’l-Kursí verse of the throne Qur’án 2:255
Ayatu'llah Áyatu’lláh “sign of God”   A Shí‘ih religious leader in Írán and a title given to Shoghi Effendi by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in His Will and Testament
Ayatu'llah al-'Uzma' Áyatu’lláh al-‘Uzmá the greatest sign of God, a Marja‘ at-taqlíd
Ayatu'llah-i-Khurasani Áyatu’lláh-i-Khurásání (MF)
Ayaz Áyáz and Ayáz Pers.   name of a favourite of Sulṭán Maḥmúd of Ghaznah;   name of one of the Emirs of Sulṭān Ibrahím bin Mas‘úd bin Maḥmúd Ghaznawí.
Aydil-Khani Aydil-Khání
Ayk (Aik) Ayk, ’Ayka(h) (collective;   nomen unitatis ة) thicket, jungle, a forest, copse, grove, thicket, wood (أيكة)
Aykatun ’Aykatun thicket, clump of trees, forest, the dwellers of woods (an epithet for the people of Midian to whom the prophet Shu‘ayb was sent)
Ayn ('Ain), 'Uyun, A'yun ‘Ayn fem., pl. ‘Uyún, A‘yun, A‘yán eye;   evil eye;   spring, source, fountainhead (of water);   scout, reconnoiterer;   hole;   mesh;   flower, choice, prime (of something);—(pl. a‘yán) an eminent, important man, used especially in plural: people of distinction, important people, leading personalities, leaders, notables, prominent persons;   substance, essence;   self, individuality;—chattel, object of material value, (corporeal or personal) property, personality, capital asset (Islamic Law);—ready money, cash;   name of the letter ع (18th in Arabic and 21st in Persian alphabets—see hijá’í)
Ayn-'Ayn ‘Ayn-‘Ayn = ‘Abdu’l-Bahá ‘Abbás
Aynu'l-Baghar ‘Aynu’l-Baghar [ain o’lbagar]—a well outside ‘Akká
Aynu'l-Baqar ‘Aynu’l-Baqar an ancient spring (“The spring of the cow”) between the moat around ‘Akká and Tel ‘Akká
Aynu'l-Sitt ‘Aynu’l-Sitt “Spring of the woman”—about 200 m south of ‘Aynu’l-Baqar
Aynu'llah ('Ainullah) ‘Aynu’lláh Eye of God.   Brothers Sulaymán and Raḥmán ‘Aynu’lláhí, guards in the Disciplinary Forces (NAFA).
Ayyam-i-Ha Ayyám-i-Há “Days of Há” Intercalary days
Ayyam-i-Shidad Ayyám-i-Shidád “Days of stress”—the supreme crisis in Adrianople, engineered by the diabolical Siyyid Muḥammad (GPB 163)
Ayyub (Aiyub) Ayyúb Job (the prophet)
Ayyubiyun al-Ayyúbíyún Ayyubid dynasty, the Ayubites
Az Áz Pers.   desire, love, passion, lust;   avidity, avarice, covetousness;   (at the end of compounds) greedy;   name of a city.
Az Az Pers.   from;   of;   for;   by;   out of;   with;   belonging to;   by means of;   in
Az-Bagh-i-Ilahi Az-Bágh-i-Iláhí “From the Garden of Holiness” by Bahá’u’lláh
Azad Ázád Pers.   free, independent, liberated, delivered, manumitted, exempted;   fault, less;   solitary, lonely;   a kind of faqír, or devotee;   a lily;   a cypress;   a fresh date;   an evergreen;   a delicious kind of fish
Azadi Ázádí Pers.   liberty;   freedom from worldly cares;   praise, thanksgiving
Azal Azal Pers.   eternity (without beginning)
Azali Azalí, pl. Azálál Pers.   existing from all eternity, eternal;   God.   Also a follower of Mírzá Yaḥyá, Ṣubḥ-i-Azal (“Morn of Eternity”)
Azaliya Azalíya(t) life everlasting, eternity
Azamat ‘Azamat, ‘Azamút, pl. ‘Azamát Pers.   magnitude, magnificence, pride, pomp, grandeur;   (met.) a grandee.
Azamatu’llah ‘Aẓamatu’lláh Magnificence of God
Azamut ‘Aẓamút Ar.   greatness, magnitude, grandeur, dominion
Azan Áẓán or Aẓán (also Adhán) Pers.   announcing, giving notice;   the signal for summoning to prayers, by the Mu’aẓẓin or crier, from the minarets or towers of the mosques;   listening to
Azghand Azghand village (130 km SW Mashhad) and rural district
Azhar Aẓhar more distinct, more manifest, clearer
Azhar, Zahra, Zahra’i Azhar, fem. Zahrá shining, luminous, radiant, brilliant;   bright.   al-Azhar University, Cairo.   Surname Zahrá’í a radiant one, a dazzling beauty
Azim-i-Khu'i ‘Aẓím-i-Khu’í
Azim-i-Tafrishi ‘Aẓím-i-Tafríshí (MF)
Azim, Uzama, Izam, Aza'im ‘Aẓím, pl. ‘Uẓamá, ‘Iẓám, ‘Aẓá’im great, big, large;   strong, powerful, mighty;   significant, important;   grand, grandiose, imposing, stately, magnificent;   lofty, exalted, august, sublime, splendid, gorgeous, glorious, superb;   huge, vast, prodigious, enormous, tremendous, immense, stupendous;   hard, distressing, gruesome, trying, oppressive (see A‘ẓam)   The Great One (Superlative form of ‘aẓuma)
Aziz ‘Azíz Strongest, most powerful (Superlative form of azza).   Also dear, beloved, valuable.
Aziz Khan-i-Sardar ‘Azíz Khán-i-Sardár he killed Ṭáhirih
Azizi ‘Azízí (Ar. element)   greatness, valuableness
Azizu'llah Khan Bahadur ‘Azízu’lláh Khán Bahádur (Unfolding Destiny, p. 44)
Azm ‘Azm determination, firm will, firm intention, decision, resolution;   energy
Azm, A'zum, 'Izam ‘Aẓm, pl. A‘ẓum, ‘Iẓám bone
Azuma, Izam, Azama ‘Aẓuma, ‘Iẓam, ‘Aẓáma to be or become great, big, large, grand, grandiose, magnificent, imposing, powerful, or mighty;   etc.
Azurdigan (Azordegan, Azordigan) Ázúrdigán Pers.   name
Azza, Izz, Azaza ‘Azza (‘Izz, ‘Izza ‘Azáza) to be or become strong, powerful, respected;   etc.
Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic “names” of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots and underscores · Vowel sounds · Microsoft Word
Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
Ba Bá’ Arabic letter
Ba’ata (ba’t) Ba‘ata (Ba‘t) to send, send out, dispatch;   to forward;   to delegate;   to emit;   to evoke, arouse, call forth, awaken;   to stir up, provoke, bring on;   to revive, resuscitate;   to resurrect (someone from death);   to incite, induce, instigate;   to cause (something; e.g., astonishment)
Ba'da Ba‘da (preposition) after; in addition to, beside; aside from
Ba'ith, Bawa'ith Bá‘ith, pl. Bawá‘ith incentive, inducement, motive, spur, reason, cause, occasion.   Root is ba‘ata, so can also mean to resurrect from death.
Ba'tha, Ba'atat Ba‘tha, pl. ba‘athát blúmi delegation, deputation, mission;   expedition;   student exchange;   group of exchange students;   revival, rebirth, renaissance, rise.   The Báb is said to calculate the beginning of the Islamic revelation from the year Ba‘tha (the Call in ad 612) instead of the year of the Hijra (ad 622) when Muḥammad migrated from Mecca to Medina.
Bab-i-Amin Báb-i-Amín Shrine of the Báb door—centre NW side
Bab-i-Ashraf Báb-i-Ashraf Shrine of the Báb door—centre NE side (Tomb ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Bab-i-Bala Báb-i-Bálá Shrine of the Báb door—centre SE side
Bab-i-Fadl Báb-i-Faḍl Shrine of the Báb door—nthern end NW side
Bab-i-Giachery Báb-i-Giachery Shrine of the Báb door—sthern end NW side
Bab-i-Ioas Báb-i-Ioas Shrine of the Báb octagon door—SW side
Bab-i-Karim Báb-i-Karím Shrine of the Báb door—nthern end SE side
Bab-i-Makhsus Báb-i-Makhṣúṣ Special or specific gate
Bab-i-Maxwell Báb-i-Maxwell Shrine of the Báb door—centre SW side
Bab-i-Qassabchi Báb-i-Qaṣṣábchí Shrine of the Báb door—southern end, SE side
Bab, Abwab, Abvab Báb, pl. Abwáb, (Pers.) Abváb Gate   Title assumed by Mírzá ‘Alí Muḥammad (al-Báb)) after the declaration of his Mission in Shíráz in May 1844   His wife was Khadíjih-Bagum.   Qayyúmu’l-Asmá’, the Persian and Arabic Bayán, Dalá’il-i-Sab‘ih (“Seven Proofs”) and the Kitáb-i-Asmá’.   Second wife Fáṭimih, married 1847, later Mírzá Yaḥyá briefly married her.   Some designations of the Báb are: Siyyid-i-Dhikr, Ṭal‘at-i-A‘lá, Siyyid-i-Báb, ‘Abdu’dh-Dhikr, Ḥaḍrat-i-A‘lá, Bábu’lláh, Rabb-i-A‘lá, Nuqṭiy-i-Úlá and Nuqṭiy-i-Bayán. (DB 72)
Baba-Iski Bábá-Iskí Babaeski, 50 km SE Adrianople, Turkey
Baba-zadih (Babazadih) Bábá-Zádih
Baba, Babawat Bábá, pl. Bábawát pope;   papa, father, daddy
Babak Bábak Pers.   (diminutive of báb), a little father;   one who educates;   faithful, constant, firm, strong;   a turquoise stone;   name of a king.
Babi-Dukhtaran Bábí-Dukhtarán Site in Shíráz where the Báb’s son is buried.
Babi, Babiyun Bábí, pl. Bábíyún A follower of the Báb (Bábís is generally used as the plural)
Babism or Babiism Bábí Faith It is incorrect to combine a transcripted word with an English suffix (transcripted adjective converted to a noun)
Babiya, Babiyya, Babiyat, Babiyyat Bábíya, (Pers.) Bábíyat The status of the báb (Gate-hood) [replace “Babhood” by Gate-hood or Door-ship] (-hood or -ship—state of being, quality or condition)
Babiyyih Bábíyyih house of Báb in Mashhad
Babu'd-Din Bábu’d-Dín “The Gate of Religion”
Babu'l-Bab, Bab-i-Bab Bábu’l-Báb, (Pers.) Báb-i-Báb The “Gate of the Gate”   Mullá Muḥammad-Ḥusayn-i-Bushrú’í
Babu'llah Bábu’lláh (“The Gate of God”) (a designation of the Báb)
Babu'llahu'l-A'zam Bábu’lláhu’l-A‘ẓam the Most Great Báb
Babul Bábul (“Babol”) an acacia tree (Acacia arabica) and the new name for Bárfurúsh
Babulsar, Babul Sar, Mashhad–i-Sar Bábulsar, Bábul Sar Pers.   also known as Mashhadsar, Mashhad-i-Sar and Meshed-i-Sar; is a city and capital of Babolsar County, Mázandarán Province, Írán. It is located alongside the Caspian Sea north of Bábul.
Bad Bád Pers.   wind, air, breath
Bada Badá Ar.   to appear, show, become evident, clear, plain or manifest, come to light;   to be obvious;   to seem good, acceptable, proper (to someone).   Form III to show, display, evince, manifest, reveal, declare openly
Bada' Badá’ Pers.   coming in the mind;   appearing;   beginning.   Two meanings:   1.  Appearance after hiding involving alteration of the Divine Will or the non-fulfilment of the Divine Will.   A Shí’a concept where God may alter the course of human history as is seen to be fit.   2.  Origination of a new idea.   The Sunní view on Badá’ is that it is not applicable to God.   The Báb made significant reinterpretations of the concept of badá’.   1.  Change in divine revelation according to the principle of progressive revelation.   2.  Acceptance embodies the recognition of God’s absolute power and authority and thus is the highest sign of spiritual maturity.   3.  The concept of magnification (takbír), as the symbol of the completion of the four layers of the divine covenant.   One’s faith is complete and will not be subject to alteration or negation if one believes in all four supports or pillars of the covenant.   See Gate of the heart, pp. 207–11.
Bada', Bada'a Badá’ and Badá’a Ar.   obscenity, ribaldry, foulness (of language);   disgust, loathing, aversion, contempt
Badakhshan Badakhshán “Badakh Mountains”. NE Afghánistán province
Badasht Badasht A village near Sháhrúd in Khurásán, venue of the first Bábí conference.
Badawi, Badw Badawí, pl. Badw Bedouin, nomadic;   rural (as distinguished from urban);   a Bedouin;—pl. desert, nomads, Bedouins
Badawiya, Badawiyat Badawíya, pl. Badawíyát Bedouin woman, Bedouin girl
Badayi'u'l-Athar Badáyi‘u’l-Áthár diary of Mírzá Mamúd-i-Zarqání
Badhinjan, Baydhinjan (Baidinjan) dhinján and Baydhinján (collective; noun -un) pl. -át. eggplant, aubergine
Badi' Badí‘ unique, marvellous, wonderful, wondrous.   See abda‘ and Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí
Badi' al-Jamal, Badi'u'l-Jamal Badí‘ al-Jamál, (Pers.) Badí‘u’l-Jamál of astonishing beauty
Badi' az-Zaman, Badi'u'z-Zaman Badí‘ az-Zamán, (Pers.) Badí‘u’z-Zamán the wonder of the age
Badi'a, Bada'i Badí‘a, pl. Badá’i‘ an astonishing, amazing thing, a marvel, a wonder;   original creation
Badi'ih Badí‘ih Pers.
Badi'u'l-Hayat Badí‘u’l-Ḥayát “Wondrous Life”   A name give by Bahá’u’lláh to Mírzá Ja‘far.
Badi'u'llah Badí‘u’lláh “wonder of God”.   Mírzá Badí‘u’lláh, son of Bahá’u’lláh.
Badkubah (Badkubih), Bad-Kubah Bádkúbah, Bád-Kúbah “Wind-pounded city”.   See Bákú
Badkubi'i (Badkoubei) Bádkúbi’í Pers.   (bád + kúb)
Badr, Budur Badr, pl. Budúr full moon.   Badr Ḥunayn is a city 80 km SE of Yanbú‘.   Site of the famous Battle of Badr, between the Quraysh led polytheists, and the Muslims under the leadership of Muḥammad, in 624.
Badri Badrí of or relating to the full moon;   plenilunar;   one who had been present at the battle of Badr;   a purse full of money
Badshah, Padshah Bádsháh, Pádsháh Pers.   an emperor, sovereign, monarch, king.   Also Pád-Sháh (“Padeshah”)
Badw Badw desert;   nomads, Bedouins
Bagh gh garden
Bagh Bagh Persian.   A ditch;   name of an idol;   a god (enters into composition of names, as bagh-dád—“god-given”)
Bagh-i-Firdaws gh-i-Firdaws “Garden of Paradise”, agricultural land west of the Riḍván Garden, and east of old Akko (‘Akká)
Bagh-i-Jannat gh-i-Jannat “Garden of Paradise”
Bagh-i-Takht gh-i-Takht
Bagh-Mishih gh-Mishih
Bagh-Panbih gh-Panbih (Bágh-Panba) a quarter in Qum
Baghban-Bashi ghbán-Báshí
Baghban, Bagh-Pira ghbán, Bágh-pírá Pers.   a gardener;   a vine-dresser
Baghdad Baghdád city originally known as Dáru’s-Salám (the Abode of Peace) or Madínatu’lláh (the City of God) because peace is an attribute of God. Also known as Mádina as-Salám (City of Peace). Name may be derived from ancient Persian Bagh (God) and Dád (gift), i.e. “Gift of God” or “God-given”.
Baghdadi, Baghdadyun, Baghdida Baghdádí, pl. Baghdádyún, Baghádida native of Baghdád
Bagum Bagum (also Bigum) (Turk) dame.   Feminine form of ‘Big’.   A title placed after the name
Baha Baha Pers.   far be it!
Baha Bahá Pers.   price, value
Baha' Bahá’ beauty, magnificence, splendour;   brilliancy;   glory or light.   Title of Bahá’u’lláh.   See Abhá.   An Islamic Tradition states the Most great Name (Huwu) consists of four names: 1. “God” (Alláh), 2. “the Blessed” (Tabáraka), 3. “the Exalted” (Ta‘álá, from the same root as ‘Alí), 4. The hidden name of God—identified by the Báb as hidden in Ta‘álá, i.e. ‘Ali, but the ultimate name is Bahá’ [the Greatest Name].   See Gate of the heart, pp. 105–7. Abjad: Bahá’ is eight plus one = 9—hence the significance of the number nine.   (‘B’ is two, the short vowel is not written in, the ‘h’ is five, the long vowel is one, and the hamza, represented by the apostrophe, is one.)   ‘Abdu’l-Bahá interpreted Qur’án 69:17 as “… on that day Bahá [9] will bear up the throne (the body) of thy Lord. On that day eight will bear up one.”
Baha’i Holy Year Bahá’í Holy Year 1. Centennial of “year nine” ah 1269/ad 1952 (Revelation received by Bahá’u’lláh about two months after imprisonment in Siyàh Chál)—October 1952 to October 1953.   2. Centennial Ascension Bahá’u’lláh, Riḍván 1992 to Riḍván 1993.
Baha’i Khun Baháʼi Khún Pers.   the price of blood (which is paid to the relations of a person killed, as an atonement)
Baha’i, Baha’iyun Bahá’í, pl. Bahá’íyún precious, valuable.   “Follower of the Glory” (Bahá’ís is a generally used plural) A follower of Bahá’u’lláh;   a person of light, of enlightenment
Baha'ism or Baha'iism Bahá’í Faith It is incorrect to combine a transcripted word with an English suffix (transcripted adjective converted to a noun)
Baha'iyya or Baha'iyyih Bahá’íyya (Ar) Bahá’íyyih (Per) (Ar. pl. Bahá’íyyát) [Bahá’í Dispensation] Feminine of Bahá’í.   (“Radiant” or “Full of Glory”—derived from Bahá)   Bahá’íyyih Khánum (also known by Persians as the variant Bahíyyih Khánum), The Greatest Holy Leaf
Baha'u'l-Abha Bahá’u’l-Abhá (previously written as Baha-el-Abha)   “The Glory of the All-Glorious” “The Glory of the Most Glorious”
Baha'u'llah Bahá’u’lláh (“The Glory of God”)   Title of Mírzá Ḥusayn-‘Alí of Núr, founder of the Bahá’í Faith.
Bahadur, Bahaduran Bahádur, pl. Bahádurán Pers.   brave, bold, valiant, courageous, magnanimous, warlike, strong, athletic;   a soldier, champion, hero, chevalier, knight, horseman;   a title of honour conferred by the Great Mogul and other Eastern potentates, bearing some resemblance to the European title of military knighthood.   Abú Sa‘íd Baḥádur—should be Bahádur
Bahar Bahár Pers.   spring, beginning of summer;   a blossom;   orange-flower;   an idol;   the harem of a prince;   camomile, anthemis
Bahar, Baharat Bahár, pl. Bahárát spice;   a species of odoriferous herb;   anything beautiful and splendid;   name of a village 14 km NW Hamadán
Bahari Bahárí Pers.   belonging to the spring, vernal
Baharistan Baháristán Pers.   spring;   vernal blossoms;   title of a celebrated work of Ṣúfí, Persian poet, native of Jám, Búshihr Province, Írán
Bahhaj Bahháj delightful, blissful.   Form of the word bahija
Bahij Bahij, Bahíj magnificent, splendid, beautiful;   happy, joyous;   delightful
Bahija Bahija to be glad, he happy (about), he delighted (at)
Bahir Báhir dazzling, brilliant, splendid, sparkling
Bahira Baḥírá known as Sergius the Monk to the Latin West, was a Syriac or Arab Arian, Nestorian or possibly Gnostic Nasorean monk who, according to Islamic tradition, foretold to the adolescent Muḥammad his future as a prophet. His name derives from the Syriac bḥírá, meaning “tested (by God) and approved”.
Bahiri Báhirí
Bahiy, Bahiya Bahíy, fem. Bahíya(h) Ar.   beautiful, magnificent, splendid;   brilliant, radiant, shining
Bahiyya, Bahiyyih Bahíyya(h), (Pers.) Bahíyyih Bahíyyih Khánum, “Greatest Holy Leaf” (born Fáṭimih Sulṭán, 1846–15 July 1932).   See Bahíya
Bahja, Bahjat (Bahajah) Bahja(t) splendour, magnificence, beauty, resplendence;   joy, delight
Bahjatu's-Sudur (Bihjatu's-Sudur) Bahjatu’ṣ-Ṣudúr “Delight of hearts”. Book by Ḥájí Mírzá Ḥaydar-‘Alí
Bahji, Bahij Bahjí, Bahíj magnificent, splendid, beautiful;   happy, joyous;   delightful.   That part of the plain of ‘Akká where the Shrine and the Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh are located.
Bahman Bahman Pers.   intelligent, acute, adroit;   the supreme intelligence;   a cloud pouring rain;   (also bahmani barf (snow)) an avalanche of snow.   The second month of the winter in the Persian calendar.
Bahnimir Bahnimír city near southern coast of Caspian Sea
Bahr, Bihar, Buhar, Abhar, Abhur Baḥr, pl. Biḥár, Buḥúr, Abḥár, Abḥur sea;   large river;   a noble, or great, man (whose magnanimity or knowledge is comparable to the vastness of the sea);   meter (poet.).   Biḥár is a reference to Shí’ih traditions.
Bahram Bahrám Pers.   the planet Mars;   name of several kings of Persia, and of other kingdoms in the East (corrupted by the Greeks into Varanes);   name of several heroes;   the twentieth day of every month.   The older form is Vahrám (Middle Persian), also spelled Wahrám, literally meaning “smiting of resistance” or “victorious”.
Bahram Shahi, Bahramshahi Bahrám Sháhí, Bahrámsháhí Rúḥu’lláh Bahrámsháhí
Bahrami Bahrámí Pers.   bravery, valour;   slaughter
Bahrani Baḥrání of the Bahrein Islands
Bahrayn (Bahrain) al-Baḥrayn “the two seas” (two?—unknown—white and black, Mediterranean and Black Sea?), dual form of Baḥr.   Islands in the southern Persian Gulf.   The term Baḥrayn appears five times in the Qur’án, but it does not refer to the modern island—originally known to the Arabs as “Awwal”—but rather to the oases of al-Qaṭíf and Ḥadjár (modern al-Ḥasá).
Bahru'l-'Ulum Baḥru’l-‘Ulúm “sea of all knowledge”
Bahth, Buhuth, Abhath Baḥth, pl. Buḥút, Abḥáth search (for), quest (of);   examination, study;   research;   investigation, exploration;   discussion;   treatise;   (pl.) study, scientific report (on)
Baji Bájí Pers.   sister;   miss, lady (modern colloquialism)
Baka, Buka, Bukan Baká (Buká’, Bukan) to cry, weep (over);   to bemoan, lament, bewail (someone), mourn (for)   II and IV to make (someone) cry   X to move (someone) to tears, make (someone) cry
Bakhit Bakhít lucky, fortunate
Bakhsh Bakhsh Pers.   fate, destiny, portion, share.   Name used for Persian political districts.
Bakhshandagi (Bakhshandegi) Bakhshandagí Pers.   liberality;   pardon
Bakht Bakht Pers.   fortune, prosperity, felicity, happiness;   luck (good or bad);   a horoscope, nativity, planet, constellation;   the nightmare
Bakhtawar (Bakhtavar) Bakhtáwar lucky, fortunate
Bakhtiyari Bakhtíyárí tribe of western Írán (Bachtiari)
Bakk Bakk bruising, knocking;   tearing, rending;   crowding
Bakka Bakka (verb) to crowd as in a bazaar
Bakkah, Bakkat Bakka(h or t) believed to be an ancient name of Mecca (the b and m were interchangeable in the Arabic used in that area at the time of Muḥammad), but Muslim scholars say Bakkah refers to the Ka‘ba and the sacred site immediately surrounding it (due to the crowding and congestion of people in the area), while Mecca is the name of the city in which they are both located.
Bakr, Abkhur, Bukran Bakr, pl. Abkur, Bukrán young camel.   Caliph Abú-Bakr
Bakri Bakrí follower of Abú-Bakr (i.e. a traditionalist)
Bakshish Bakshísh Per.   See Baqshísh
Baku Bákú Baku, capital city of Azerbaijan. The name is derived from the Persian name for the city Bád-kúbah, meaning “Wind-pounded city”, in which bád means “wind” and kúbah is rooted in the verb kúbídan “to pound”, thus referring to a place where wind is strong and pounding.
Bala Bálá upper, up, above, better quality or prestigious.   Where there are two nearby villages, it can be used to indicate one is above the other or is of a better quality.   See Pá’in
Bala Balá yes, yes indeed, certainly, surely
Bala-Khanih Bálá-Khánih Balcony
Bala-Khiyaban Bálá-Khíyábán rural district in Mázandarán
Bala-Rastaq Bálá-Rastáq a village in Írán
Bala-Sari, Balasari Bálá-Sarí, Bálásarí “above the head”.   A term used by the Shaykhis (Shaykhí followers) to distinguish ordinary Shi’ites (the Bálá-Sarí) from members of their own sect.   Those who pray standing at the head of the Imám while facing the Qiblih (i.e. with their backs to the Imám)
Bala' Bala’ to test, to afflict
Bala' Balá’ trial, tribulation, visitation, affliction, distress, misfortune;   scourge, plague;   creditable performance, bravery, gallantry, heroic action
Balad, Bilad, Buldan Balad m. and f., pl. Bilád, Buldán country;   town, city;   place, community, village; —(pl. bilád) regions, habitations;   provinces, territories;   an inhabited country;—(pl. buldán) cities, countries
Baladu’l-Amin Baladu’l-Amín “protected land” or “safe city”, i.e. Makkah
Balagha Balágha(h) eloquence;   art, of good style, art of composition;   literature
Balal Balál Pers.   moisture, humidity, freshness (of youth or young plants);   water
Balat, Ablita Baláṭ, pl. Abliṭa pavement, tiled floor;   floor tiles;   palace;—pl. floor tiles
Balih (Baleh) Balih Pers.   yes
Balinus Bálinus Apollonius was also known as Bálinus
Balkh Balkh city and province in Afghánistán
Ballur, Billaur, Bulur Ballúr, Billaur, Bulúr Pers.   crystal;   beryl
Baluch Balúch Iranian tribe who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pákistán, Írán, and Afghánistán.
Baluchistan Balúchistán SW province of Pakistan
Baluz, Baluza, Baluzat Balúz, Balúza, pl. Balúzát blouse
Balyuz (Balyuzi) Bályúz said to derive through Turkish from Venetian Italian balio (governor, later meaning ambassador), itself derived from the Latin (bájulus, pl. bájulí: porter, carrier; manager, steward, bailiff;   administrator).   Hence, Ḥasan Bályúzí (1908–1980).
Bamdad, Bamdadan Bámdád, Bámdádán Pers.   early morning
Bana, Bayan Bána (Bayán) to be or become plain, evident, come out,come to light;   to be clear (to someone)
Banadak (Banaduk?) Sadat Banádak Sádát village 40 km south Yazd
Banan Banán finger tips
Banani Banání Hand of the Cause Músá Banání, and wife Samíḥih
Banda, Bandagan Banda, pl. Bandagán Pers.   bondsman, servant, slave
Bandar-'Abbas Bandar-‘Abbás Pers.   a port city and capital of Hurmúzgán Province on the southern Persian Gulf coast of Írán
Bandar-i-Jaz (Bandar-Gaz) Bandar-i-Jaz city in Írán, on Caspian Sea (SE corner)
Bandar, Banadir Bandar, pl. Banádir seaport;   commercial centre;   district capital (Egyptian)
Bandiy-i-Bab-i-Baha Bandiy-i-Báb-i-Bahá Pers.   bondsman at the door of Bahá (Bahá’u’lláh). A designation used by Mishkín-Qalam.   See banda
Bandiy-i-Khuda Bandiy-i-Khudá bondsman or slave of God.   See banda
Bani-Hashim Baní-Háshim The sons or children of Háshim, great-grandfather of Muḥammad. That is, the people deriving from the quasi-mythical Shem (Sám), son of Noah.
Bani-Umayyih Baní-Umayyih was a clan in the Quraysh tribe named after ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manáf’s adopted son Umayya ibn ‘Abd Shams.
Banna Banná’ (Banná) Pers.   a builder, mason, architect
Banu Tamim Banú Tamím Arabian tribe. Tamím ibn Murr, the ancestor of the tribe, is a direct descendant of Abraham. Hence this large tribe is considered to be an Ishmaelite tribe.
Baqa Baqá’ remaining, staying, lingering, abiding;   continuation, continuance, duration;   survival, continuation of existence after life;   immortality, eternal life;   existence;   permanence.   See Faná’
Baqar Baqar cattle
Baqara, Baqarat Baqara, pl. Baqarát cow
Baqi Báqí remaining, left;   alive;   permanent, durable, fixed, firm;   immortal, everlasting, eternal;   one of the names of God;   remainder, rest;   balance, arrears;   (adverb) for the rest;   upon the whole
Baqi' Baqí‘ remaining over;   rest, remainder, remnant;   arrears;   balance;   surplus.   Cemetery in Medina in the vicinity of the Tomb of Muḥammad.
Baqila' Báqilá’ a bean (Faba sativa)
Baqillani Báqillání (Ar. influence) a vendor of beans; nickname of a celebrated scholar. Abú Bakr Muḥammad ibn aṭ-Ṭayyib al-Báqillání (c. 940–5 June 1013), I‘jáz al-Qur’án (The Inimitability of the Qur’án).   See Báqilá’
Baqir Báqir (“One who expands or breaks”)   Title of the fifth Shí‘a Imám and an Ethiopian slave who was one of the very early converts to Islám.
Baqir-Abad, Baqirabad (Baghirabad) Báqirábád now Báqirshahr
Baqir-i-Bastami Báqir-i-Basṭámí
Baqir-i-Kafsh-Duz Báqir-i-Kafsh-Dúz
Baqir-i-Kandi Báqir-i-Kandí
Baqir-i-Kashani Báqir-i-Káshání
Baqir-i-Qa'ini Báqir-i-Qá’iní
Baqir-i-Rashti Báqir-i-Rash
Baqir-i-Sabbagh Báqir-i-Ṣabbágh
Baqir-i-Shiraz Báqir-i-Shíráz
Baqir-i-Tabrizi Báqir-i-Tabrízí
Baqiri Báqirí descendents of Muḥammad al-Báqir
Baqiya, Baqaya Baqíya(t), pl. Baqáyá remainder, rest;   remnant, residue.   Persian plural baqiyát
Baqiyyatu'llah Baqíyyatu’lláh “Remnant of God”   A title of the Twelfth Imám that is also applied to the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh.
Baqlava Báqlavá a sweetmeat
Baqqal (Bakkal), Baqqalun, Baqqala Baqqál, pl. Baqqálún, Baqqála greengrocer;   grocer
Baqshish Baqshísh, pl. Baqáshísh present of money;   tip, gratuity, baksheesh
Bar Bar Pers.   (preposition) on, upon, onto
Bara'a, Bara'at Bará’a, pl. Bará’át being free;   disavowal, withdrawal, repudiation;   innocence, guiltlessness;   naiveté, guilelessness, artlessness;   (pl.) license, diploma, patent
Barafrukhta (Bar-afrokhta) Barafrúkhta(h) Pers.   inflamed, fired, lit up.   Dr Ali Mohammed Barafroukhteh, the only member of the 1960 French NSA to reject Mason Remey’s claims. Three others later repented and asked for forgiveness.
Baraka Báraka to bless
Baraka, Barakat Baraka(t), pl. Barakát blessing, benediction;   abundance, prosperity
Baraka'llahu Fikum Báraka’lláhu Fíkum “May God bless you”
Barakatu'llah Barakatu’lláh “God bless you”
Baraqani (Baraghani) Baraqání from Baraqán (Baraghán) village north of Karaj (NW of Ṭihrán)
Baratha Baráthá a mosque on a highway between Baghdád and Kaẓímayn
Barazat Barázát Temptation
Barfurush Bárfurúsh a town in Mázindarán, now known as Bábul (Babol)
Bari' Bári‘ skilled, skilful, proficient, capable, efficient;   brilliant, outstanding (work of art)
Bari' Bári’ the creator, God, the Deity. Hence, al-Bári’
Baris Bárís Paris
Barq, Buruq Barq, pl. Burúq lightning;   flash of lightning;   telegraph
Barqi (Barki) Barqí (Barkí) pertaining or relating to lightning;   electric;   telegraphic, telegraph- (in compounds).   Aḥmad bin Muḥammad bin Khálid bin ‘Abd al-Raḥmán al-Barqí (b. ~200/815-816—d. 274/887–888 or 280/893–894) was a renowned Twelver Shí‘a muḥaddith (ḥadíth scholar) and historian of 3rd/9th century.
Barr Barr land (as opposed to sea), terra firma, mainland;   open country
Barr, Abrar, Barara Barr and Bárr, pl. Abrár and Barara reverent, dutiful (+ preposition bi—toward), devoted (+ preposition bi—to);   pious, godly, upright, righteous;   kind
Bartalla (Bartella), Baratallih (?) Barṭalla(h) (“Bartella”) town 21 km east of Mosul, ‘Iráq (Barṭ Alláh)
Barzakh, Barazikh Barzakh, pl. Barázikh interval, gap, break, partition, bar, obstruction;   isthmus
Bas Bas Pers.   a great number, many, more;   very much, greatly;   enough, sufficient;   often;   yes, indeed, certainly, it is so, very true, surely, undoubtedly, unquestionably
Basar (“Bassar”), Absar Baṣar, pl. Abṣár vision, eye-sight;   glance, look;   insight;   sight, discernment, perception.   Name (“Baṣṣár”) given by Bahá’u’lláh to blind poet Mírzá Baqir Bihish
Basha, Badshah, Padshah, Padishah shá Pers.   being, existing;   a basha or pasha (corruptions of bádsháh (a king), pádsháh, pádisháh, etc.), governor of a province, counsellor of state, great lord;   also sometimes the grand vazir;   a kind of falcon, a hawk.
Basha, Bashawat, Pasha shá, (Pers. also Páshá), pl. Báshawát Arabic.   English pasha and Turkish paşa.   A lord (or boy, prince).   Honorary title formerly given to officers of high rank in Turkey.
Bashir wa Nadhir Bashír wa Nadhír Bahá’u’lláh appeared as the “Announcer and Warner”, cf. Qur’án 35:22.
Bashir-i-Ilahi Bashír-i-Iláhí Announcer of God
Bashir, Busara’ Bashír, pl. Bushará’ bringer of glad tidings (announcer), messenger, herald, harbinger, forerunner, precursor;   evangelist (Christian)
Bashiri Bashírí
Bashnih Bashnih Beshneh, village NE of Nayríz
Basir Baṣír (most insightful, discerning, endowed with insight, seeing)   Adjective, superlative form of Baṣár (sight).
Basir-i-Hindi Baṣír-i-Hindí Siyyid Baṣír-i-Hindí, the blind Indian Bábí
Basira Baṣíra, pl. Baṣá’ir (keen) insight, penetration, discernment, understanding, (power of) mental perception, mental vision
Basit Básiṭ Pers.   one who spreads abroad or stretches out;   a name of God, who dispenses riches to whom he will;   distant from water (pasture).   “open”
Basit Basíṭ, pl. Busaṭa simple; plain, uncomplicated;   slight, little, modest, inconsiderable, trivial, trifling
Basita al-Basíṭa the earth
Basmala Basmala, pl. Basmalát “word” meaning to utter the invocation bismi’lláh ar-raḥmání ar-raḥímí “In the name of God, the Benificent, the Merciful”.   The “word” is derived from “in the name of” and is the act of uttering the above invocation.
Basra (Basrih) Baṣra(h) (Pers. may use Baṣrih) a single pimple or pustule.   Baṣrah port in southern ‘Iráq (untranscripted variations: Basra, Bosrah)
Basri Baṣrí native of Baṣra
Bast Basṭ Pers.   (verbal noun), Stretching out (the hand);   distension;   diffusiveness;   being wide enough for;   preferring, exalting
Bast Bast Pers.   be bound or connected;   a lover, a sweetheart, one in whom the heart is bound up;   a turban, wreath for the head;   a knot;   a hundred;   a sanctuary, asylum;   a bank, a rampart;   a mountain;   distribution of water into canals, ditches, or drains
Bastam, Bistam, Bustam Basṭám, Bisṭám or Busṭám place just north of Sháhrúd, Írán. Home of Mullá ‘Alí, the fourth Letter of Living
Bastan Bástán Pers.   ancient, preceding, old;   the past;   the world, fortune;   solitary
Batara (Batr) Batara (Batr) to cut off, sever (something);   to amputate (something);   to mutilate, render fragmentarily (a text)   Form VII to be cut off, be severed, be amputated
Batha, Bitah Baṭḥá, pl. Biṭáḥ A neighbourhood of Mecca [al-Makkah or al-Maakka—Bakka (Qur’án 3:96) may be an older name], TN p. 76.   lit. “basin shaped valley;   wide riverbed, wide bed of a stream or torrent;   level land, plain, level, flat(s)”
Batil, Abatil Báṭil, pl. Abáṭíl nugatory (of no value or importance), vain, futile;   false, untrue;   absurd, groundless, baseless;   worthless;   invalid, null, void;   deception, lie, falsehood;—pl. vanities, trivialities, trifles, flimflam, idle talk, prattle
Batila Báṭila falsely;   futilely, in vain
Batin, Bawatin Báṭin, pl. Bawáṭin inner, interior, inward, inmost, intrinsic;   hidden, secret—see Ẓáhir.   báṭin-i-báṭin—inner inward meaning.   Derived from baṭn
Batini Báṭiní internal
Batn, Butun, Abutun Baṭn, pl. Buṭún, Abṭun belly, stomach, abdomen;   womb;   interior, inside, inner portion;   depth
Batt (Butt) Batt settlement, decision
Battah Baṭṭáh village on coast of Libya, 115 km east of Bengazi
Battuta, Batuta Baṭṭúṭa(h) Muḥammad ibn Baṭṭúṭa or Ibn Baṭúṭah;   25 February 1304–1368 or 1369), was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
Batum Báṭúm now Batumi, Georgia
Bawanat, Bavanat Bawánát county in Fárs Province, Írán (Bavánát-i-Fárs)
Bawil, Bavil Báwíl, Bávíl village 23 km SW of Tabríz. It consists of Bávíl ‘Ulyá or Bávíl Bálá (Upper Bavil), and Bávíl Suflá or Bávíl Pá’in (Lower Bavil).   See Mílán and Uskú
Bay, Baya, Bayat Báy, f. Báya, pl. Báyát formerly, in Tunisia, a title after the names of the members of the Bey’s family.   See Beg
Bay’a (Bai’a) Bay‘a(h) agreement, arrangement;   business deal, commercial transaction, bargain;   sale;   purchase;   homage
Bay’at (Bai’at) Bay‘at inauguration, salutation, or acknowledging the authority of a great man;   swearing allegiance;   homage, fealty.   In Islamic terminology it is an oath of allegiance to a leader.   It is known to have been practiced by Muḥammad.   Bay‘at is sometimes taken under a written pact given on behalf of the subjects by leading members of the tribe with the understanding that as long as the leader abides by certain requirements towards his people, they are to maintain their allegiance to him.
Bayan-i-'Arabi, Arabic Bayan Bayán-i-‘Arabí “Arabic Bayán” by the Báb completed after the Bayán-i-Fársí
Bayan-i-Farsi, Persian Bayan Bayán-i-Fársí “Persian Bayán” (Mother Book of the Bábí Revelation) by the Báb
Bayan, Bayanat Bayán, pl. Bayánát clearness, plainness, patency, obviousness;   statement, declaration, announcement;   manifestation;   explanation, elucidation, illustration;   information, news;   (official) report, (official) statement;   enumeration, index, list;   eloquence.   Also exposition or utterance.   Title given by the Báb to His Revelation, and, in particular, to His Books.   Muslims are puzzled by the chronology given in Qur’án 55:2–4. “Bayán (exposition) [“speech”, 55:4] signifies the Revelation of the Báb, which unveils the hidden truth of the Qur’án. ‘Man’ [55:3] signifies the ‘Perfect Human Being’—the Manifestation of God ….” Gate of the heart, p. 262.   al-Bayán (نايبلا or “ن ا ي ب ل ا”) has an abjad value of 94 (“al” (value 31) consists of an unstressed Alif and Lám).   Compare lilláh
Bayani (Bayanis) Bayání explanatory, illustrative; rhetorical.   Bayanis—those few who followed the Báb, but not Bahá’u’lláh or Ṣubḥi-i-Azal (EGB by Balyuzi)
Bayazid Báyazíd father of Yazíd
Bayda (Baida, Baiza), Baydun, Baydat Bayḍa (Pers. Baiẓa), Bayḍún, Bayḍát egg;   helmet;   main part, substance, essence.   ‘Abdu’l-Ghaní Baydún owned 14.5 ha of land adjacent to Bahjí, but he and his family fled in 1948 and the land reverted to the state. The land was swapped in 1952 for the land purchased by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá for Dhikru’lláh SE of the Sea of Galilee, near the Jordan River.
Bayhaq (Baihaq) Bayhaq See Sabzivár.   Abú Bakr Aḥmad ibn Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alí ibn Músá al-Khusrawjirdí al-Bayhaqí, also known as Imám al-Bayhaqí was born 994 in Khusrawjird, near Bayhaq. During his lifetime, he became a famous Sunní ḥadíth expert, following the Sháfi‘í school in fiqh and the Ash‘arí school of Islamic Theology.
Bayn (Bain) Bayn separation, division;   interval;   difference
Bayram (Bairam) Bayrám Turkish festival.   Due to past influence of Ottoman Turkish, many Muslims have adopted the use of the word Bayrám, using the term “Lesser Bayrám” to refer to their own Eid al-Fitr (‘Íd al-Fiṭr) celebrations;   “Greater Bayrám” refers to Eid al Adha (‘Íd al-Aḍḥá) (see Aḍḥan).
Bayt (Bait), Buyut, Buyutat, Abyat Bayt, pl. Buyút, Buyútát house, building, temple, edifice;   fabric, tent (of nomads);   room;   apartment, flat;   (garden) bed;   family;   case, box, covering, sheath;   verse, couplet;—pl. large, respectable houses;   respectable families;   (pl. abyát) verses, couplets
Bayt al-Maqdis Bayt al-Maqdis the Holy Land
Bayt-i-A'zam Bayt-i-A‘ẓam “The Most Great House” (House of Bahá’u’lláh in the Kakh quarter of Baghdád,occupied by the family shortly before Bahá’u’lláh returned from Kudistán)   See Madad, house of.
Bayt-i-Fanduq Bayt-i-Fanduq a house in the German Templar colony, Haifa, where Bahá’u’lláh stayed, 1883
Baytu'l-'Adl Baytu’l-‘Adl Pers.   House of Justice
Baytu'l-'Adl-i-A'zam Baytu’l-‘Adl-i-A‘ẓam Pers.   Universal House of Justice.   See Universal House of Justice listing.
Baytu'l-Hazan Baytu’l-Ḥazan house of sadness
Baytu'l-Ma'mur Baytu’l-Ma‘múr Frequented Fane.   In Islám, the Ka‘bah or its archetype in heaven.
Baytu'l-Maqdis Baytu’l-Maqdis al-Aqṣá Mosque, Jerusalem
Baytu'l-Muqaddas Baytu’l-Muqaddas “The House of Holiness”—name given to Jerusalem
Baytu'llah Baytu’lláh the House of God—the Ka‘bah in Mecca
Bayyina (Bayyinah), Bayyinat Bayyina (Bayyinah), pl. Bayyinát clear proof, indisputable evidence;   evidence (Islamic Law);   a document serving as evidence
Baz-Av-u-Bidih-Jami Báz-Áv-u-Bidih-Jámí “Return and grant a chalice” by Bahá’u’lláh
Bazar, Bazarat Bázár, pl. Bázárát bazaar
Bazari Bázárí merchant or craftsman of the bazzaar
Bazzaz Bazzáz draper, cloth merchant;   the mercer
Beg Beg, fem. Begum Pers.   A lord, a prince;   title put after the names of servants and petty officials.   Turkish Bey.   See Báy
Begum, Baygum Begum, Turk. Begam Great, a lady of rank, a princess—fem. form of Beg or Big
Bektashi Bektáshí Turkish.   Dervish order, mainly in Antolia and the Balkans.
Bethulia, Bethulie Bethulia, Bethulie Bethulia is a Biblical city (location uncertain), situated on a mountain overlooking the plain of Jezrael, whose deliverance by Judith, when besieged by Holofernes, forms the subject of the Book of Judith.   Hebrew בתוליה (a virgin).   Similar to Ar. Batúlí (virginal).
bi bi (prep.) in, at, on (place and time);   with (indicating connection, association, attendance);   with, through, by means of (designating instrumentality or agency, also with pass. = by);   for (= at the price of);   by (= to the amount of);   by (introducing an oath)
bi-Farmayid (Bifarmayid) bi-Farmáyíd Pers.   “here you are”, please come and eat, please come and sit, …, etc.
bi-Qamis al-Babiyya bi-Qamíṣ al-Bábiyya garment of Gatehood
bi-Qamis al-Wilaya bi-Qamíṣ al-Wiláya garment of Sanctity
bi'l-Haqq bi’l-Ḥaqq of a truth
bi'llah bi’lláh by God!
bi’t-Tasrih bi’t-Taṣríḥ Pers.   in detail;   expressly, distinctly, explicitly
Biba (“Babba”) Bibá city in Bibá (Beba) district, Muḥáfẓat Baní Sawíf (Beni Suef Governorate), 130 km SSW of Cairo, Egypt.   See Kawm aṣ-Ṣa‘áydah
Bibi Bíbí Pers.   a lady, a matron;   wife, mistress of the house
Bid', Bid'a Biḍ‘, Biḍ‘a(t) (commonly, with genitive pl. of fem. nouns, biḍ‘a(t) with genitive pl. of m. nouns;   in classical Arabic biḍ‘ with both genders) some, a few, several
Bid’a, Bida’ Bid‘a, pl. Bida‘ innovation, novelty;   heretical doctrine, heresy;—pl. creations (of fashion, of art)
Bidil Bídil Pers.   heartless, dispirited, out of heart;   pusillanimous;   love-sick;   ignorant;   melancholy, dejected, sad, stupid.
Bidil, Abdu’l-Qadir Bídil, Abdu’l-Qádir Mawláná Abu’l-Ma‘ání Mírzá ‘Abdu’l-Qádir Bídil (1642–1720), a famous representative of Dari poetry and Sufism in Afghánistán. He is considered the most difficult and challenging poet of Safavid-Mughal poetry. The pairing of Bídil’s patronymic, Abu’l-Ma‘ání, “The Father of Meanings”, with his devastating nom de plume, Bídil, “The Heartless”, illustrates perfectly the conceptual coupling of Love and Meaning in the sensibilities of the literary self-expression of his audiences.
Big Big (Great, a lord or prince)   Honorary title lower than Khán.
Bigliyirbigi Biglíyirbigí Beylerbey or Beylerbeyi (Ottoman Turkish: “Bey of Beys”, meaning “the Commander of Commanders” or “the Lord of Lords”). Initially designating a commander-in-chief, it eventually came to be held by senior provincial governors. In Ottoman usage it designated the governors-general of some of the largest and most important provinces. Equivalents in Arabic were ámir al-umará, and in Persian, mír-i mírán.
Bih Bih Pers.   good, excellent;   elegant;   better;   safe, sound
Biharu'l-Anvar Biḥáru’l-Anvár A compilation of Shí’ih traditions   ‘Seas of Lights’.
Bihjatu’s-Sudur Bihjatu’ṣ-Ṣudúr “The Delight of Hearts” by Ḥaydar-‘Alí.   See bahja and ṣadr
Bihmard Bihmard Pers.   bih + mard
Bihmardi Bihmardí Pers.   Faríd Bihmardí.   Bih+Mardí
Bihnam Bihnám Pers.   bih + nám.   Bihnám Páshá’í
Bihnaz (Behnaz) Bihnáz Pers.   fem. name
Bihshahr (Behshahr) Bihshahr Pers.   city in Mázindarán, 47 km NE Sárí.   Formerly named Ashraf.
Bijan, Bizhan Bíjan or Bízhan Pers.   “hero”.   One of the main Iranian heroes in the Sháhnámih
Bika (not Baka) Bika A composite comprising the prefix “bi” with the suffix “ka”, which stands for the 2nd person singular masculine pronoun “Thou” or “Thee”. “Bika” can be translated as “upon Thee”, “to Thee”, “on Thee” or “about Thee”, depending on the context.   “Baka” in Tablets of Abdul-Baha Abbas should be Bika.
Bilad al-Kurd, Kurdistan Bilád al-Kurd, Pers. Kurdistán Kurdistan (English) or the land (bilád) of the Kurds (al-Kurd).   Greater Kurdistan, a roughly defined geo-cultural historical region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and Kurdish culture, languages and national identity have historically been based.
Bilal Bilál Bilál ibn Rabáḥ (580–640) also known as Bilál ibn Riyáḥ and Bilál al-Ḥabashí, a freed Ethiopian slave born in Mecca, he was one of the most trusted and loyal companions of Muḥammad, who appointed him as the first muezzin. He was criticized for his pronunciation because a speech defect caused him to mispronounce the letter "shín" as “sín”.
Billahi'l-'Aliyyi'l-'Azim Billáhi’l-‘Alíyyi’l-‘Aẓím “in God, the Exalted, the Mighty” (bi+Alláh)
Bilqis Bilqís name for the Queen of Sheba in Arabian tradition. She is also known as Makeda in Ethiopian tradition.
Bin Bin the son of
Bint Bint daughter of
Binyamin Binyámín Benjamin
Biraw (Birau) Biraw Pers.   (“biro”, “buro”, “burro”)   go!, get away!, get off!
Birjand Bírjand city in eastern Írán
Birjis al-Birjís Jupiter (astronomy).   Martyr, Dr Sulaymán Birjís, Káshán (1897–1950)
Birkas Birkás now Lüleburgaz (“Lule Burgas”), Turkey.   23 km ESE Babaeski and 75 SE Edirne
Birujird Birújird Capital city of the province of Luristán, Mírzá Bururg was governor
Birun Bírún Pers.   without, out of doors;   exterior, extrinsic, foreign;   the outside;   from, a great way from
Biruni Bírúní Pers.   outer or men’s quarters.   See andarúní
Bishara, Bisharat, Basha'ir Bishára(t), pl. Bishárát, Bashá’ir good news, glad-tidings;   annunciation, prophecy;   gospel;   bashá’ir good omens, propitious signs.   Glad-Tidings by Bahá’u’lláh
Bisharat-i-'Uzma Bishárát-i-‘Uẓmá Supreme Glad-tidings
Bishr Bishr joy
Bismi'llah Bismi’lláh “word” derived from the expression “In the name of God”. Basmala is the act (verb) of saying the recurring Islamic phrase “Bismi’lláhi ar-Raḥmáni ar-Raḥími”—”In the name of God, the Most Compassionate (or Gracious), the Most Merciful”. Bismi’lláh is the first phrase of the first verse of every súra of the Qur’án except the ninth.   The verse is composed of 19 letters;   in honour of each letter six chapters were revealed, totalling 114 chapters (the Báb, The Persian Bayán, 2nd Váḥid, 2:2).
Bismi'llahi'l-Amna'u'l-Aqdas Bismi’lláhi’l-Amna‘u’l-Aqdas (“In the Name of God, the Most Unapproachable, the Most Holy”—Báb) (DB 66)
Bismi'llahi'l-Bahiyyi'l-Abha Bismi’lláhi’l-Bahíyyi’l-Abhá “In the name of God, the Glorious, the Most Glorious” (used in calligraphic bird design by Mishkín-Qalam—described as a “bird of paradise in the form of the Greatest Holy Name sitting on the tree of Toubá (tree of paradise)”
Bismi'llahi'r-Rahmani'r-Rahim Bismi’lláhi’r-Raḥmáni’r-Raḥím “In the Name of God, the Most gracious, the Most Merciful”—first verse of the Qur’án
Ishrun, Bist ‘Ishrún, (Pers.) Bíst twenty
Bistami Bisṭámí native of Basṭám
Bistum Bistum, Bístum Pers.   the twentieth
Bisutun (Bisotun) Bísutún Pers.   pillarless.   Bísutún city 36 km NE Kirmásháh, at the foot of Mount Bísutún on which there is the huge Bísutún Inscription in 3 cuneiform scripts (crucial to the decipherment of one of the cuneiform scripts)
Bisyar Bisyár Pers.   many, much;   numerous;   frequent;   copious;   very;   exceedingly
Bisyar Khub Bisyár Khúb Pers.   very well, all right, very or most good
Biya Biyá Pers.   (imperative of ámadan), come, come hither, approach
Biya inja Biyá ínjá Pers.   come here
Biyaban Bíyábán a mountain near Zanján
Bronlundfjord Brønlundfjord (error “Bronlunsfjord”)   a former research and radio station on the shore of Jørgen Brønlund Fjord (a northern branch of Independence Fjord) in southern Peary Land, north Greenland. MBW p. 149 (“147”)
Brummana (Broummana) Brummáná (Beit Roumana, Aramaic name possibly meaning the “house of Rammana, the God of Air, Storm and Thunder") town 13 km east of Beirut, Lebanon
Buddha dhá (Ar.) Buddha Maitreya-Amitábha, the Buddha of the future, the Lord of the Age.   Maitrya or Maitreya—”Kindness”;   Amitábha—“Infinite light”.
Bughḍ, Bighda and Baghda' Bughḍ, Bighḍa(h) and Baghḍá’ hatred, hate
Bujnurd Bujnúrd capital city of North Khurásán Province, Írán
Bukhar, Bukharat, Abkhira Bukhár, pl. Bukhárát, Abkhira vapour, fume;   steam
Bukhara Bukhárá city in Uzbekistan
Bukharan Bukhárán people of Bukhárá
Bukhari Bukhárí steam (adjective), steam-driven.   Abú ‘Abd Alláh Muḥammad ibn Ismá‘íl ibn Ibráhím ibn al-Mughírah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fí al-Bukhárí, 19 July 810–1 September 870), Persian Islamic scholar, author of the aṣ Ṣaḥíḥ al-Bukhárí collection of hadiths (aḥádíth).
Bulbul, Balabil Bulbul, Balabil nightingale
Buli, Bolu Búlí Ar.   for town (Bolu) 260 km east of Istanbul.
Buluk Bulúk Pers.   a tract of country that a subject obtains either by gift, purchase, or succession, holding of the sovereign upon feudal tenure;   a district (modern colloquialism)
Bulus Búlus Arabic form of Paul
Bun Bún Pers.   foundation, root, origin;   end, limit
Bunab Bunáb Pers.   the bottom or depth of water
Bunduq, Banadiq Bunduq, pl. Banádiq hazelnut(s), filberts;   hazel, hazel tree.   Pers. Funduq, Turk. Findík
Buni Búní ‘Abdu’lláh Búní (SDC 104)
Buq'a, Buqa', Biqa' Buq‘a, pl. Buqa‘, Biqá‘ spot, blot, smudge, stain;   place, site, plot, patch, lot
Buq'atu'l-Hamra Buq‘atu’l-Ḥamrá’ “Crimson Spot”—a hill called Samaríyyih north of Bahjí where red flowers grew in abundance in the time of Bahá’u’lláh
Buq'atu'l-Khadra' Buq‘atu’l-Khaḍrá’ “The Verdant Spot”, a former private cemetery near the government “castle”, Yazd.   Designated as such by Bahá’u’lláh.
Bur Búr uncultivated, fallow
Burhan-i-Lami' Burhán-i-Lámi’ (Burhane Lame) published as “The Brilliant Proof”
Burhan, Barahin Burhán, pl. Baráhín proof
Burhani'd-Din Burháni’d-Dín Proof of religion
Burj, Buruj, Abraj Burj, pl. Burúj, Abráj tower, castle, sign of the zodiac
Burnus, Baranis, Barnus, Burnus Burnus, pl. Baránis (also barnús, burnús, pl. baranís) burnoose, hooded cloak;   casula, chasuble (of Coptic priests)
Burqa, Burqu', Baraqi' Burqu‘, (Pers. also Burqa‘), pl. Baráqi‘ veil (worn by women;   long, leaving the eyes exposed)
Burujird Burújird Capital city of the province of Luristán, place of the governorship of Mírzá Buzurg
Busayra, Busayrah, Busaira, Bozrah Buṣayrá (Ar.), Boṣrah (Heb.) historical site and former capital of Edom. Adjacent to the town of Basira (Bouseira, Busaira), Jordan—about 30 km SE of the “southern end” of the Dead Sea.
Bushihr shihr Iranian town and province on the Persian Gulf
Bushru'i Bushrú’í (of or from Bushrúyih)
Bushruyih (Boshrouyeh) Bushrúyih a town in Khurásán, 55 km NE of Ṭabas and 70 km WSW of Tún.  It is the birthplace of Mullá Ḥusayn, first disciple of the Báb.
Busra (Bosra, Bozra, Bozrah) Buṣrá officially named Buṣrá ash-Shám, town SW Syria where 12-year old Muḥammad met the monk Baḥírá
Bustan, Basatin Bustán, pl. Basátín garden or orchard.   Tablets of Abdul-Baha Abbas “Boston”
Bustani Bustání gardener;   garden (adj.);   horticultural
Butrus Buṭrus Peter
Buy Búy Pers.   odour, fragrance, perfume;   scent, spice;   hope, wish, desire;   search, quest;   love;   nature, disposition;   portion, part, lot
Buy-i-Juy-i-Muliyan Búy-i-Júy-i-Múliyán Pers.   "The fragrance of the Muliyan Brook" poem by Rúdakí
Buyuk Búyúk Turkic (Büyük), big
Buyuk-Aqa Búyúk-Áqá
Buyuk-Chakmachih Búyúk-Chakmachih Büyükçekmece, a district and municipality in the suburbs of Istanbul (abour 30 km west of the city), Turkey on the Sea of Marmara coast of the European side. It is west of Küçükçekmece
Buzurg-Banna Buzurg-Banná
Buzurg-i-Nuri Buzurg-i-Núrí
Buzurg-i-Vazir Buzurg-i-Vazír, Mírzá Buzurg-i-Vazír, Mírzá (Mírzá ‘Abbás of Núr) father of Bahá’u’lláh (third child of second wife, Khadíjih Khánum).
Buzurj, Buzurg Buzurj, Pers. Buzurg great, grand.   The title given by Fatḥ-‘Alí Sháh to Mírzá ‘Abbás of Núr (better known as Mírzá Buzurg of Núr), Bahá’u’lláh’s father.
Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic “names” of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots and underscores · Vowel sounds · Microsoft Word
Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
Caelum, Cælum, Coelo, Cœlo ex cœlo Latin.   cælum is sky, heaven. Cœlum is a variation of cælum. Hence, ex cœlo is “from the sky” or “from heaven”. Compare with ex cathedra “from the chair”, with the full authority of office. The Catholic pope is said to occupy the “chair of Peter”.   Refer to The heart of the Gospel, p. 66.
Caravanserai Caravanserai (also caravansary)   An inn for caravans
Chadar, Chadur Chádar, Chádur Pers.   A tent, pavilion;   a mantle, scarf;   a veil;   a sheet;   a shroud, winding-sheet;   a table-cloth.   Shawl or a long, loose cloak worn over other garments by Muslim women
Chah Cháh Pers.   a well, pit;   a prison, dungeon;   a snare
Chah-Qilan Cháh-Qílán locality, possibly near Kirmánsháh.   Mentioned in DB p. 13.
Chahar Charhár Pers.   four, a crab
Chahardar Charhárdah Pers.   fourteen
Chahishk Cháhishk Pers.   village on the NW side of Mashhad
Chal Chál pit
Chaman, Chamman Chamán (Chammán) Pers.   walking, giving oneself haughty, swinging, or graceful airs in walking;   a goblet of wine;   a party of friends
Changiz Changíz Genghis Khan (c. 1162–18 August 1227)
Chapan, Chupan (Chuppan) Chapán, Chupán Pers.   tattered garments
Chapar Chápár Pers.   a runner, mounted messenger, courier;   post;   mail
Chapar-chi, Chaparchi Chápár-chí, Chápárchí Pers.   courier
Chaq Cháq Pers.   time;   health;   healthy, well;   stout, obese
Chardivari Chárdívárí private home or four walls
Chashm Chashm Pers.   the eye;   hope;   an amulet or charm (particularly of holy writ) against fascination or enchantment
Chashmih-'Ali Chashmih-‘Alí
Chay (Cha'i) Cháy (Chá’í) Pers.   tea.   See Sháy
Chi or Chih, Chiha Chi or Chih, pl. Chihá Pers.   what, which
Chigan Chigán village near Iṣfahán
Chihar-Vadi Chihár-Vádí “Four Valleys” by Bahá’u’lláh. Addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu’r-Raḥmán-i-Karkútí.   See chahár and wádí
Chihr Chihr Pers.   face, visage;   original essence;   a map;   small shot
Chihriq Chihríq Fortress in Kurdish Ádhirbáyján, designated by the Báb as Jabal-i-Shadíd (the Grievous Mountain), numerical value of Chihríq & Shadíd is 318. Near the village of ‘Alíl Chihríq, about 70 km NW of Urmia
Chilaw (Chilav), Chulaw Chuláw Pers. plain boiled rice
Chilaw-kabab Chiláw-kabáb “national dish” of Iran;   cooked rice with one of many varieties of kebab
Chinar Chinár Pers.   chenar or Oriental plane tree
Chinar-Sukhtih Chinár-Súkhtih “burnt tree”, a section of Nayriz
Chiragh Chirágh Pers.   A lamp;   light;   the wick of a candle;   a guide, director;   a client, dependant;   a horse’s rearing;   a pasture.   See Ar. Siráj.
Chiz, Chi Chíz, Chí Pers.   something;   who? what? which? a Turkish affix to form words denoting the agent
Chub (Chob) Chúb Pers.   a log;   wood;   a tree;   a staff, rod, baton, stick;   a drumstick;   a beam;   a plough-tail;   a shoot of a tree, sucker
Chubin Dar, Chubindar, Jubin Chúbín Dar (Choobindar Choubindar;   also known as Júbín Dar, Chúbín, and Chundar) is a village to the SW of Qazvín.   Chúbín Dar Zindán (Prison) is on the west side of the village.   See Sijn-i-Matín
Chupan Chúpán Pers.   (Chopan, Copan) a shepherd.   Amír Chúpán and Dr Chúpán
Comforter Comforter (Gk. Paracletos)   Muḥammad and Aḥmad (“the Praised One”, “a Mercy for all creatures” and “most kind and merciful to the Believers”) are almost a translation of the Greek word Periclytos.   The use of “Comforter” in the John 14:16 and 16:7 is based on the Greek word Paracletos (“Advocate”, “one called to the help of another, a kind friend”).   Muslims argue that Paracletos is a corrupt reading for Periclytos.
Ctesiphon, Taysafun, Qataysfun Ctesiphon from ancient Greek.   In modern Arabic, Ṭaysafún, Qaṭaysfún or al-Madá’in (“The Cities”, referring to Greater Ctesiphon), located 30 km SE of Baghdád
Cunningham Cunningham 1919 model car arrived Port Said early January 1920 (Prelude to the Guardianship, p. 126). Recently restored and stored in an air conditioned building at the front of 7 Har-Parsim St, Haifa.
Cyrus Cyrús Name of a Persian king
Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic “names” of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots and underscores · Vowel sounds · Microsoft Word
Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
Da’a, Du’a’ Da‘á, Du‘á’ Ar.   to call (someone);   to summon, call or send for someone;   to call up;   to call upon someone, appeal to someone for something or to do something;   to propagate, propagandize (something), make propaganda, make publicity (for)
Da’i or Du’at Dá‘í, pl. Du‘át Pers.   who or what invites or stimulates (others) to anything;   who prays for, invokes a blessing upon;   the Muezzm who calls to prayers;   Muḥammad (as caller to the faith).   Also missionary
Da'if, Du'afa Ḍa‘if, pl. m. Ḍu‘afa’ weak, feeble;   frail, weakly, delicate, debilitated, impotent, languid, flabby, slack
Da'im Dá’im lasting, enduring;   endless, eternal, perpetual, everlasting;   perennial;   continued, continuous, continual, incessant, unceasing, constant;   permanent, standing, established;   durable.   As in permanent marriage.   Compare with munqaṭi‘.
Da'iman Dá’iman continually, forever
Da’iya (Da’i), Dawa’in Dá‘iya (“Dá‘í”), pl. Dawá‘in one who calls for something, invites to something;   propagandist, herald;   (pl.) motive, reason, cause, occasion;   requirements, exigencies.   Hence, ad-dá‘iya, the caller.
Da’wa, Da’awa, Da’awin Da‘wá, pl. Da‘áwá, Da‘áwin allegation, pretension;   claim;   lawsuit, case, action, legal proceedings (Islamic Law)
Dabb, Dabab, Adubb, Dubban Ḍabb, pl. Ḍabáb, Aḍubb, Ḍubbán lizard
Dabba, Dawabb Dábba(h or t), pl. Dawább animal (including man), beast;   riding animal (horse, mule, donkey).   See Qur’án 11:59 and 27:19.
Dabistan Dabistán Pers.   (Debistan)   (either a contraction of dabíristán or an abbreviation of adabistán), a school
Dabistan al-Madhhahib Dabistán al-Madhháhib title of a book (“School of doctrines”) containing historical records of religions and creeds, we find stories and traditions concerning the Brahaman and Zoroastrian miracles.   Persian Dabistánu’l-Madhháhib
Dabit, Dubbat, Dawabit Ḍábiṭ controlling device, control, governor, regulator (techn.);   prepositor entrusted with discipline (in e.g. schools);   (pl. ḍubbáṭ) officer;   (pl. ḍawábiṭ) general rule, canon, (moral) precept or order
Dabita, Dawabit Ḍábiṭa, Ḍawábiṭ police;   (pl.) curbing force, order
Dad Dád Persian.   He gave;   a gift;   justice, equity;   redress of grievances;   complaint, lamentation (under oppression);   measure;   a part, portion;   revenge;   a ringworm;   life;   age;   a year
Dada Dada (Dadih) Pers.   a grandfather;   a title given to dervishes, especially qalandars;   a nurse who brings up children
Dada Dáda governess, dry nurse, nurse
Dada Dádá Pers.   a female servant, particularly an old one who has attended upon anyone from her youth;   a handmaid.
Dah Dah Pers.   ten;   indicating sometimes a large, sometimes a small number;   displeasure;   annoyance, trouble;   curses, imprecations;   commanding what is right and forbidding what is wrong
Dahaj Dahaj (Dahíj) town near the centre of a triangle formed by Shíráz, Yazd and Kirmán
Dahaji Dahají from Dahaj.   Siyyid-i-Mihdíy-i-Dahají was named Ismu’lláhu’l-Jamál by Bahá’u’lláh. He rebelled against ‘Abdu’l-Bahá after the death of Bahá’u’lláh.
Dahiya, Dawahin Dáhiya(t), pl. Dawáhin calamity, disaster, catastrophe;   misfortune
Dahmubidi Dahmúbidí (Dah + múbidí) Dáryúsh Dahmúbidí
Dahr, Duhur, Adhur Dahr, pl. , Duhúr, Adhur (ادھر) time;   long time, age, epoch;   lifetime;   eternity;   fate, destiny;   “world of duration”
Dai’a, Diya’ Ḍai‘a, pl. Ḍiyá‘ landed estate, country estate, domain;   small village, hamlet
Daidanaw Daidanaw Burmese.   “‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s village”.   Daidanaw Bahá’í Centre co-ordinates: 16.465507, 96.040759. 4.25 km NE along the road to Kawhmu from the main road junction in Kungangon.   Siyyid Muṣṭafá Rúmí shrine to the north and the Bahá’í Centre is south of it.
Dajjal, Dajjalun, Dajajila Dajjál, pl. Dajjálún, Dajájila (“Dedjal”)   swindler, cheat, imposter;   quack, charlatan;   Antichrist (false Christ or anti-Christ).   The Antichrist, who it was believed would appear at the advent of the Promised One, to contend with and be ultimately defeated by Him.   See Sufyání
Dakhil, Dukhala' Dakhíl, pl. Dukhalá’ inner, inward, internal;   inner self, heart, core;—pl. extraneous;   foreign, alien;   exotic;   foreigner, alien, stranger;   not genuine, false, spurious;   newly added (to);   novice;   (new) convert;   guest;   protégé, charge, ward
Dakhili Dakhílí Masrúr Dakhílí executed 1981
Dal Dál Letter ‘D’
Dala'il-i-Sab'ih Dalá’il-i-Sab‘ih “The Seven Proofs” by the Báb
Dalal Ḍalál a straying from the right path or from truth;   error
Dalil, Adilla, Dala'l, Adilla' Dalíl, pl. Adilla, Dalá’l, Adillá’ (the latter of persons) indication (of);   sign, token;   symptom;   proof, evidence (of);   guide;   tourist guide;   pilot (of a ship, of an airplane);   guidebook, guide manual, handbook;   directory, telephone directory;   railroad guide, timetable;   guide rail (technical);   roller path (in steel construction)
Dalilu'l-Mutahayyirin Dalílu’l-Mutaḥayyirín Guide of the astonished, bewildered, helpless or perplexed
Daliyat ar-Rawha' Dálíyá(t) ar-Rawḥá’ (fragrant vine”) a Palestinian village 24.5 km SE of Haifa. The Jewish colony of Dalia was established on land purchased in the village in 1939. It was depopulated of its Arab inhabitants in late March during the 1948 Palestine War.
Dall, Dawall, Dallin Ḍáll, pl. Ḍawáll, Ḍállín straying, roaming, wandering;   astray, lost;   erroneous, false.   Ḍállín (gone astray)
Dallal Dallál auctioneer;   broker, jobber, middleman, agent, commission merchant;   hawker
Dalvand Dálvand Sháhín Dálvand
Damavand Damávand city, county and mountain south of the Caspian Sea
Damghan Dámghán city 125 km SE Sarí and 60 km SW of Sháhrúd
Damma, Dammat Ḍamma, pl. Ḍammát the vowel point for the short vowel u;—pl. embrace, hug.   See kasra and fatḥa
Dana (Danih) Dána Pers.   grain;   a berry;   stone of fruit, seed of grain or fruit;   a pimple;   grain or bait scattered for catching birds;   a cannon-ball;   knowledge, science, learning;   learned
Dani', Adniya', Adna' Daní’,pl. Adniyá’, Adná’ low, base, mean, vile, despicable, contemptible;   inferior, second-rate, of poor quality.   Adná’ also “lowest” or “even closer”—being the second station (the other is that of divinity) of the Báb, that of servitude.   (Gate of the heart, p. 223)
Danish Dánish Pers.   science, knowledge, learning;   excellence
Danishniya Dánishníyá(t) Pers.   Adíb Dánishníyá (Dánish + níyá(t)?)
Daqiqa, Daqa'iq Daqíqa, pl. Daqá’iq particle;   nicety (“subtlety”);   intricacy;   detail, particular;   minute (time unit)
Dar Dar Pers.   1. (preposition) in, into, within, among;   on, upon, above;   of, concerning, about;   by, for;   because of;   near, hard by, at;   to, as far as, according to;   before, in presence of;   against;   with;   under;   at length;   after;   so much;   out, out of doors.   2. (noun) a door, gate, passage, door-way or gate-way;   a chapter (of the Zand);   a subject, topic;   way, manner, method;   genus, sort, kind;   turn, step, degree;   a kind of wild bird;   a gnat;   a blackberry;   a valley;   a mountain-pass;   the foot, also summit, of a mountain.   3. (imperative of darídan), tear thou;   (in composition) tearing, as parda-dar, veil-tearing, dishonouring.
Dar al-Athar, Daru'l-Athar Dár al-Áthár, (Pers.) Dáru’l-Áthár museum, archives
Dar al-Funun, Daru'l-funun Dár al-Funún, (Pers.) Dáru’l-Funún building or centre for arts and sciences)   The first technical college of Írán in Teheran founded by Prime Minister Mírzá Taqí Khán. BKG 72
Dar as-Salam, Daru’s-Salam Dár as-Salám, Pers. Dáru’s-Salám paradise, heaven;   epithet of Baghdád (Abode of Peace or the City of God since peace is an attribute of God (Bahá’u’lláh King of Glory, p. 296));   Dar es Salaam (seaport and capital of Tanzania).
Dar, Dur, Diyar, Diyarat, Diyara Dár f., pl. Dúr, Diyár, Diyárát, Diyara(h) house;   building, structure, edifice;   habitation, dwelling, abode;   residence, home;   seat, side, locality;   area, region;   land, country (especially diyár).   dár al-baqá’ the eternal abode, the hereafter;   dár as-sa‘áda and dár as-salṭana Constantinople (designation before World War I);   dár as-salám paradise, heaven;   dár al-hijra Medina.   Example Dúru’l-Bahá’íyya
Darab Daráb (Dar Áb) Pers.   dar+áb (در آب), in the water
Darab Dáráb A town in Fárs, southern Persia, home of Vaḥíd’s ancestors.
Darabi Dárábí Sayyid Yaḥyá Dárábí (1811–1850), Bábí leader usually known as Waḥíd Akbar (Peerless One), a title given him by the Báb.   The eldest son of Sayyid Ja‘far al-Kashfí Iṣṭahbánátí.
Daraja, Darajat Daraja, pl. Daraját step, stair;   flight of steps, stairs, staircase;   degree, step, tone (of a scale; music);   degree (mathematics, geography;   of temperature);   grade, fate;   degree, order, rank;   club (also, e.g., in trains, of a decoration);   phase state, stage (of a development);   mark, grade (in school)
Darb, Durab, Adrab Ḍarb, pl. Ḍurúb, Aḍráb beating, striking, hitting, rapping;   shooting, shelling, gunning, bombing, bombardment;   multiplication;   coining, formation;   minting (of money);— (pl. ḍurúb) kind, sort, specimen, species, variety;   (pl. aḍráb) similar, like
Darband Darband Pers.   gateway or mountain door.   City (renamed Derbent) in the province of Dághistán (Russia) on the western banks of the Caspian Sea (gateway to the Caucasus).   Also a village (gateway to Mt. Tochal) that is now part of the north side of Teheran.
Dard, Darad Dárd, Dárad Pers.   an attribute of God;   dárad he holds, has, is possessed of
Dargaz (Dar Gaz) Dargaz (Dar Gaz) also known as Darreh Gaz;   formerly, Muḥammadábád, Muḥammadábád Arbáb, and Abíward (Abivard), is a city 65 km NE of Qúchán, in Raḍawí Khurásán Ústán (province), Írán.
Dari Darí Pers.   belonging to a door;   belonging to the royal court, courtly;   one of the three surviving dialects of the seven anciently spoken in Persia, said to prevail chiefly in Balkh, Bukhárá, and Badakhshán, and called the language of the court and of Paradise
Daridan Darídan Pers.   to tear, rend, lacerate;   to cut out (cloth);   to lay open;   to subtract;   to be loosed;   to be torn
Darkala or Dar-Kala Dárkalá or Dár-Kalá (“Kalaa”, “Dhakala”) a village in Núr County (8 km SW Tákur) in Mázindarán, a second ancestral home of Mírzá Ḥusayn-‘Alí.
Darr Ḍárr harmful, injurious, detrimental, noxious, disadvantageous.   Abú Dharr al-Ghifárí al-Kinání, also Jundab ibn Junádah, was the 4th or 5th convert to Islam, and a Muhájirún
Dars, Durus Dars, pl. Durús effacement, obliteration, extinction;—pl. study, studies;   lesson, chapter (of a textbook);   class, class hour, period;   lecture;   lesson (taught by experience, etc.)
Darsu’l-Akhláq, Dars-i-Akhlaq Darsu’l-Akhláq, (Pers.) Dars-i-Akhláq “Lessons in morals, good behaviour and character building” (“Dars Akhláq”)
Daru'l-Tabigh or Daru'l-Tarwij Dáru’l-Tabígh or Dáru’l-Tarwíj (Teaching or Propagation Centre, for the Hands)
Daru'l-Tashri' Dáru’l-Tashrí‘ (House of Legislation, Universal House of Justice)
Daru's-Surur Dáru’s-Surúr “the happy home”
Daru'sh-Shafa Dáru’sh-Shafá House of treatment, a building constructed for medical purposes, equivalent of a modern hospital or health clinic
Daru'sh-Shafay-i-Masjid-i-Shah Dáru’sh-Shafáy-i-Masjid-i-Sháh at the Shah Mosque in Tehran.
Darugha (Darughih), Darughachi Dárúgha (Pers. Dárúghih), Dárúghachí Derived from Mongol: daru-, ‘to press, to seal’.   A territorial subdivision (later a province) in the Mongol Empire.   A darugha was ruled by darughachi, who were in charge of administration and taxes—sometimes referred to as governors.   Dárúcha corresponds to the Persian dárúchih and, in Safavid Persia, it was a title meaning prefect.   In the Mughal Empire of South Asia, dárúcha was the title of the district police officer or police magistrate.
Darvish Muhammad-i-Irani Darvísh Muḥammad-i-Írání Name used by Bahá’u’lláh while in Sulaymáníyyih
Darvish Sidq-'Ali Darvísh Ṣidq-‘Alí
Darvish-Salah Darvísh-Ṣaláḥ
Darwaza (Darvarza, Darvazih) Darwáza Pers.   a door;   a gate;   a square, market-place, or exchange where merchants meet, and mendicants beg;   (hence) begging;   a pass through mountains;   a boundary;   name of a fortress or castle;   lintel of a door
Darwish (Darvish), Darawish Darwísh, pl. Daráwísh poor, indigent;   dervish or monk   A beggar of faqír (poor one)   “… those who are completely severed from all but God, who cleave to His laws, are firm in His Faith, loyal to His Covenant, and constant in worship.” Attributed to Bahá’u’lláh in MF 39.   May be written as Darwesh or Darvesh in Persian.
Darya Daryá Pers.   a sea, ocean;   a river;   (in the language of mysticism) pure, uncreated, divine essence
Daryay-i-Nur Daryáy-i-Núr Pers.   the Ocean of Light—the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh
Daryun (Dariun), Daryan (Darian) Dáryún (Dáríún), Dáryán (Dáríán) city (35 km east of Shíráz) in the Central District of Shíráz County, Fárs Province, Írán.   Village in Kirmánsháh Province, western Írán.   Possibly village in or near Iṣfahán.
Daryush (Dariush, Darioush) Dáryúsh Pers.   (“Dáriúsh”, Darioush) a common Persian male given name.   Old Persian Dárayavush = Dáraya- [hold] + vush (wash) [good], i.e. “holding firm the good”. Historically it has been translated into English and Latin as “Darius”.   Dáryúsh Dahmúbidí..
Dasht Dasht Pers.   a desert, plain without water;   a burial-ground;   a chess-board;   dry musk
Dast, Dust Dast, pl. Dusút place of honour, seat of honour, seat of office;   council;   dast al-ḥukm (a ruler’s) throne
Dastan Dastán Pers.   history, romance, fable;   song, melody, trill, shake;   the key of a musical instrument;   foolish, idle talk;   fraud, imposture, stratagem
Dastjird Dastjird (Dastjerd) city 60 km WSW of Qum, Írán
Dastjirdan Dastjirdán people of Dastjird
Dastmal-Girih-Zan Dastmál-Girih-Zan
Dastmal, Dast-mal Dast-mál, Dastmál Pers.   rubbing the hands;   a towel;   a handkerchief;   a kettle-holder;   dinner-plate;   easy, smooth;   bare;   a prisoner;   wealth
Dastur Dastúr A Pársí priest
Dawla (Daula), Duwal Dawla(h or t), pl. Duwal alternation, rotation, change;   change of time, turn of fortune;   dynasty;   state, country;   power, empire.   e.g. Dawlat-Ábád and Dawlat-Ábádí
Dawli (Dauli), Duwali Dawlí state (adjective);   duwalí international
Dawlih Dawlih Pers.   state or government.   See Dawla
Dawr (Dur, Daur), Adwar Dawr, pl. Adwár round (of a patrol;   in sports);   role, part (played by someone or something);   film role, stage role;   periodic change, rotation, alternation;   crop rotation;   period;   (one’s) turn;   phase, stage, step, degree, station;   epoch, age, era, cycle;   fit, attack, paroxysm (of a disease);   floor, story;   musical composition;   number, single performance (within a program)
Dawr al-Nabawi, Dur-i-Nabuwwat Dawr al-Nabawí, Dur-i-Nabuwwat Prophetic Cycle
Dawud (Davud), Da'ud (Daoud) Dáwud, Dáwúd, Dá’ud David.   Hebrew Daoud.   Other variants: Daut, Dawood and Davut.   Abú Dáwud Sulaymán ibn al-Ash‘ath al-Azdí as-Sijistání, commonly known simply as Abú Dáwud, was a Persian scholar of prophetic ḥadíth who compiled the third of the six “canonical” ḥadíth collections recognized by Sunní Muslims.
Dawudi (Daoudi), Daiudi Dáwúdí, Dá’udí of David.   Followers (Daoudis) of David, a small sect of Islám..
Day of Resurrection Yawmu’l-Qiyámah The Great Day (al-Yawmu’l-‘Aẓím);
The Day of Resurrection (Yawmu’l-Qiyámah);
The Day of Decision (Yawmu’l-Faṣl);
The Day when the Hour shall come to pass (Yawmu’l-Sá‘ah);
The Day of Judgement (Yawmu’l-Dín);
The Day of Disillusion (Yawmu’t-Taghabún);
The Day of Reckoning (Yawmu’l-Ḥisáb)
Dayf (Daif), Duyuf, Adyaf, Difan Ḍayf, pl. Ḍuyúf, Aḍyáf, Ḍífán guest;   visitor
Daylam Daylam Old Province SW cnr Caspian Sea (now Gílán)
Dayr (Dair), Adyar, Adyira, Duyura Dayr, pl. Adyár, Adyira, Duyúra monastery, convent, cloister.
Dayyan (Daiyan) Dayyán Pers.   a requiter (rewarder) of good and evil;   hence an epithet of God;   a conqueror, a subduer;   a judge, umpire, administrator.   Mirza Asadu’lláh was given the title Dayyán (Judge) by the Báb and ‘the third to believe in Him whom God shall make manifest’ (Bahá’u’lláh)
Dha Kifl, Dha'l-Kifl (Dha'u'l-Kifl) Dhá Kifl, Dha’l-Kifl (Dhá’u’l-Kifl) or dhú Kifl, Dhu’l-Kifl (Dhú’u’l-Kifl) “Possessor of the Fold”.   Kifl occurs in Qur’án 21:85 and 38:48.   Name believed to be Elijah, Joshua, Zachariah or Ezekiel.   Sometimes zul, dhul, etc. are used.
Dha Nun (Dha'u'l-Nun) Dhá DhNún (Dhá’u’l-Nún) “him of the fish” or “one with a fish”, the Prophet Jonah
Dhabih Dhabíḥ sacrifice or slaughtered.   Pers.   zabíḥ.   Ḥájí Muḥammad Ismá‘íl was known as Dhabíḥ.   The name Ismá‘íl in Bábí-Bahá’í history is associated with the soubriquet ‘Dhabíḥ’.   Ismá‘íl (Ishmael), the son that Abraham had by Hagar, and according to the Qur’án, it was Ishmael whom Abraham offered to sacrifice—hence the association of the name Ismá‘íl with Dhabíḥ.   (E. G. Browne, Balyuzi.)
Dhabih Allah, Dhabihu’llah Dhabíḥ Alláh, Dhabíḥu’lláh “Sacrifice of God”   Abraham’s sacrifice of His son
Dhahab Dhahab (m. and f.) gold;   gold piece, gold coin
Dhahaba, Dhahab, Madhhab (Mazhab) Dhahaba (Dhaháb, Madhhab) to go (to);   to betake oneself, travel (to);   to go away, leave, depart;   to disappear, vanish, decline, dwindle;   to perish, die, be destroyed;   with to carry something off, take something away, abduct, steal something, sweep something or someone away, annihilate, destroy something or someone
Dhahabi Dhahabí golden, of gold;   precious, excellent, apposite (e.g., advice, saying, etc.)
Dhakawat (Dhakavat, Zakawat) Dhakáwat Pers.   intelligence, sharp-mindedness
Dhaki Dhakí Pers.   acute;   strong, diffusive musk
Dhakir, Dhakirin Dhákir, pl. Dhákirín Pers.   rememberer;   a praiser of God
Dhakira Dhákira memory
Dhakiy, Adhkiya' Dhakíy, pl. Adhkiyá’ person of discernment, penetration, or understanding;   acute, witty
Dhaqa, Dhawq (Dhauq), Madhaq Dháqa, (Dhawq, Dhawáq, Madháq) to taste, sample (food, etc.);   to try, try out, test (something);   to get a taste (of something), experience, undergo, suffer (something), go through something;   form IV to have (someone) taste or sample (something), give (someone something) to taste;   form V to taste (something) slowly, repeatedly, thoroughly;   to get a taste (of something);   to sense, perceive (something);   to enjoy thoroughly, savour, relish (something);   to derive pleasure (from)
Dhar' Dhar‘ (verbal noun of dhara‘a)   power, ability, capability (to do something)
Dhara'a Dhara‘a (verb) to measure (something);   to take the measure or measurements (of something);   to cover (a distance);   to cross, travel (a country), travel through;   to intercede, intervene, mediate, put in a word (for someone, on behalf of someone, with someone else)
Dhariyatun, Dhariyat Dháriyatun, pl. Dháriyát quick-scattering wind;   that which scatters, that which blows away
Dharkara, Dhikr, Tadhkar Dharkara, Dhikr, Tadhkár to remember, bear in mind (something), think (of);   to keep in mind (something);   to recall, recollect (something)
Dharr Dharr strewing, scattering, sprinkling;   (collective) tiny particles, atoms, specks, motes.   Root word dharra has another derivative, dhurríya, so dharr can be understood as “seeds”, as in progeny.   See dharra and dhurríya.
Dharra, Dharr Dharra (Dharr) to strew, scatter, spread (something);   to sprinkle (on something, something)
Dharw Dharw scattering, dispersing, the act of blowing away
Dhat, Dhawat Dhát, pl. Dhawát being, essence, nature;   self;   person, personality;   the same, the self-same;   -self
Dhatiya Dhátíya personality;   subjectivism (philosophy);   identity (of a person)
Dhawq (Dhauq), Adhaq Dhawq, pl. Adhwáq gustatory sense;   taste (for;   also, e.g., literary taste);   perceptivity, responsiveness (for);   sensitivity, sensitiveness;   savoir-vivre, suavity, urbanity, tact;   liking, inclination;   taste, flavour (of food, etc.)
Dhawqi (Dhauqi) Dhawqí of taste, gustative, gustatory.   Form V “of sensing, perceiving”—see Dháqa
Dhi'b, Dhi'ab, Dhu'ban Dhi’b, pl. Dhi’áb, Dhu’bán wolf, jackal.   Bahá’u’lláh named Shaykh Muḥammad Báqir (1819–1883) the “Wolf” and his son, Shaykh Muḥammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí (1846–1914), Ibn-i-Dhi’b (“Son of the Wolf”).
Dhi'l-Hijjih Dhi’l-Ḥijjih Pers.   Twelth month in Islamic calendar
Dhi'l-Jawshan Dhi’l-Jawshan Ar.   “clad in armour”.   Term applied to Mullá ‘Abdu’lláh the arch-killer of Imám Ḥusayn
Dhi'l-Qa'dih Dhi’l-Qa‘dih Pers.   Eleventh month in Islamic calendar
Dhibh Dhibḥ sacrificial victim, blood sacrifice
Dhikr, Adhkar Dhikr, pl. Adhkár recollection, remembrance (e.g of God), reminiscence, memory, commemoration;   reputation, repute, renown;   naming, stating, mention(ing), quoting, citation;   report, account, narration, narrative;   invocation of God, mention of the Lord’s name;   (in Sufism) incessant repetition of certain words or formulas in praise of God, often accompanied by music and dancing.   A name of the Qur’án.
Dhikra, Dhikayat Dhikrá, pl. Dhikrayát remembrance, recollection, memory;—pl. reminiscences, memoirs
Dhikran Dhikrán remembrance
Dhikriyya Dhikriyya Pers.(?)   Remembranceship
Dhikru'llah Dhikru’lláh “Remembrance of God” (Pers. Zikru’lláh), early title used by the Báb
Dhikru'llah-i-A'zam Dhikru’lláh-i-A‘ẓam
Dhimmi, Dhimmiyun Dhimmí, pl. Dhimmíyún a non-Muslim, but follower of another religion mentioned in the Qur’án, who lives as a protected subject in an Islamic state
Dhu, Dhi, Dha, Dhat, Dhawu, Ulu, Dhawat Dhú genititive, Dhí accusative, Dhá fem. pl. m. Dhát, Dhawú, Ulú; pl. fem. Dhawát (with following genitive) possessor, owner, holder or master of, endowed or provided with, embodying or comprising something
Dhu'l-Awtad Dhu’l-Awtád is variously rendered by translators of the Qur’án as The Impaler, The Contriver of the Stakes, The Lord of a Strong Dominion, The One Surrounded by Ministers, etc.
Dhu'l-Faqar Dhu’l-Faqár “that which possesses a spine”.   The name of the well-known sword of Muḥammad and Imám ‘Alí. So named because it had projections and jags, like the spinal cord, on its back.
Dhu’l-Hijjih Dhu’l-Ḥijjih Twelfth month of Islamic calendar (the one of pilgrimage or “Possessor of the Pilgrimage”)
Dhu’l-Qa‘da Dhu’l-Qa‘da Eleventh month of Islamic calendar (the one of truce/sitting)
Dhu'l-Qarnayn Dhu’l-Qarnayn Prophet in Qur’án 18:83–101—“the one with two horns” or “He of the Two Ages”.   In traditional scholarship, the character is usually identified as Alexander the Great.
Dhurriya, Dhurriyat, Dharariy Dhurríya, pl. Dhurríyát, Dharáríy progeny, descendants, children, offspring. See root Dharra
Didam Baha'u'llahst Dídam Bahá’u’lláhst Pers.   “I saw this was Bahá’u’lláh”   Summon up remembrance, p. 108.
Didan, Didam Dídan Pers.   to see, look, observe;   to perceive, feel;   to expect, hope for;   to visit (modern colloquialism).   Dídam, saw
Dih (Deh), Dihak Dih, pl. Dihák village, country
Dih-Bala Dih-Bálá (Deh-i-Bala) common place name in Írán (GPB p. 298)
Dih-Chah Dih-Cháh Deh Chah, village NNE Nayríz
Dihi Díhí peasant, villager
Dihqan, Dahaqina, Dahqin, Duhqan Dihqán, pl. Daháqina, Daháqín man of importance, one who plays an important role, leading personality;   grandee (in ancient Persia).   Pers.: also duhqán (from Per. dih-khán or dihgán), chief man or magistrate of a village, prince or head of the farmers (among the Persians);   a husbandman, cultivator of the ground;   a historian;   a minstrel, bard.
Dihqani, Dahqani Dihqání, Dahqání (Ar. element)   tillage, husbandry;   a husbandman
Dil Dil Pers.   the heart, mind, soul;   marrow;   pith of a tree;   trunk of a tree;   the centre;   the eye;   a dot;   an enigma;   cote (animal shelter)
Dil-Dari Dil-Dárí Pers.   demonstrations of love;   comfort, consolation
Dil-Gusha (Dilgusha) Dil-Gushá Pers.   exhilarating;   “expansion” or “delight” of the heart
Dili-‘Abbas Dilí-‘Abbás (Delli Abbas) a small town 12 km NW of al-Miqdádiyah and 90 km NE of Baghdád, in ‘Iráq
Dimashq (Damashq), Dimishq Dimashq, Dimishq Damascus, capital of Syria
Dimashq, Dimishq Dimashq Damacus, capital of Syria, colloquially known in Syria as ash-Shám and titled the “City of Jasmine” (Madínat al-Yásamín)
Dimashqi (Damashqi), Dimishqi Dimashqí, Dimish of Damascus, e.g. Damashqí Gate, the city gate facing Damascus near a mosque in ‘Akká, or the gate on the NW side of old Jerusalem
Din al-Qayyin al-Dín al-Qayyim True Religion (Qur’án 30:30)
Din-i-Ilahi Dín-i-Iláhí (The Divine Faith)
Din-Muhammad-Vazir Dín-Muḥammad-Vazír
Din, Adyan Dín, pl. Adyán religion, creed, faith, belief.   Suffix in proper names, i.e. Salah ad-Dín, Pers. Salah-ud-Dín.
Dinar, Dananir Dínár, pl. Danánír (originally dinnár), a coin;   a gold coin, a ducat, a dinar;   a weight of gold (variously stated);   (metaphorically) the sun
Dini Díní religious;   spiritual
Dinur, Dinwar (Dinyar) Dínúr, Dínwar (Pers.   with Ar. influence) religious, faithful;   who knows the law
Dirbas, Darabis (Pers. Zarrabis) Dirbás, Darábís bolt, door bolt
Dirham, Darahim Dirham, pl. Daráhim dirhem, drachma;   a weight;   money, cash
Disatir (Desatir) Disátír Pers.   is a literary forgery with Sufi leanings published in Bombay in 1818 from an Iranian manuscript
Disciples of ‘Abdu'l-Baha Disciples of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá Designated by Shoghi Effendi:   Dr John Ebenezer Esslemont,   Thornton Chase,   Howard MacNutt,   Sarah Farmer,   Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney,   Lillian Kappes,   Robert Turner (First Afro-American Bahá’í in America),   Dr Arthur Brauns,   W. H. Randall,   Lua Getsinger (née Louisa A. Moore - Livá (banner), Lua - flag),   Joseph Hannan,   Chester I. Thatcher,   Charles Greenleaf,   Mrs J. D. Brittingham,   Mrs Thornburgh,   Helen S. Goodall,   Arthur P. Dodge,   William H. Hoar and Dr J. G. Augur.
Diwan (Divan), Dawawin Díwán (Díván), pl.Dawáwín account books of the treasury (in the older Islamic administration);   collection of poems written by one author;   governmental office, administrative office;   chancellery, office, bureau, secretariat;   council or state, cabinet;   council, consultative assembly, board of advisers, executive committee;   government;   court or justice, tribunal;   hall;   davenport, divan;   (railway) compartment.   Used in titles, as in Amír-Díwán, Head of the Court, or Prime Minister.
Diwan-Khanih, Divan-Khanih Díwán-Khánih Court
Diya (Deya), Dia, Ziya, Zia Ḍiyá’ (ضياء), Ḍíyá’ (ضيىاء) light, brightness, glow.   Transcriped as ḍiyá’ (dictionaries, elsewhere also with ẓ instead of ḍ) or ḍíyá’ (Shoghi Effendi).   The same issue with the “íyá” letter combination also occurs with díyár.
Diya Baghdadi Ḍíyá’ Baghdádí Dr Zíá Baghdádí.   Named Ḍíyá’ and Afandí by Bahá’u’lláh (He also called him Mabsúṭ Afandí, “the happy one”)
Diya'i Ḍíyá’í
Diya'iyyih Ḍíyá’íyyih (Ziaiyyih or Zia’iyyih)
Diya'u'd-Din Ḍíyá’u’d-Dín ẓíyá
Diya'u'l-Hajiyyih Ḍíyá’u’l-Ḥájíyyih
Diya'u'llah Ḍíyá’u’lláh light of God (Zíá’u’lláh or Ziaoullah).   Mirza Ḍíyá’u’lláh—a son of Bahá’u’lláh
Diya'ud-Din Ḍíyá’úd-Dín (Zia ed Din)
Diyafa Ḍiyáfa(t) hospitable reception, entertainment as guest, accommodation;   hospitality;   “feast”
Diyala, Sirwan Diyálá (in ‘Iráq), Sírwan (in Írán) 445 km tributary of Tigris River in eastern ‘Iráq, flowing on east side of Baghdád and joining the Tigris River to the south side of the city.   Given incorrectly as Dajli in Star of the West.
Diyar-Bakr (Diar-Bakr) Díyár-Bakr or Diyár-Bakr (Diyár Bakr or Diyárbakir, “land of Bakr” tribe) city in SE Turkey, 630 km NW of Baghdád. Transcribed Díyár-Bakr by Shoghi Effendi. The Arabic is also given as ديار بكر (Díár Bakr). Renamed Diyabakir (Turkish, “land of copper”) by Atatürk in 1931.   See Ma‘dan-i-Mis.
Diyar-i-Khatt Díyár-i-Khaṭṭ “domain of writing” or “realm of calligraphy”. Verse inscribed by Nabíl when asked by Mishkín-Qalam: Dar díyár-i-khaṭṭ sháh-i-ṣáḥib-‘alam Bandiy-i-báb-i-Bahá, Mishkín-Qalam.”
“In the realm of calligraphy, the king who possesses the Banner, is the servant of the gate of Bahá [the Báb], Mishkín-Qalam.”
Dizij, Dizaj Dízij Dízij Ábád, village 11 km ESE of the centre of Zanján
Dizva (Dizah, Dizeh) Dízvá (Dízah?) village said to be near the Shrine of Shaykh Ṭabarsí
Droshky (Doroshky, Durushkih) Droshky, Pers. Durushkih a low four-wheeled open carriage once used in Russia
Du, Do Dú, Du, Do Pers.   two
Du'a' Du‘á’, pl. Ad‘yá, Pers. Ad‘iyat (Ad’iyyih) call;   invocation of God, supplication, prayer;   request, plea;   good wish;   imprecation, course.   Prayer (supplication) for certain occasions and requirements.
Du'ab Dú’áb Pers.   “two” + ”water”, water-rich tract of land lying between two converging, or confluent, rivers
Dugh-Abad (Dughabad) gh-Ábád village in Razavi Khorasan Province, Írán. 150 km SW of Mashhad. Named Fúrúgh by Bahá’u’lláh.
Duhan, Duha, Zuha, Zuhwat Ḍuḥan, Ḍuḥá, Pers. Ḍuḥwat Forenoon, luncheon-time
Dukhan Dukhán (Dukkán), pl. Adkhina smoke, fume, vapour;   tobacco
Dukht Dukht Pers.   a daughter;   a virgin;   ability, strength;   contempt and hatred
Dumit Ḍúmiṭ ‘Azíz Sulaymán Ḍúmiṭ (fanatical Christian)—his house (since demolished) was on eastern side of the Pilgrim House near the Shrine of the Báb. He erected a large illuminated cross on the roof of his house.
Dunam Dunam Ottoman Turkish origin.   Modern metric unit is 1,000 m2 of land (about 0.25 acre).
Dunya Dunyá (fem. of Adná) world;   earth;   this world (as opposed to ákhira);   life in this world, worldly existence;   worldly.   temporal things or possessions;   earthly things or concerns.   See awwal and ákhirah
Durar al-Baha'iyya, Durar'u'l-Baha'iyya ad-Durar al-Bahá’íyya Pers.   Duraru’l-Bahá’íyyah (or -ih) or ad-Durar al-Bahiyyah (Dorar-ul-Bahiyyih)   “The Brilliant Pearls” by Mírzá Abu’l-Faḍl, translated into English and published as Miracles and Metaphors
Durr Durr (collective) pearls
Durra(t), Durrun, Durar Durra(t), Durrun, pl. Durar pearl, e.g. Durratu’l-Bahá’íyya
Durud Durúd (Dorud) place 260 km NW of Iṣfahán
Durukhshan, Derakhshan Durukhshán Pers.   (pronounced Derakhshan)   shining, flashing
Durzi, Duruz Durzí, pl. Durúz Druse.   The name Druze is derived from the name of Muḥammad bin Ismá‘íl Nashtakín ad-Darazí (from Persian darzí, "tailor") who was an early preacher. However, the people prefer the name Muwaḥḥidún (“Unitarian”)
Dust (Dost), Dustan Dúst, pl. Dústán Pers.   friend;   lover;   mistress, sweetheart.   Dúst-Muḥammad
Duwaliya Duwalíya internationality;   internationalism;   the International …
Duz (Doz) Dúz Pers.   (in compound word) sewing
Duzd Duzd A thief, robber, assassin;   theft
Duzdab Duzdáb Pers.   “water thieves”, renamed Záhidán (pl. “pious”) late 1920s, capital of Sístán, Írán
Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic “names” of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots and underscores · Vowel sounds · Microsoft Word
Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
Eirene, Eirenion Eiréné (Greek) one, peace, quietness, rest.   Greek goddess of peace (Roman counterpart is Pax).   The Eirenion Hall was built in 1897 on the Green Acre property and was used as a lecture hall during the summer lecture series at Green Acre. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave a number of talks in the hall in 1912.
Erzurum Erzurum city in eastern Turkey (“Erzeroum”). Known as Theodosiopolis in Roman times. Neighbouring city of Artsn (Arzan) was destroyed 1048–49 and citizens moved to Theodosiopolis and called it Artsn Rum (Arzan of the Romans). Muslim citizens changed it to Arzan ar-Rúm (or Arz ar-Rúm) and then to Erzurum.
Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic “names” of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots and underscores · Vowel sounds · Microsoft Word
Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
Fa’ida, Fawa’id (Fava’id) Fá’ida, pl. Fawá’id utility, avail, benefit, advantage;   gain, profit;   interest (on money);   useful lesson, moral;   use (e.g., of a medicine).   The Qur’án forbids usury, not reasonable interest.   See riban.
Fa'il, Fa'ilun, Fa'ala Fá‘il, pl. Fá‘ilún, Fa‘ala effective;   efficacious, efficient;   (with pl. fá‘ilún) doer, actor, perpetrator;   (with pl. fa‘ala) worker, workman, labourer;   active subject of a verbal clause (grammar).   See maf‘úl, manṣúb and marfú‘
Fa'iq Fá’iq superior;   surpassing, excellent, exquisite, first-rate;   outstanding, remarkable, striking;   pre-eminent;   exceeding, extraordinary;   going far beyond (a restriction, etc.);   awake, waking, wakeful
Fa'iz, Fa'iza Fá’iz, fem. Fá’iza successful, victorious, triumphant;   victor, winner
Fa'izih Fá’izih Pers.   “she who has attained”—name given to Gulsurkh Bagum by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Fad-dan Fad-dán (feddan) about an acre in size
Fadil (Fazil), Fawadil, Fadilun, Fudala Fáḍil, pl. Fawáḍil, Fáḍilún, Fuḍalá Ar.   (Fazel is an old Persian form) remaining, leftover, left, surplus, exceeding, in excess;   (pl. fawáḍil) remainder, remnant, residue, rest, leftover, surplus, excess;—(pl. fáḍilún, fuḍalá) outstanding, eminent, very good, first-rate, superior, excellent, distinguished, deserving;   learned;   man of culture and refinement.   Persian (ẓ may be used instead of ḍ): fáḍil, fem. fáḍilat, fáḍila, pl. fáḍilát.
Fadil (Fazil), Fudala Faḍíl, pl. Fuḍalá’ outstanding, eminent, very good, first-rate, excellent;   distinguished, deserving;   learned, erudite.   As the day of the Badí‘ week, Faḍíl: grace, favour.
Fadil-i-Furughi Faḍíl-i-Furúghí Pers.   savant of Furúgh.   See Furúghí
Fadil-i-Mazandarani Fáḍil-i-Mazandarání Persian Bahá’í scholar (1880-1957)
Fadil-i-Qa’ini Fáḍil-i-Qá’iní the Learned One of the Qá’in.   A district in the province of Khurásán
Fadil-i-Yazdi Fáḍil-i-Yazdí “scholar of Yazd”.   Fáḍil-i-Yazdí (‘Alí Muntazi‘ of Nadúshun) was a poet, religious scholar, and a devoted servant of Bahá’u’lláh.
Fadila, Fada'il Faḍíla, pl. Faḍá’il moral excellence, excellent quality, virtue;   merit, advantage, excellence, exquisiteness.   ‘Abdu’l-Bahá addressed Mírzá Abu’l-Faḍl as Abu’l-Faḍá’il—“Father of All Excellences”
Fadilabad (Fazelabad) Fáḍilábád 28 km ENE of Gurgán (SE corner of the Caspian Sea), Írán
Fadl (Fazl), Fudul, Afdal Faḍl, pl. Fuḍúl, Afḍál surplus, excess, superfluity, overflow;   leftover, remainder, remnant, rest;   matter of secondary importance, subordinate matter;—pl. fuḍúl that which is superfluous, redundant or in excess, a surplus, superfluity;   waste, refuse;   droppings, excrement;—pl. afḍál merit, desert (on behalf of, with respect to), credit (for, in), service(s) (to);   benefit, favour, gift, present.   Persian—ẓ may be used instead of ḍ)
Fadla, Fadalat Faḍla(t), pl. Faḍalát remnant, remainder, residue, leftover, rest, surplus;   waste, scrap, discard, offal, waste product;   pl. excretions (physiology), excrements
Fadlu'llah Faḍlu’lláh Grace of God
Fahandizh Fahandizh Pers.   a family name
Fahd, Fuhud, Afhud Fahd, pl. Fuhúd, Afhud lynx (also the term for cheetah and panther)
Fahima, Fahm, Faham Fahima, Fahm, Faham to understand, comprehend, realize (something);   to note (something), take note, take cognizance (of something);   to hear, learn (of something from), be informed (of something by)
Fahm, Afham Fahm, pl. Afhám understanding;   comprehension, grasp;   perceptive faculty, perceptivity;   brains, intellect;   discernment, acumen, penetration, insight, intelligence
Fahnih (Faneh), Panah, Dakhin Fahnih (also known as Panáh and Ḍakhín) is a small village 72 km SSWchán in Razavi Khorasan Province, Írán.   See Panábandán.
Fajr Fajr dawn, daybreak, morning twilight;   dawn (figuratively), beginning, outset, start;   (fem.) morning prayer (Islamic Law)
Fakara, Fakr Fakara (Fakr) to reflect, meditate, cogitate, ponder, muse, speculate (on), revolve in ones mind, think over, contemplate, consider (something) form V to reflect, meditate, cogitate, ponder, muse, speculate (on), revolve in ones mind, think, over, contemplate, consider (something);   to think (of) forms V & VIII to remember, recall, recollect (someone, something)
Fakhkhar Fakhkhár (fired) clay;   earthenware, crockery, pottery.   Tell ‘Akká (inaccurately also called Tell al-Fakhkhár (Hill of Shards) or Napoleon’s Hill.
Fakhr Fakhr glory, pride;   honor;   vainglorious poetry (as a literary genre)
Fakhru'd-Dawlih Fakhkhru’d-Dawlih (MF)
Fakhru'd-Din Fakhru’d-Dín (Fakr ed Din)
Fakhru'sh-Shuhada' Fakhru’sh-Shuhadá’ Pride of Martyrs.   Note final Hamza
Fakhura khúra pottery, earthenware manufactory
Falah Faláḥ thriving, prosperity;   salvation;   welfare;   success
Falak al-Buruj Falak al-Burúj the celestial spheres
Falak, Aflak Falak, pl. Aflák celestial sphere;   celestial body, star;   circuit, orbit (of celestial bodies).   Hence, falak al-burúj (the celestial spheres);   falak al-manázil (the celestial stations);   falak az-zuḥal (the sphere of Saturn);   falak al-mushtarí (the sphere of Jupiter);   falak al-mirrikh (the sphere of Mars);   falak ash-shams (the sphere of the Sun);   falak az-zuhrah (the sphere of Venus);   falak ‘uṭárid (the sphere of Mercury);   falak al-qamar (the sphere of the moon)
Falaq Falaq daybreak, dawn
Falasifiyya sharq Falásifiyya sharq “philosophers of the East”.   See Faylasúf
Falsafa Falsafa to philosophize;   philosophy
Falsafi Falsafí Pers.   philosophical;   a philosopher
Fana' Faná’ passing away, cessation of being;   perdition, ruin, destruction, annihilation;   evanescence, vanishing, termination, extinction;   exhaustion;   non-being, non-existence, non-entity;   extinction of individual consciousness, recedence of the ego, obliteration of the self (mysticism)
Fana' Fi'lláh Faná’ Fí’lláh the annihilation of self in God (Scholl, Remembrance of God, p. 5)
Fana' wa Baqa Faná’ wa Baqá’ annihilation and subsistence (Scholl, Remembrance of God, p. 5)
Fana'yan (Fana'ian, Fanaian, Fanaiyan) Faná’yán (Faná’íyán) Mírzá Faraju’lláh Faná’yán (Junún) (ad 1871–1945)—a shoemaker, Bahá’í and poet
Fanan, Afnan Fanan, pl. Afnán bough or twig.   Bahá’ís use Afnán to denote the male relatives of the Báb, specifically of His three maternal uncles and His wife’s two brother.
Fani Fání Pers.   frail, transitory, perishable, inconstant;   tottering (old man);   (in the parlance of the Sufis) one who has reached the state of fanáʼ, or annihilation
Fanin Fánin evanescent, transitory, transient, ephemeral, vain;   exhausted;   far advanced in years, very old
Faniya, Fana' Faniya (Faná’) to pass away, perish, cease to exist, come to nought;   to come to an end, cease, wane, dwindle, evanesce, vanish;   to be extinguished, become extinct;   to be exhausted, be consumed, be spent;   to undergo obliteration of the self;   to become totally absorbed (by).   See Baqá’
Fann, Funun, Afnan, Afanin Fann, pl. Funún, Afnán, Afánín kind, specimen, variety;—pl. Afánín various sides (of something), diversity;—pl. Funún sciences, arts;   modes, ways, manners;   tricks, artifices;   arts and sciences or technology.   Thamarát al-Funún (1875–1908) “The fruits of the arts”, first Syrian Islamic newspaper.
Faqa, (Fawq, Fawaq) Fáqa (Fawq, Fawáq) to surpass, excel, overtop (someone, something), tower (above);   to be superior (to someone);   to outweigh, outbalance;   to transcend, exceed (something)
Faqarat, Faqar Faqárat, pl. Faqár back joint or vertebrae
Faqih, Fuqaha Faqíh, pl. Fuqahá’ legist, jurisprudent (and theologian), expert of fiqh
Faqir, Fuqara' Faqír, pl. Fuqara’ poor, poverty-stricken;   poor man, pauper;   mendicant dervish, Sufi mendicant
Faqnas Faqnas phoenix
Faqr Faqr poverty;   need, lack, want
Far', Furu', Afru' Far‘, pl. Furú‘, Afru‘ twig, branch, bough, limb, (also colloquial) branches, twigs;   derivative;   section, subdivision;   branch office, subsidiary establishment, branch;   branch line, feeder line;   branch wire (electricity)
Farab Fáráb village 60 km south of Ardabíl, Írán
Farabi Fárábí Abú Naṣr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad Al Fárábí (known in West as Alpharabius). Renowned Arab philosopher and jurist. Born in Fáráb or Fáryáb.
Faraburz, Fariburz Faráburz, Faríburz Pers.   glorious and mighty.   Name of a mighty champion and minister of Írán.
Farada, Faruda, Furud Farada and Faruda (Furúd) to be single, be alone;   to be singular, be unique;—farada (furúd) to withdraw, retire, segregate (from)
Faraghih (Farugh) Farághih (Faraghe, Faragheh) village 160 km SW Yazd
Farah-Abad Faraḥ-Ábád “The Fair Abode of Joy”, palace near Tehran that was built by Muẓaffari’d-Dín
Farah, Afrah Faraḥ, pl. Afráḥ joy, gladness, glee, gaiety, hilarity, mirth, exhilaration, merriment, happiness;   wedding;—pl. feast of rejoicing, celebration, festival, festivity;   wedding (feast).   Faraḥ, niece of Fáṭimah Naḥrí (Munírih Khánum), sister of Amín Faríd, married Sydney Sprague.
Farahan Faráhán merry, gay, cheerful, joyful, glad, delighted, happy.   County in Markazí Province, Írán.
Farahmand, Farhmand, Farhamand Farahmand, Farhmand, Farhamand Pers.   intelligent, wise;   near
Faraj Faraj freedom from grief or sorrow, release from suffering;   joy; relaxation;   relief, ease, repose, pleasure, comfort;   happy ending
Faraju'llah Faraju’lláh God’s relief or rescue
Faraju'llah Dhaki al Kurdi Faraju’lláh Dhakí al Kurdí Dhakí, not Zakí according to Balyuzi.   Publisher in Cairo.
Faraju'llah Tafrishi Faraju’lláh Tafríshí (MF) (from Tafrísh)
Faramarz Farámarz Pers.   keeper of a citadel or fortress;   name of the son of Rustam
Faramush Fáramúsh Pers.   forgotten, forgetfulness
Faramush-Khanih Farámúsh-Khánih Pers.   house of oblivion, Freemasonry headquarters, a corruption of franc-maçonnerie (Freemasonry)
Faran Fárán Pers.   small village in Ardistán.   Ar. for Párán desert, mountain, wilderness, etc.
Farang, Firing Farang (hence Farangí), Firing Pers.   from old French word franc (“Frank”), an Italian, European;   a Christian;   all nations that wear short garments;   ruddy, of pleasing aspect;   a galley.  See afranj and ifranjí
Faraqa, Farq, Furqan Faraqa (Farq, Furqán) to separate, part, divide, sever, sunder (something);   to make a distinction (between), distinguish, differentiate, discriminate (between).   See Furqán
Faraqlit Fáraqlíṭ (Fáriq + líṭ) Arabic rendering of the Greek Paráklētos (Paraclete).   “The Comforter”;   defender, deputy, or intercessor;   a distinguisher between truth and error.
Farasha, Farashah, Farashun Farásha (n. Faráshun), Pers. Farásháh moth;   butterfly;   flighty, fickle person.   Farásháh (now Islámiyih, Eslamiyeh) is a town SW of Yazd, Írán
Faraz Faráz Pers.   above, up, upon, on, upwards, aloft, on the top;   above and below, up and down;   back, behind;   after, hereafter
Farazistan Farázistán “The heavenly world”, title of a volume by Muḥammad Ismá‘íl Khán
Fard, Furud Farḍ, pl. Furúḍ notch, incision;   duty, precept, injunction, order, decree, ordinance, command;   religious duty (Islamic Law);   statutory portion, lawful shore (Islamic Law);   assumption, supposition, presupposition, premise, postulate, hypothesis
Farda Fardá Pers.   tomorrow.   A reply sometimes given to creditors since it never arrives
Farhad Farhád Pers.   elation, happiness
Farhand Farhand Pers.   an excavation formed by a torrent;   an artificial canal newly dug;   a ditch;   a stream above ground flowing from one spot to another;   a subterraneous canal which works its way from one well to another;   anything falling to pieces from age.
Farhang Farhang Pers.   good-breeding;   greatness;   excellence;   gravity;   wisdom, science;   jurisprudence, a dictionary, lexicon, vocabulary, glossary;   a vine-branch bent under ground, so that the other extremity shoots up at a distance from the other trunk;   a subterraneous canal
Farhangi Farhangí farhúm Pers.   A preceptor, tutor, teacher, instructor;   a man learned in the law.
Farhumand (Fahomand, Farhoumand) Farhumand Pers.   virtuous and enlightened
Fariburz Faríburz Pers.   name of the son of Kay Káwús
Farid Fáriḍ old, advanced in years
Farid, Fara'id Faríd, pl. Fará’id alone, one, lonely, solitary;   singular, unique, incomparable, matchless, peerless, unrivalled, incomparable;   bright, glittering (sword);   a precious gem, pearl, especially one of a larger size, or a bead of gold placed alternately between smaller ones in a necklace or bracelet.   Kitábu’l-Fará’id (Book of peerless gems) by Mírzá Faḍl.
Farida, Fara'd Faríḍa(h), pl. Fará’ḍ religious duty (Islamic Law);   divine precept, ordinance of God (Islamic Law);   obligatory prayer (Islamic Law);—pl. distributive shares in estate (Islamic Law)
Farida, Fara'id Farída(h), pl. Fará’íd precious pearl, precious gem, solitaire;   (e.g.) quire (of paper)
Faridu'd-Din 'Attar Farídu’d-Dín ‘Aṭṭár Great Persian mystic poet “the druggist”
Fariq, Fawariq Fáriq, pl. Fawáriq distinguishing, differential, distinctive, discriminative, separative;—pl. a separating or distinctive factor;   distinctive characteristic, criterion;   difference, distinction, dissimilarity, disparity
Faris Fáris Arabic for Persia, also Balad Fáris (land of Persia)
Faris, Fawaris Fáris, pl. Fawáris Pers.   Mounted upon any solid-hoofed animal;   a horseman, a cavalier;   a lion;   the Persians;   Persia.
Farisi Fárisí Arabic for Persian;   a Persian
Farma Farmá One who issues orders.   From the infinitive Farmúdan (to bid, to order), but never used alone, i.e. Farmán-Farmá, the one who establishes order;   the Governor.
Farma Farma Pers.   violet
Farmahin, Farahan Farmahín, Farahán Farmahín is in Farahán County and is 40 km north of Arák, Írán
Farman-Farma Farmán-Farmá the one who establishes or issues the order;   the commander or governor.   Title of Prince Ḥusayn ‘Alí Mírzá, grandson of Fatḥ-‘Alí-Sháh
Farman, Firman, Faraman Farmán, Per. also Firmán, pl. Farámán Royal decree, command, order or edict.   Ar.   plural also Faramát or Farámín
Farmaniyyih Farmáníyyih (“Farmanieh”) once a garden named after Prince Ḥusayn ‘Alí Mírzá, now a district in NE of Teheran
Farnush Farnúsh Pers.   fem. name
Farrash-Bashi Farrásh-Báshí Head farrásh
Farrash, Farrashun Farrásh one who spreads the carpets;   servant, attendant;   house servant, valet;   office boy, errand boy
Farrukh Farrukh Pers.   Beautiful-faced;   happy, fortunate
Fars Fárs a southern province of Írán, from which the name Persia derives.
Fars Fárs Pers.   Persia, Parthia.   Párs is the the proper and original name of this country, Arabs, who have not the letter p in their language, replaced it by an F: Fárs
Fars-Namih (Farsnamih) Fárs-Námih (Ar. Fárs an-Náma) “book on Fárs”
Farsakh, Farasikh Farsakh, pl. Farásikh Pers.   A parasang, a league, about 18,000 feet in length;   an hour;   a long time;   an interval;   a chink, cleft;   quiet, repose;   perpetual;   much.
Farsang Farsang Pers.   A parsang, league, about 5.5 km—the distance a laden mule can travel in an hour.   Derived from the Persian parsang (stone, sang, placed by the road).
Farsh, Furush Farsh, pl. Furúsh furnishing;   furniture, household effects;   mat, rug, carpet;   anything spread on the ground as bedding;   foundation (architecture)
Farsi Fársí modern Persian
Faruhar Farúhar Pers.   possibly a form of Furúhar (same consonants)
Faryab, Faryaw, Firyab Fáryáb, Fáryáw Pers.   ground watered by irrigation.   Fáryáb (also Fíryáb), name of village 140 km NE of Bandar-‘Abbás, Írán;   and another 195 km SW of Balkh, Afghánistán.
Farzam Farzám Pers.   worthy, suiting, befitting.   Dr Arbáb Farzám
Farzan Farzán Pers.   science, learning;   strength, constancy;   wise, learned
Farzanih-Mu'ayyad Farzánih-Mu’ayyad Manúchihr Farzánih-Mu’ayyad, martyred 1982
Fas, Fez Fás a city (second largest) in northern inland Morocco
Fasa Fasá village (43 km SW of Iṣfahán) and district, Írán
Fasaha Faṣáḥa(h) purity of the language;   fluency, eloquence
Fashar, Fishar Fashar, Fishár Pers.   a scattering;   diffusion;   compression, constriction, squeezing;   the piercing of one thing with another
Fasih, Fusaha', Fisah, Fusuh Faṣíḥ, pl. Fuṣaḥá’, Fiṣáḥ, Fuṣuḥ pure, good Arabic (language), literary;   skilful in using the correct literary language;   clear, plain, distinct, intelligible (language, speech);   fluent, eloquent
Fasiq, Fasiqun, Fussaq, Fasaqa Fásiq, pl. Fásiqún, Fussáq, Fasaqa godless, sinful, dissolute, wanton, licentious, profligate, vicious, iniquitous, nefarious;   trespasser, offender, sinner;   fornicator, adulterer;   a person not meeting the legal requirements of righteousness (Islamic Law)
Fasl al-Khitab, Faslu’l-Khitab Faṣl al-Khiṭáb, Pers. Faṣlu’l-Khiṭáb “sound or unmistakable judgement” (Fassl-ul-Khitab).  The Conclusive Proof or The Decisive Decree by Mírzá Faḍl
Fasl, Fusul Faṣl, pl. Fuṣúl parting, disjunction, detachment, severance, sunderance, cutting off;   separation;   division, partition;   discharge, dismissal.—plural: section, part;   chapter;   act (of a play);   movement (of a symphony, etc.);   article (in a newspaper);   class, grade (school);   season.
Fass, Fusus Faṣṣ, pl. Fuṣúṣ stone of a ring;   clove (of garlic);   segment (of an orange);   lobe (anatatomy, botanical);   joint;   essence
Fassala, Fussila Faṣṣala, Fuṣṣila to detail, to enumerate;   to expound, to elucidate, to explain;   to make understandable, to clarify;   to be made distinct
Fata Fatá’ youth, adolescence
Fata' Fata’ forgetting;   desisting
Fata'l-Malih Fatá’l-Malíḥ handsome young man.   DB 272, 286 omits the á
Fata'l-Qazvini Fatá’l-Qazvíní youth of Qazvín.   DB 294 omits á
Fataha, Fath, Futuh, Futuhat Fataḥa, Fatḥ, pl. Futuḥ, Futuḥát to open (something);   to turn on (a faucet);   to switch on, turn on (an apparatus);   to dig (a canal);   to build (a road);   to open, preface, introduce, begin (something);   to conquer, capture (something);   to reveal, disclose (to someone or something);   to grant victory or success (to someone over or in something;   of God).   Plural: conquest; victory, triumph;   alms;   donations, contributions
Fatama, Fatm Faṭama, Faṭm to wean (an infant or a young animal
Fath-'Ali Fatḥ-‘Alí
Fath-'Ali Shah Fatḥ-‘Alí Sháh A Qájár king, father of Muḥammad Sháh.
Fath-al-Futuh Fatḥ-al-Futúḥ Victory of Victories
Fath-i-A'zam Fatḥ-i-A‘ẓam (“Fatheazam”)   “supreme victory”
Fath, Futuh, Futuhat Fatḥ, pl. Futúḥ, Futúḥát opening;   introduction, commencement, beginning;—(pl. futúḥ, futúḥát) conquest;   victory, triumph;   pl. futúḥát alms;   donations, contributions
Fatha Fatḥa(h or t) the vowel point, the short vowel a (grammar).   See ḍamma and kasra
Fathu'llah Fatḥu’lláh “Victory of God”
Fathu'llah-i-Hakkak Fatḥu’lláh-i-Ḥakkák
Fathu'llah-i-Hakkak-i-Qumi Fatḥu’lláh-i-Ḥakkák-i-Qumí
Fathu'llah-i-Qumi Fatḥu’lláh-i-Qumí
Fatih Fátiḥ opener;   beginner;   conqueror, victor;   light (colour)
Fatiha, Fawatih Fátiḥa(h), pl. Fawátiḥ start, opening, beginning, commencement, inception, incipience;   introduction, preface, preamble, proem.   al-Fátiḥa (or al-Sab‘a al Matḥání (the seven oft-repeated) since the verses of al-Fátiḥa must be read in every prayer) is the first surah (with 7 verses) of the Qur’án.   See Qur’án 15:87.
Fatim, Futum Faṭím, pl. Fuṭum weaned
Fatima, Fatimih or Fatimah Fáṭima (Fáṭimah), Pers. Fáṭimih (“One who weans”)   Fem. of ‘Fátim’.   Fáṭima was the daughter of the Prophet Muḥammad and wife of the Imám ‘Alí.   Fáṭimih-Bagum was the mother of the Báb.   Fáṭimih Khánum (referred to as Mahd-i-‘Ulyá) (second wife of Bahá’u’lláh—daughter Ṣamadíyyih, son Muḥammad, son Ḍíyá’u’lláh, and son Badí’u’lláh)
Fatimi Fáṭimí Fatimid (adj. and n.).   Not Fáṭimid or Fátimid (-id is an English ending)
Fatimiy-i-Ma'sumih Fáṭimiy-i-Ma‘ṣúmih DB 224 is incorrect
Fatiq Fatíq unstitched, ripped, ripped open, slit, rent, torn;   sharp, shining (dawn), eloquent
Fatir Fáṭir originator or creator.   al-Fáṭir, the Creator (God)
Fatra, Fatarat Fatra, Fatarát lassitude, languor, listlessness, slackness, weakness, feebleness, debility;   tepidity, indifference, coolness (of a feeling);   (pl.) interval of time, intermission, pause;   period, spell, while
Fattah Faṭṭáḥ an opener;   a conqueror;   a judge, an arbiter;   one of the names of God (al-Faṭṭáḥ);   name of a bird.   Derived from Fataḥa.
Fatwa, Fatva Pers., Fatawa Fatwá, pl. Fatáwá A judgement or sentence made by a Muslim muftí (and court)
Fawa'id al-Hikmiyyah al-Fawá‘id al-Ḥikmiyyah (written by Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Aḥsá’í) observations in wisdom
Fawz (Fauz, Faouz) Fawz success, triumph, victory;   obtainment, attainment, achievement, accomplishment;   escape
Fawzi (Fauzi, Faouzi) Fawzí triumphal, triumphant
Fayadan (Fayazan) Fayaḍán flood, inundation, deluge
Fayd (Faid, Faiz), Fayz, Fuyud Fayḍ, Pers. Fayẓ, pl. Fuyúḍ flood, inundation, deluge;   emanation;   superabundance, plenty, copiousness, abundance;—(pl.) stream
Fayd-i-Aqdas Fayḍ-i-Aqdas (“most holy outpouring”)   Signifies revelation in the realm of absolute divine unity itself.
Fayd-i-Muqaddas Fayḍ-i-Muqaddas (“holy outpouring”) and “most holy outpouring” (fayḍ-i-aqdas), as symbols of differential stages of divine revelation (as discussed in The Kitáb-i-Íqán), may also be inferred from the title of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.   Fayḍ-i-Muqaddas signifies revelation and manifestation of the divine in the realm of creation.   See Fayḍ.
Faydi (Faidi, Faizi), Fayzi Fayḍí, Pers. Fayẓí e.g. Afnán Fayḍí
Faydu’llah (Fazu’llah) Fayḍu’lláh abundance from God
Fayha Fayḥá’ now known as Damascus (Summons of the Lord of Hosts para. 252)
Faylasuf (Failasuf), Falasifa Faylasúf, pl. Falásifa philosopher
Fayruz (Fairuz), Fayruzaj (Fairuzaj) Fayrúz and Fayrúzaj turquoise
Fayruzabadi (Fairuzabadi, Firuz Abadi) al-Fayrúzábádí Muḥammad ibn Ya‘qúb al-Fayrúzábádí (1329–1414) was a lexicographer and the compiler of a comprehensive Arabic dictionary, al-Qámús, that was one of the most widely used for nearly 500 years
Faysal (Faizal) Fayṣal decisive criterion;   arbitrator, arbiter.   Fayṣal bin ‘Abdu’l-Ázíz, King of Saudi Arabia (1964 to 1975).
Fayyad Fayyáḍ overflowing, effusive, exuberant;   elaborate, exhaustive (speech);   munificent, bountiful, liberal, generous
Fi (preposition) in;   at;   on;   near, by;   within, during;   among, in the company of, with;   about, on;   concerning, regarding, with reference to, with regard or respect to, as to dealing with, treating of, consisting in (in book titles);   for the sake of, on behalf of, because of, for;   according to;   in proportion to.
Fi Khalali and Fi Khilali Khalali and Fí Khiláli during;   in the course of, within, in a given period of
Fi'l Fi‘l, pl. Af‘ál, Afá‘íl activity, doing, work, action, performance;   function;— (pl. af‘ál, fi‘ál) deed, act, action;   effect, impact;— (pl. af‘ál) verb (gram.);—pl. afá‘íl great deeds, exploits, feats;   machinations
Fi's-Suluk Fi’s-Sulúk I and II “On the Virtuous Journey” by the Báb   [elided form of: fí as-Sulúk]
Fida' Fidá’ redemption, ransoming;   ransom;   price (one has to pay for something), sacrifice (one makes for something).
Fidal Fiḍál grace, favour.   Name given to Tuesday in Badí‘ calendar.   See Faḍíl
Fidda, Fiddih (Fizza) Fiḍḍa(h) (Pers. fem. Fiḍḍih) silver.   Name of the maid of the wife of the Báb.   Pers. may be written as Fiẓẓa.
Fidya, Fidayat, Fidan Fidya(h), pl. Fidayát, Fidan ransom;   redemption (from the omission of certain religious duties, by a material donation or a ritual act;   Islamic law)
Fikr Fikr meditation or reflection
Fikum Fíkum Fí+kum, on you
Fil, Fiyala, Fuyul, Afyal Fíl, pl. Fiyala, Fuyúl, Afyál (ivory) elephant;   bishop (chess)
Fin Fín Fín Garden in Káshán, Írán
Findik Findík Turkish “hazelnut”
Fiqh Fiqh understanding, comprehension;   knowledge.   Islamic jurisprudence
Firaydan (Faridan, Feredan) Firaydán (alt. pronunciation Farídán) Pers.   county in Iṣfahán Province.   The capital of the county is Dárán (or Dárún).
Firaydani (Faridani, Feredani) Firaydání person from Firaydán
Firaydun (Fraydun, Faridun, Afridun) Firaydún (Fraydún, Farídún, Afrídún) Pers.   (“Fereydun”) an ancient Persian king—sons: Túr (Túraj), Salm and Íraj
Firayjat Firayját A place where Bahá’u’lláh stayed.   It is 5 km north of the Riḍván Garden, Baghdád.
Firdaws-i-A'la Firdaws-i-A‘lá “Supreme Paradise”
Firdaws, Faradis Firdaws fem., pl. Farádís a garden, vineyard, paradise;   a fertile valley.   (“Firdaus, Ferdows, Ferdos and Ferdous”)   Firdaws (formerly Tún), capital city of Firdaws County in the southern part of South Khurásán Province, Írán.
Firdawsi Firdawsí paradisiacal, heavenly.   Abu’l-Qásim Firdawsí Ṭúsí (c. 940–1020), or Ferdowsi (Firdawsi, Firdusi, Firdosi, Firdausi) was a Persian poet and the author of Sháhnámah (Shahnameh, “Book of Kings”), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Írán. Ferdowsi is celebrated as the most influential figure in Persian literature and one of the greatest in the history of literature.
Firishta, Firishtih, Firishtagan Firishta, Fem. Firishtih, pl. Firishtagán Pers.   an angel;   a messenger, apostle.   See Ar. Mal’ak/Malak
Firman Firmán Pers.   See Farmán
Firq Firq part, portion, division, section, unit;   band, company, party, detachment, troop, group;   herd, flock
Firqa, Firaq Firqa(h or t), pl. Firaq part, portion, division, section, unit;   band, company, party, detachment, troop, group;   class;   grade, class (in school);   pupils or students of a course;   troupe, ensemble;   team, crew;   division (military);   sect
Firutan, Furutan Firútan, Furútan Pers.   lowly;   humble, depressed;   submissive.   ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, educator, author and Hand of the Cause of God.
Firuz Fírúz victorious, triumphant, prosperous, successful;   victory;   prosperity;   the third of the five supplemental days added to the Persian year;   name of several Persian kings.   See Ẓáfir
Firuz-Kuh, Firuzkuh Fírúz-Kúh or Fírúzkúh village 125 km east of Teheran
Firuzabad (Fayruzabad) Fírúzábád (Fayrúzábád) city 85 km south of Shíráz
Fishar-i-Qabr Fishár-i-Qabr Pers.   constriction in the grave.   Promised after death tortures leading to a fear of being squeezed in the grave.
Fitna, Fitan Fitna,  Pers. Fitnah, pl. Fitan temptation, trial;   charm, attractiveness;   enchantment, captivation, fascination, enticement, temptation;   infatuation;   intrigue;   sedition, riot, discord, dissension, civil strife.   Occurs when a Manifestation appears.   See also Imtiḥán.
Fitr Fiṭr breaking fast, alms giving at ‘Íd al-Fiṭr (a Muslim festival marking the end of Ramaḍán)
Fitr, Aftar Fitr, pl. Aftár small div (the space between the end of the thumb and the end of the index finger when extended);   corner
Fitra, Fitar Fiṭra(t), pl. Fiṭar creation;   idiosyncrasy;   tendency;   wisdom, sagacity;   deceit, trick;   religion;   the power of the Creator;—(pl.) nature, (natural) disposition, constitution, temperament, innate character, instinct
Fitrat Fitrat Ar.   There are several meanings: original Reality, creating, and gap.   Also the interval between two prophets, or the time between the martyrdom of the Báb and the rise of Bahá’u’lláh. (The Bahá’í Proofs, p. 66)
Fizan (Fezan), Fizzan (Fezzan) Fízán (Turkish), Fizzán (Ar.) “rough rocks”, south-western region of modern Libya. It is largely desert, but broken by mountains, uplands, and dry river valleys (wadis) in the north, where oases enable ancient towns and villages to survive deep in the otherwise inhospitable Sahara Desert.
Fu'ad, Af'ida Fu’ád, pl. Af’ida (“Fuad”) heart.   Shoghi Effendi described the Shrine of the Báb as being the “Heart” of Mt. Carmel.
Fu’adiyyih Fu’ádíyyih Daughter of Bahá’u’lláh and Munírih Khánum
Fulad, Fuladi Fúlád, adj. Fúládí and Fuládí steel, of steel, made of steel;   steely, steel-like, steel-hard
Fulan, Fulana Fulán, fem. Fulána (substituting for an unnamed or unspecified person or thing) so and so
Fulk Fulk (m. and f.) ship, (also collective) ships;   Ark (as in Noah’s)
Funduq, Funduqa (Findik) Funduq, Funduqa Pers.   hazelnut of filbert-nut;   a nut good against the sting of a scorpion;   a ball for cannon, musketry, or cross-bow.   Ar. Bunduq, Turk. Findík
Furat Furát Pers.   very fine, sweet water or waters;   the river Euphrates;   the sea
Furqan Furqán proof, evidence, discriminator.   An important attribute of al-Qur’án (see 2:185) is that of distinction (Furqán), for the word Qur’án describes how al-Qur’án is recited, whereas the word Furqán describes the criterion that distinguishes between truth (Ḥaqq) and falsehood (Báṭil) (see 25:1).   Name of súra 25.
Furugh Furúgh Ar.   emptiness, vacuity;   vacancy;   termination, expiration, exhaustion
Furugh Furúgh Pers.   splendour, light, brightness, flame.   Name given by Bahá’u’lláh to the remote village of Dúghábád.
Furughi Furúghí (Forooghy) the erudite Mírzá Maḥmúd Furúghí came from the village of Dúghábád. That is why Mírzá Maḥmúd is known as Furúghí. Faḍíl-i-Furúghí—the Savant of Furúgh—is also an appellation by which he is remembered. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá described him as a leader of the legion of the believers.   Eminent Bahá’ís in the Time of Bahá’u’lláh, pp. 157, 164.   See jaysh ‘aramram.
Furughiyyih Furúghíyyih name of a daughter of Bahá’u’lláh
Furuhar, Farawahar (Faravahar) Furúhar, Farawahár classical Pers.   matter, essence (distinguished from accident).   The new Persian reading of Furúhar (FRWHR فروهر) is Farawahár, Faravahár, Forouhar. The Farawahár, also known as Farr-i-Kiyání (فرکیانی) or Ashu Farúhar, is one of the best-known symbols of Írán. It symbolizes Zoroastrianism and Iranian nationalism. The Farawahár is the most worn pendant among Iranians and has become a secular national symbol, rather than a religious symbol. It symbolizes good thoughts (pindár-i-nik), good words (speech) (guftár-i-nik) and good deeds (kirdár-i-nik), which are the basic tenets and principles of Zoroastrianism.   The winged-disc symbol (“guardian angel”) of Zoroastrianism is traditionally interpreted as a depiction of a frawashi—the Avestan language term for the Zoroastrian concept of a personal spirit of an individual, whether dead, living and yet-unborn.
Fususu'l-Hikam Fuṣúṣu’l-Ḥikam The Bezels of Wisdom by Ibnu’l-‘Arabí.   See Faṣṣ and Ḥikma
Futa, Fuwat Fúṭa(t), pl. Fuwat apron, pinafore;   napkin, serviette;   towel.   Wrap-around male skirt worn by men in Yemen.
Futuhat-i-Makkiyyih Futúḥát-i-Makkíyyih “Conquests of Mecca” by Shaykh Ibnu’l-‘Arabí.   See Fataḥa and Makkí
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Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
Gabr Gabr Pers.   originally an ancient Persian (i.e. a Zoroastrain), one of the Magi of the sect of Zoroaster (a priest of the worshippers of fire);   by the 13th century the word denoted a pagan, an infidel;   a plant resembling ginger;   a vest;   a stone.   After gabr came to have a pejorative implication, it was superseded in literature by the respectable Zartoshtí ("Zoroastrian”)
Gach Gach Pers.   a kind of white earth of which lime is made of;   a plaster of lime and gypsum mixed with sand and pounded marble.
Gaf Gáf Persian letter representing g—a form of the Arabic letter káf
Gallipoli Gallipoli Gelibolu, Turkey
Galyun, Galayun Galyún, pl. Galáyín water pipe, narghile, hubble-bubble;   smoking pipe, tobacco pipe.   See Qalyán
Gand Gand Pers.   anything fetid, bad smell, stink, funk.   Can result from a mispronounciation of qand
Gandum Gandum Pers.   wheat
Gandum-Pak-Kun Gandum-Pák-Kun Mullá Muḥammad Ja‘far—the first person in Iṣfahán to accept the Faith of the Báb
Ganj Ganj Pers.   a store, hoard, hidden treasure;   a magazine, granary, grain-market, storehouse;   a mart;   a case
Ganja, Ganjih Ganja, Ganjih (Ganjeh) city (2nd largest) in Ádharbayján. It was named Elisabethpol in the Russian Empire period. The city regained its original name in 1920. However, its name was changed again in 1935 to Kirovabad. In 1989 the city regained its original name.
Gar Gár Pers.   a suffix that, subjoined to a word, denotes agency or possession
Garb Garb west;   occident;   vehemence, violence, impetuosity, tempestuousness;   al-Garb—the West, the Occident
Garbi Garbí western, westerly;   occidental, Western;   European;   an Occidental, a Westerner;—al-Garbíyún the Western Church (Christian)
Gari Garí Pers.   any standard of measure, whether for land, cloth, grain, liquids, or time;   a measure of time, twenty-two minutes and thirty seconds;   the itch, scab;   practice, trade, office
Garm Rud Garm Rúd (or Garmrúd) Village northern Írán (south of Sárí).   Pers.: warm or hot (garm) flowing water (rúd)
Garm-Siri Garm-Sírí “warm place”
Gawhar (Gohar, Gauhar, Guhar) Gawhar Pers.   a gem, jewel, pearl, precious stone;   lustre of a gem or sword;   root, origin;   of a noble family;   essence, substance, form;   offspring;   any hidden virtue;   intellect, wisdom;   a substitute.   See jawhar
Gawhar Khanum Gawhar Khánum third wife of Bahá’u’lláh (broke Covenant after the passing of Bahá’u’lláh)—her daughter is Furúghíyyih
Gawhar-Maliki Gawhar-Malikí Royal jewel
Gawhar-Shad Gawhar-Shád “joyful or shining jewel”.   Gawhar-Shád (“Gowharshad Begum”), wife of Sháhrukh.
Gawhardasht (Gawhar Dasht) Gawhardasht (Gawhar + Dasht) (“Gohardasht”) formerly Rajá‘í Shahr, a neighbourhood (with prison, Gawhardasht Zindán) on north side of Karaj
Gha'i Ghá’í final
Ghadir Khumm Ghadír Khumm Muḥammad gave a speech (during which he designated ‘Alí as the leader of the Muslim ummah) on 18th of Dhu’l-Ḥijjih ah 10 (ad 632) at Ghadír Khumm, which is near the city of al-Juhfah.
Ghadir, Ghudur, Ghudran Ghadír, pl. Ghudur, Ghudrán pond, pool, puddle;   stream, brook, creek, river
Ghafara, Gafr, Maghfira, Ghufran Ghafara, Ghafr, Maghfira, Ghufrán to forgive (someone something), grant pardon (to someone for something), remit (something)
Ghaffar (“Gaffar”) Ghaffár readily inclined to pardon, much-forgiving (especially of God).   ‘Abdu’l-Ghaffár is claimed to be the real name of Noah.   See Núḥ.
Ghaffari Ghaffárí Pers.   Iranian family name.
Ghafir Gháfir forgiving;   merciful, compassionate
Ghafr, Ghufur Ghafr, pl. Ghufúr covering;   pardoning (sins);   laying up, enclosing in a case or in a repository;   rankling, being raw (a wound);   relapsing (a sick person);   relapse;   tingeing, dyeing (grey hair)
Ghafur Ghafúr readily inclined to pardon, much-forgiving (esp. of God)
Ghali Ghalí Pers.   dear, highly-priced
Ghali, Ghulat Ghálí, pl. Ghulát Pers.   dear, costly, high-priced, precious, valuable;   one who exceeds bounds;   a fanatic, a zealot;   name of a poet.   extremist, adj. of Ghuluww
Ghalin, Ghulah Ghálin, pl. Ghuláh expensive, high priced;   valuable, costly;   dear, beloved;—(pl.) adherent of an extreme sect;   extremist, radical;   fanatic adherent, fanatic
Ghamam, Ghamamun, Ghama'im Ghamám, pl. Ghamá’im clouds (collective noun Ghamámun)
Ghani Ghaní Self-sufficient (able to do without, detached).   Khájih Ghaní or ‘Abdu’l-Ghaní Baydún
Ghaní ad-Dahr Ghaní ad-Dahr the appreciative
Ghanim Ghánim Ar.   successful
Ghanima, Ghana'im Ghaníma(h), pl. Ghaná’im spoils, booty, loot, prey
Ghannam Ghannám shepherd.   House of Sulaymán-i-Ghannám in Baghdád.   See Bayt-i-A‘ẓam
Ghar, Aghwar, Ghiran Ghár, pl. Aghwár, Ghírán cave, cavern
Gharasa (Gharasih), Ghars, Ghiras Gharasa (Gharasih), Ghars, pl. Ghirás to plant, implant (something in);   to place, put, set, infix, interpose, interpolate, insert (something into).   Ghars and Gharasih Pers. have numerical values of 1260 and 1265 respectively.   See DB p. 50.
Gharasi Gharasí (numerical value of 1270)
Gharb Gharb being hid;   going, departing, going to a great distance or to one side;   the place where the sun sets;   sunset;   the West;   Africa;   being shed (tears);   the flowing of tears
Ghariq Gharíq Pers.   drowned, immersed.   Numerical value of 1310.   Nabíl drowned in AH 1310—the year began 26 July 1892.
Ghashiya, Ghawashin Gháshiya, pl. Ghawáshin pericardium;   misfortune, calamity, disaster;   faint, swoon;   insensibility, stupor;   servants, attendants, retinue, suit.   Al Gháshiyah, the overwhelming event, súra 88
Ghasil Ghasíl washed;   (dirty or washed) clothes, washing
Ghassan, Ghasasinah Ghassán, al-Ghasásinah the Christian Ghassanid Dynasty (Ghassanids, al-Ghasásinah or Banú Ghassán, “sons of Ghassán”) was an Arab kingdom founded by descendants of the al-Azd tribe from Yemen who migrated in the early 3rd century to the Levant region
Ghawgha' (Ghaugha') Ghawghá’ mob, rabble, riffraff, din, noise, clamour
Ghawr Ghawr place near Tiberias, Israel
Ghawth Ghawth call for help;   help, aid, succour
Ghawthiyyih Ghawthiyyih garden of Ghawthiyyih—riyáḍ al-ghawthiyya—(loosely) “Garden of Intercessory Sainthood”
Ghayb (Ghaib) Ghayb, pl. Ghuyúb absence;   hidden, concealed, invisible;—(pl.) that which is hidden, the invisible;   that which is transcendental, the supernatural;   divine secret.   (invisible realm)
Ghayba (Ghaiba) Ghayba(t) absence;   concealment, invisibility;   occultation.   State of being hidden from view.   See Tablet of Aḥmad
Ghaybat-i-Kubra Ghaybat-i-Kubrá Major Occultation.   See appended Occultation note.
Ghaybat-i-Sughra Ghaybat-i-Ṣugh Minor Occultation.   See appended Occultation note.
Ghaym (Ghaim), Ghuyum, Ghiyam Ghaym, pl. Ghuyúm, Ghiyám (collective) clouds;   mist, fog
Ghaym ar-Raqiq Ghaym ar-Raqíq thin cloud
Ghayn Ghayn Arabic letter transcripted as gh
Ghayr (Ghair) Ghayr other than (with dependent genitive), different from, unlike, no, not, non-, un-, in-, dis-;   (preposition) ghayra except, save, but
Ghayr Mutashabih Ghayr Mutashábíh unambiguous
Ghaz, Ghazat Gház, pl. Gházát gas;   petroleum, oil (north African)
Ghazal, Ghizla, Ghizlan Ghazál, pl. Ghizla, Ghizlá gazelle;   a village near or now in Tús;   a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter.
Ghazali Ghazálí a native of Ghazál.   al-Ghazálí (Abú Ḥámid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazálí (c. 1058–1111), Persian, was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mystics of Sunní Islám.
Ghazi Ghází gaseous, gas-like.   al-ghází war lord, warrior champion
Ghazna Ghazná or Ghazní “jewel”, city (historically known as Ghaznín or Ghazna(h)) in Afghánistán 128 km SW of Kabul
Ghazwa, Ghazawat Ghazwa(h), pl. Ghazawát military expedition, foray;   raid, incursion, inroad, invasion, attack, aggression;   conquest;   campaign of conquest.   See Mu’tah
Ghazza Ghazza Gaza (seaport in the Gaza strip)
Ghazzi Ghazzí gauze
Ghifar Ghifár a helmet;   father of the Banú Ghifár
Ghina' Ghiná’ singing, song   (term normally used to denote music and the human chanting voice)
Ghirsh, Ghursh, Ghurush Ghirsh, Ghursh, pl. Ghurúsh silver coin, piaster
Ghiyath Ghiyáth help, succour.   Abjad 1,511
Ghulam al-Khuld Ghulám al-Khuld Tablet of the Deathless Youth by Bahá’u’lláh
Ghulam-Ahmad Ghulám-Aḥmad Mírzá Ghulám-Aḥmad of Qádiyán, India,(1839–1908). Followers later split into Aḥmadíyyah and Qádiyáníyyah.
Ghulam-Husayn Ghulám-Ḥusayn
Ghulam-Rida Ghulám-Riḍá
Ghulam-Riday-i-Kuchik Ghulám-Riḍáy-i-Kúchik
Ghulam-Riday-i-Yazdi Ghulám-Riḍáy-i-Yazdí
Ghulam, Ghilman, Ghilma Ghulám pl. Ghilmán, Ghilma boy, youth, lad;   slave;   servant, waiter
Ghulamu'llah Ghulámu’lláh servant of God.   son of Javáv-i-Qazvíní
Ghuluw Ghulúw exceeding of proper bounds, excess, extravagance;   exaggeration
Ghuluww, Ghaliyya Ghuluww, Gháliyya exaggeration, extremism
Ghusl, Aghsal Ghusl, pl. Aghsál washing, ablution;   the major ritual ablution, i.e., a washing of the whole body (Islamic Law);   wash water
Ghusn-i-A'zam Ghuṣn-i-A‘ẓám Most Great or Greatest Branch, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Ghusn-i-Akbar Ghuṣn-i-Akbar Greater Branch, Mírzá Muḥammad-‘Ali
Ghusn-i-Mumtaz Ghuṣn-i-Mumtáz The Chosen Branch i.e. Shoghi Effendi
Ghusn, Ghusun, Aghsan Ghuṣn, dual Ghuṣún, pl. Aghṣán twig, bough, limb, branch.   Aghṣán (branches) denotes the sons and male descendants of Bahá’u’lláh.   Only two Aghṣán are mentioned in the Kitáb-i-‘Ahd: Ghuṣn-i-A‘ẓám (‘Abdu’l-Bahá) and Ghuṣn-i-Akbar (Mírzá Muḥammad-‘Ali)
Ghusniyyih Ghuṣniyyih Pers.   followers of Mírzá Muḥammad ‘Alí, the “Ghuṣn-i-Akbar”, the half-brother of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Ghusnu'llahu'l-A'zam Ghuṣnu’lláhu’l-A‘ẓam “The Greatest Branch of God”   BKG 250, 311, 420, 485
Ghusnu'llahu'l-Athar Ghuṣnu’lláhu’l-Aṭhar “The Purest Branch of God”
Gilan Gílán a northern province of Írán on the Caspian Sea.
Gilani Gílání Pers.   a native of Gílán
Giltughi Giltúghí Ḥájí Káẓim Giltúghí
Gird Gird Pers.   round;   a circle, orbit, circumference, circuit;   environs, parts adjacent;   a collection, assembly;   a host;   a city;   a tent, pavilion;   (adverb) around.   e.g. Kinár-Gird, a village where the Báb paused in His exile journey to Máh-Kú.
Girih Girih Pers.   a knot, a knur (as in a thread or on wood), a knob, a joint;   a button or anything for fastening garments;   a gland;   a kernel;   a purse;   an abscess;   a knuckle;   articulation;   three finger-breadths;   a difficulty;   the seed of a thorny tree used for tanning;   the heart
Giwah (Givah, Giveh, Giwa) Giwah Pers.   a soft, comfortable, durable and hand woven-top shoe common in several parts of Írán especially in rural and mountainous areas of Kirmánsháh Province.
Guardian Guardian Title given to Shoghi Effendi by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá: “After the passing away of this wronged one, it is incumbent upon the Aghsán, the Afnán of the Sacred Lote-Tree, the Hands of the Cause of God and the loved ones of the Abhá Beauty to turn unto Shoghi Effendi—the youthful branch branched from the two hallowed and sacred Lote-Trees and the fruit grown from the union of the two offshoots of the Tree of Holiness,—as he is the sign of God, the chosen branch, the Guardian of the Cause of God …. He is the Interpreter of the Word of God ….” (The Will and Testament, p. 11)
Guftar Guftár Pers.   speech, conversation;   a saying;   a chapter
Gugan (Gavgan (Gav-Gan), Gavkan) Gúgán village 50 km SW of Tabríz.   Letters transcribe as “Gawgán”
Guhar (Gohar), Gawhar (Gauhar) Guhar, Gawhar Pers.   a gem, jewel, pearl, precious stone;   lustre of a gem or sword;   root, origin;   of a noble family;   essence, substance, form;   offspring;   any hidden virtue;   intellect, wisdom
Gul-i-Gulab Gul-i-Gulab Red Rose, literally, “the flower of the rose-water”.   See Ar. Jull and Julláb
Gul-i-Mawla Gul-i-Mawlá “the master’s rose”.   name given to Darvish Siḍq-‘Alí
Gul-Muhammad (Gul-Muhammad) Gul-Muḥammad GPB p. 200
Gul-Saba Gul-Sabá Pers.   Sheba rose
Gul, Gulan Gul, pl. Gulán Pers.   a rose;   a flower;   embers;   a red colour.   See Ar. Jull
Guldanih Guldánih Pers.   (Gul-Dána “wise flower”)   Guldánih ‘Alipúr
Gulistan Gulistán where flowers grow;   a celebrated Persian book in prose and verse, by Abú-Muḥammad Muṣliḥ al-Dín bin ‘Abdu’lláh Shírází (better known by his pen-name Sa‘dí) (1175–1291). Book structure: Introduction followed by eight chapters, each consisting of a number of stories and poetry: 1. The Manners of Kings; 2. On the Morals of Dervishes; 3. On the Excellence of Contentment; 4. On the Advantages of Silence; 5. On Love and Youth; 6. On Weakness and Old Age; 7. On the Effects of Education; 8. On Rules for Conduct in Life.
Gulmuhammadi Gulmuḥammadí Zabíḥu’lláh (Ar. Dhabíḥu’lláh) Gulmuḥammadí
Gulpaygan Gulpáygán a city in and the capital of Gulpáygán County, Iṣfahán Province, Írán (about 160 km NW of Iṣfahán)
Gulshan (Golshan) Gulshán Pers.   a rose or flower-garden;   a bed of roses or flowers;   a delightful spot;   a place where a person enjoys himself;   a pleasure-palace;   florid, cheerful, agreeable.   Former name of Ṭabas—city in South Khorasan Province, Írán.
Gulshani Gulshaní a Sufi order founded by Ibráhím al-Gulshaní, an influential Sufi shaykh from Azerbaijan
Gumruk, Gamarik Gumruk, pl. Gamárik customs;   customhouse
Gunabad (Gonabad) Gunábád city 225 km SW of Mashhad, Khurásán province
Gunjishk Gunjishk Pers.   a sparrow;   a chick;   any small bird.   gáf or káf (kafara, “renounce”) + nún (nazih, “purify”) + jím (jánib, “draw back”) + shín (ush’kur, “thank”, “be grateful”) + káf (kafara)—see The Seven Valleys 1st edn.
Guran Gúrán Pers.   the rendezvous of an army;   an assembly-room;   rice browned in the oven.   A village in Lorestan Province, 174 km SW of Káshán.   The Dawn-Breakers p. 547
Gurgin (Gurgan, Gorgan), Jurjan Gurgín or Gurgán, Jurján city near Caspian Sea (formerly Astrabád or Astarábád)
Gurgin Khan Gurgín Khán Nephew and successor of Governor Manúchihr Khán in Iṣfahán.
Gusha Gushá Pers.   opening, loosening, solving
Gusht, Gosht sht Pers.   flesh, meat;   pulp of fruit
Gushtasb, Gushasb Gushtásb, Gushásb Pers.   an ancient king of Persia
Guzal Guzal (The Pass)   As in Ádí-Guzal, Sayyáh, the messenger.
Gyawur-Kyuy Gyáwur-Kyuy probably the Turkish village of Güneyli Köyü (“Southern Village”), 11 km north of Gallipoli
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Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
Ha, Ha'at Há’, pl. Ha’át Arabic letter
Ha, Had, Hadihi, Hadi, Ha’ula’i, Hadani look! there!   há huwa look, there he is!   há antum you there!   as a prefix (mostly written defectively): hádá, f. hádihí, hádí,—pl. há’ulá’i, dual m. hádání, f. hátáni this one, this
Ha’ik, Haka Ḥá’ik, pl. Ḥáka weaver;   (Moroccan) an outer garment consisting of a long piece of white material, covering body and head
Habash, Ahbash al-Ḥabash, pl. al-Aḥbash Abyssinia, Ethiopia;—pl. the Abyssinians, Ethiopians
Habashi Ḥabashí, pl. Aḥbásh Abyssinian, Ethiopian
Habba, Hubb Ḥabba, Ḥubb to love, like;   to evoke (in someone), love or a liking (for something or someone);   to endear (something to someone), make (something) dear, lovable, attractive (for someone), make (something) palatable, acceptable (to someone);   to urge (something on someone), suggest (something to someone)
Habib, Ahibba, Ḥabíb, pl. Aḥabbá, Aḥibba beloved, sweetheart, lover;   darling;   dear one, friend;   dear
Habibi Ḥabíbi, Pers. Ḥabíbih my love
Habibu'llah Ḥabíbu’lláh beloved of God
Habibu'llah-i-Afnan Ḥabíbu’lláh-i-Afnán, Ḥájí Mírzá
Habr, Hibr, Ahbar Ḥabr, Ḥibr, pl. Aḥbár a non-Muslim religious authority, learned man, scribe;   bishop; rabbi.—ḥabr beautifying, adorning;   putting ink into an inkstand;   making glad;   joy, gladness, cheerfulness;—ḥibr, ink;   beauty;   a sign;   signs of joy.
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi Hádá, fem. Hádihí, Hádí, pl. Há’ulá’i this one, this
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi, cont. Hádání dual m., f. Hátáni
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi, Ha’ula’i, Hadani Hádá (demonstrative pronoun) fem. hádihí, hádí, pl. há’ulá’i, dual masc. hádáni, dual fem. hátáni this one, this
Hadatha, Huduth Ḥadatha (Ḥudúth) to happen, occur, take place, come to pass.   Root of ḥadíth
Hadba, Ahdab Ḥadbá’, fem. Aḥdab, pl. Ḥudb hunchbacked, humped.   The historic Great Mosque of al-Núrí in Mosul is famous for its leaning minaret which gave the city its nickname “the hunchback” (al-Ḥadbá’).   See root word Ḥadiba
Hadd, Hudud Ḥadd, pl. Ḥudúd (cutting) edge (of a knife, of a sword);   edge, border, brink, brim, verge;   border (of a country), boundary, borderline;   limit (fig.), the utmost, extremity, termination, end, terminal point, terminus;   a (certain) measure, extent, or degree (attained);   (math.) member (of an equation), term (of a fraction, of a proportion);   divine ordinance, divine statute (limit, prohibition or penalty fixed by God);   legal punishment (Islamic Law)
Hadha, Hadhihi, hadhi, Ha’ula’i dhá (demonstrative pronoun) fem. hádhihí, hádhí, pl. há’ulá’i, dual m. hádháni, fem. hátáni this one, this
Hadi Hádí a director, leader, guide;   one who enjoys rest or peace;   the neck;   head or point of an arrow;   an ox in the centre of a threshing-floor, round which the other oxen move when treading out the grain
Hadiba, Hadab Ḥadiba, (verbal noun Ḥadab) to be convex, dome-shaped, cambered, bent outward;   to be hunchbacked;   to be nice, kind, friendly
Hadid, Hada'id Ḥadíd, pl. Ḥadá’id iron;—pl. iron parts (of a structure);   forgings, hardware, ironware
Hadid, Hidad, Ahidda Ḥadíd, pl. Ḥidád, Aḥiddá’, Aḥidda sharp (knife, eye, tongue, etc.), keen (mind)
Hadin, Hadinun, Huha Hádin, pl. Hádinún, Hudá(h) leading, guiding;   leader, guide
Hadiqat Ḥadíqat an inclosed garden;   an orchard, a palm-plantation;   name of a village near Madína
Hadiqatu'r-Rahman Ḥadíqatu’r-Raḥmán the Orchard of the Merciful
Hadir, Huddar, Hudur, Hadara Ḥáḍir, pl. Ḥuḍḍar, Ḥuḍúr, Ḥaḍara present;   attending;—(pl. ḥuḍḍár, ḥaḍara) settled, sedentary, resident, village or town dweller, not nomadic.   (pl. Ḥuḍúr) presence;   visit, participation, attendance.   See ḥáẓir
Hadith-i-Jabir Ḥadíth-i-Jábir ḥadíth collection by Jábir ibn ‘Abdu’lláh ibn ‘Amr ibn Ḥarám al-Anṣárí, a companion of Muḥammad
Hadith, Ahadith Ḥadíth, pl. Aḥádíth, Ḥádithán speech;   chat, chitchat, small talk;   conversation, talk, discussion;   interview;   prattle, gossip;   report, account, tale, narrative;   Prophetic tradition, hadith, narrative relating deeds and utterances of the Prophet and his Companions.   Root of ḥadíth is ḥadatha.   Aḥádíth are the oral sayings of the Prophet Muḥammad and the Imáms. Two distinct types: al-Ḥadíth an-Nabawí and al-Ḥadíth al-Qudsí. The former (Prophetic or regular) being restricted to the sayings of Muḥammad (a ḥadíth where one of the Companions reports Muḥammad’s statements, his deeds, or things that happened in his presence and he approved of them), while the latter (Divine) pertains to the sayings of the Prophet through the medium of Divine inspiration.   Note: الأحاديث is written al-aḥádíth.
Hadith, Hawadith Ḥádith, pl. Ḥawádith, also Ḥáwádithát occurring, happening, taking place;   new, recent;   fresh;—(pl.) occurrence, incident, event, happening;   episode; case (jurisprudence) accident, mishap
Haditha, Hawadith Ḥáditha, pl. Ḥawádith occurrence, event, happening;   plot (of a play);   incident, episode;   accident, mishap
Hadiy-i-Dawlat-Abadi Hádíy-i-Dawlat-Ábádí
Hadiy-i-Nahri Hádíy-i-Nahrí (MF)
Hadiy-i-Qazvini Hádíy-i-Qazvíní
Hadiya Ḥadiya to remain, stay (at a place), stick (to a place).   Name given as location where of Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Aḥsá’í, the leader of the Shaykhís, died. It is near the tomb of Muḥammad in Medina. He is buried in the cemetery of Baqí‘ in Medina.
Hadiya, Hadaya Hadíya, pl. Hadáyá gift, present, donation;   offering, sacrifice
Hadiya, Hadiyat Hádiyat, Hádiya, fem. Hádíyyih Pers.   the leader of a flock;   a stick, staff
Hadj Ḥadj loading a camel (particularly with a ḥidj (litter);   charging a man with fraud
Hadra (Hadrat), Hazrat Ḥaḍra(t), Pers. Ḥaẓrat presence, threshold;   dignity;   majesty;   dominion, power;   an epithet often joined with the names of the Deity;   also a title by which kings and great men are addressed, similar to majesty, highness, lordship, worship.   Used broadly by mystics as a synonym of ḥuḍúr, “being in the presence [of Alláh]”.   Holiness (‘his excellency’ or ‘his honour’).   Placed before the name of the Manifestation or other figures with a high spiritual station.
Hadramawt (Hadramaut), Hadhramaut Ḥaḍramawt (Ḥaḍramút, Hadhramaut) a region in the south of the Arabian peninsula—part of Yemen (claimed burial place of Húd)
Hadrat-i-A'la or Hadrat-i-'Ala Ḥaḍrat-i-A‘lá “His Holiness the Most Exalted One” (a designation of the Báb)
Hadrat-i-Mubashshir Ḥaḍrat-i-Mubashshir “His holiness the Herald”
Hadratu’llah (Hazratu’llah) Ḥaḍratu’lláh The Lord God
Hafid, Ahfad, Hafada Ḥafíd, pl. Aḥfád, Ḥafada(h grandson;   descendant, offspring, scion.   Qur’án 16:74 sons (banín) and grandsons (ḥafadah) [male only]
Hafiz Ḥáfiẓ a keeper, preserver, guardian;   a commander, governor;   the Preserver of all things (God);   gifted with a good memory;   one who has by heart the whole Qurʼán;   a blind man (because such fall frequently under the preceding category);   pen name of the greatest lyric, mystical poet of Persia, Khwája Shams al-Dín Muḥammad Ḥáfíẓ-i-Shírází (1320–1390), author of odes in the ghazal form. The Tomb of Ḥáfiẓ and its associated memorial hall, the Ḥáfiẓih, are two memorial structures erected in the northern edge of Shíráz, in his memory.
Hafizu's-Sihhih Ḥafiẓu’ṣ-Ṣiḥḥih Mírzá ‘Abdu’l-Rahím Khán Ḥafiẓu’ṣ-Ṣiḥḥih, Bahá’í World, vol. ix, pp. 613–4.
Haft-Dast Haft-Dast Pers.   seven hands
Haft-Vadi Haft-Vádí “Seven Valleys” by Bahá’u’lláh written in anwer to questions from Shaykh Muḥyi’d-Dín, the Qáḍí of Khániqayn
Hahut Háhút The essence of God unmanifested.   The “Hidden Mystery” or the “Hidden Treasure”, the Absolute Unknown, the Primal Oneness.   Realm of the “Absolute Unknown”, where God’s essence has been hidden from time immemorial and will continue to remain so for eternity.á'í_cosmology.   See Láhút, Jabarút, Malakút, and Násút.
Haira, Hairat Ḥaira (Ḥairat) confusion, perplexity, bewilderment, embarrassment, helplessness, embarrassed, at a loss, helpless
Hajar Hájar Hagar, wife of Abraham and the mother of Ismá‘íl
Hajar al-Aswad al-Ḥajar al-Aswad Pers.   al-Ḥajaru’l-Aswad.   the Black Stone of the Ka‘ba at Mecca.   Size about 160 (6.3”) x 200 (7.9”) mm
Hajar, Hijarat, Ahjar, Hijar Ḥajar, pl. Ḥijára(t), Aḥjár, Ḥijár stone;   the philosopher’s stone;   weight (placed as an equipoise on the scale of a balance)
Hajara, Hajr, Hijran Hajara, Hajr, Hijrán to emigrate;   to dissociate oneself, separate, part, secede, keep away
Haji Shah-Muhammad Ḥájí Sháh-Muḥammad Sháh-Muḥammad Manshadí, Amín’l-Bayán (Trustee of Ḥuqúqu’lláh)
Hajib, Hujjab Ḥájib, pl. Ḥujjáb, Ḥajaba concealing, screening, protecting;   doorman, gatekeeper;   court official, equivalent to a chamberlain.   Classical Arabic grammarian ibn al-Ḥájib.
Hajibu'd-Dawlih Ḥájibu’d-Dawlih
Hajipur Ḥájípúr (Ḥájí + Púr) Pers.   Mr. Jamáli'd-Dín Ḥájípúr.   Also name of city in Indian state of Bihar. It is to the north of Patna.
Hajir Hájir elegant, excellent (thing);   delirious, speaking foolishly or deliriously;   emigrating;   name of a tribe
Hajj (Haji), Hajjaj, Hajij Ḥájj (Pers. Ḥájí), pl. Ḥujjáj, Hajíj pilgrim;   hadji;   Mecca pilgrim, honorific title of one who has performed the pilgrimage to Mecca.  Pers.   pl. also ḥájiyán or ḥájíyán.
Hajj, Hijja, Hijaj Ḥajj, Ḥijja, pl. Ḥijaj hadj, pilgrimage (to Mecca)
Hajjaj Ḥajjáj a litigious man, a squabbler;   name of the celebrated governor of Arabia and Iraq, Abú Muḥammad al-Ḥajjáj ibn Yúsuf ibn al-Ḥakam ibn ʿAqíl ath-Thaqafí
Hajr Hajr abandonment, forsaking, leaving, separation;   avoidance, abstention;   separation from the beloved one;   hottest time of the day.   Variation hijr.
Hajr Ḥajr restriction, curb(ing), check(ing), obstruction, impeding, limitation, curtailing (of something);   barring, closing, debarment, preclusion;   detention;   blocking, confinement, containment, suppression (as a protective measure);   interdiction, prohibition, ban.   Pre-Islamic name of modern Riyadh (ar-Riyáḍ), capital of Saudi Arabia.
Hakam, Hukkam Ḥakam, pl. Ḥukkam arbitrator, arbiter;   umpire, referee
Ḥakamanish Ḥakámanish (Ḥaká + manish) Pers.   Írándukht Ḥakámanish
Hakha, Hikaya Ḥaká (Ḥikáya) to tell, relate (something), report, give an account (of);   to speak, talk (Syr., Leb.);   to imitate, copy (something);   to resemble (someone, something)
Hakim Abu’l-Qasim Firdawsi Tusi Ḥakím Abu’l-Qásim Firdawsí Ṭúsí commonly referred to as Ferdowsi, is a revered Persian poet, the author of the epic of Shahnameh (Book of Kings)
Hakim-Bashi Ḥakím-Báshí Chief physician
Hakim-Ilahi Ḥakím-Iláhí the Divine Philosopher
Hakim, Hukama' Ḥakím, pl. Ḥukamá’ wise, judicious;   wise man, sage;   philosopher;   physician, doctor.   al-Ḥakím, the divine name for the All-Wise.
Hakiman Ḥakímán Raḥmatu’lláh Ḥakímán
Hakkak Ḥakkák a jeweller;   a polisher of precious stones;   a borer of pearls;   a lapidary
Hal, Ahwal Ḥál m. and f., pl. Aḥwál condition, state;   situation;   position, status;   circumstance;   case;   present, actuality (as opposed to future);   circumstantial expression or phrase (grammar);—pl. conditions, circumstances;   matters, affairs, concerns;   cases;   ḥála (preposition) during;   immediately upon, right after;   just at;   in case of …, in the event of …, ḥálan presently, immediately, at once, right away, without delay;   now, actually, at present.   Pers. Ḥal-i-Shumá, (pl.) Aḥwál-i-Shumá (How are you?)
Hala, Halat Ḥála, pl. Ḥálát condition, state;   situation;   (possible, actual) case;   ḥálata (preposition) during.—pl. states, fleeting and ephemeral, of the Ṣúfí spiritual journey
Halab Ḥalab milk
Halabi Ḥalabí belonging to a milch cow;   native of Aleppo;   white iron, tin-plate
Halaku, Hulagu Halákú, Pers. Hulágú Hulagu Khán (c. 1217–8 February 1265).   Hülegü or Hulegu (Mongolian).   Grandson of Genghis Khán, conquered Baghdád (1258) and Syria (1260).
Halal Ḥalál that which is allowed, permitted or permissible;   allowed, permitted, permissible, allowable, admissible, lawful, legal, licit, legitimate;   lawful possession
Halih-Halih-Ya-Bisharat Halih-Halih-Yá-Bishárát “Hallelujah, Hallelujah, O Glad-Tidings” by Bahá’u’lláh
Halim, Hulama Ḥalím, pl. Ḥulamá mild, mild-tempered, gentle;   patient;   forbearing
Hallaj Ḥalláj cotton ginner.   Manṣúr al-Ḥalláj (Abú’l-Mughíth al-Ḥusayn bin Manṣúr al-Ḥalláj) (c. 858–26 March 922) was a Persian mystic, poet and teacher of Sufism.
Halqa, Halaqa, Halaq, Halaqat Ḥalqa(t), Ḥalaqa pl. Ḥalaq, Ḥalaqát ring (also earring, etc.);   link (of a chain);   circle (also of people);   group of students studying under a professor, hence: lecture, course (e.g., at al-Azhar University);   part of a sequence or series;   ringlet;   disk;   decade;   market
Halqat adh-Dhahabiyya al-Ḥalqat adh-Dhahabiyya the golden circle
Hama, Hamw Hamá, Hamw to flow;   to pour forth
Hamad Ḥamád Pers.   a village in Khúzistán Province, Írán
Hamadan Hamadán “quelled or subsided”.   Hamadán city in Írán, 144 km NE Kirmánsháh.   Originally Ecbatana of the ancient Medes.
Hamadani Hamadání Badí‘ al-Zamán (“The Wonder of the Age”)   al-Hamadání (969–1007) was a medieval Arabo-Persian man of letters.
Hamam, Hamama, Hamamat, Hama'im Ḥamám, pl. Ḥamámát, Ḥamá’im Ar.   dove, pigeon.   nomen unitatis ḥamáma(h)
Haman Hamán Pers.   only, solely;   self-same, all one, one and the same, even that, that very;   in this manner, exactly so, thus, equally;   always, continually.   Name of Abraham's brother;   name of Pharaoh's vizier;   name of a place in Kirmán where Sháh Ni‘matu’lláh Walí is buried
Hamaza, Hamz Ḥamaza, Ḥamz to bite, or burn, the tongue (taste)
Hamaza, Hamz Hamaza, Hamz to prick;   to drive, urge on, prod, goad on (someone, something);   to spur (one’s horse);   (gram.) to provide with hamza (a letter or word)
Hamd Ḥamd commendation, praise, laudation
Hamdan Ḥamdán praise, one who praises (God)
Hamdu lillah, al- al-Ḥamdu Lilláh thank God!   praise be to God!   praised be the Lord!   “Alhamdulillah”
Hamdu’llah Ḥamdu’lláh Praise of God
Hamid Ḥámid one who praises, a praiser
Hamid, Hamida (Hamidih, Hamideh) Ḥamíd, fem. Ḥamída (Pers. Ḥamídih) praiseworthy, laudable, commendable;   benign, harmless (disease)
Hamida Ḥamida to praise, commend, laud, extol (someone for something)   Form II to praise highly (someone)
Hamma Ḥamma(h or t) hot spring.   al-Ḥamma was a Palestinian Arab village 12 km SE of Tiberias, famous for its hot springs (on the south side of the village), which are considered therapeutic due to their high sulphur content. The springs were visited by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in 1914. The village was depopulated in July 1949. In 1977 the health resort of Hamat Gader, “hot springs of (the ancient city of) Gadara”, opened on the site of al-Ḥamma as-Súriyá (“the Syrian ḥamma”) hot springs.
Hammad (Hamad) Ḥammád much praising (God)
Hammal Ḥammál Pers.   a porter, carrier of burdens
Hammam Hammám careworn, worried;   anxious, solicitous;   eager, active, energetic
Hammam Ḥammám, pl. Ḥammámát bath;   swimming pool;   spa, watering place (public baths) (error in Bahá’í writings—the underdot is omitted)
Hamsaya, Hamsayagan Hamsáya, pl. Hamsáyagán Pers.   under the same shade, i.e. neighbouring, neighbour
Hamza, Hamazat Hamza, pl. Hamazát Arabic glottal stop consonant that is pronounced as an a.   Since a hamza is not actually a letter, it is sometimes counted as an a, and sometimes it is disregarded. Thus, Bahá’ (the hamza is usually dropped) can be read as either eight or nine.
Hamza, Hamzah (Hamzeh) Ḥamza(h) ḥamza derived from the Arabic word ḥamuza, meaning strong or steadfast.   Muḥammad’s uncle, Ḥamzah ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muṭṭalib.
Hana Ḥaná to bend, curve, twist, turn;   to lean, incline (toward someone);   to feel for someone, sympathize (with someone), commiserate, pity (someone), feel compassion, feel pity (for someone)
Hana-Sab Ḥaná-Sáb Muḥammad-i-Ḥaná-Sáb
Hanabali, Hanabilat Ḥanabalí, pl. Ḥanábila(t) Hanbalitic, of or pertaining to the madhab of Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal;   puritanical, strict in religious matters;—(pl.) Hanabalites, followers of Aḥmad ibn Ḥambal.   A system of traditional Sunní jurisprudence—smallest of the four (Ḥanabalí, Ḥanafí, Málikí and Sháfi‘í)
Hanafi, Hanafyun Ḥanafí, pl. Hanafyún, Ḥunafá orthodox.   One of the four religious Sunní Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).   It is named after the scholar Abú Ḥanífa an-Nu‘man ibn Thábit.
Hanafiya, Hanafiyya Ḥanafíya(t), Ḥanafiyya(t) true religion, orthodoxy
Hanbal Ḥanbal Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal
Hani, Hani'a Háni’, fem. Háni’a(h) happy, delighted, glad;   servant;   fem. servant girl, maid
Hani’ Haní’ healthful, salutary, salubrious, wholesome, beneficial;   pleasant, agreeable;   easy, smooth, comfortable
Hanif, Hunafa’ Ḥaníf, pl. Ḥunafá’ true believer, orthodox;   one who scorns the false creeds surrounding him and professes the true religion;   true (religion)
Hanifa Ḥanífa(h) al-ḥanífa as-samḥá’ the true and tolerant (religion. i.e., Islám).   Ḥanífih (Pers. form)
Hanifiya al-Ḥanífíya(h) the true (i.e., Islamic) religion
Hanza Hanzá village in Kirman Province, Írán (also known as Hamzá). About 110 km south of Kirmán.
Hanzala Ḥanẓala (collective;   nomen unitatis   Ḥanẓalah)   Ḥanẓala ibn Abí ‘Ámir, one of the companions of Muḥammad. Title: Ghasíl al-Malá’ika(h), the one cleansed by the angels. Father was Abú Amír al-Asharí. His son was ‘Abdu’lláh ibn Ḥanẓala. Ḥanẓala ibn Abí-Ghafráy-i-Ṭá’í, SDC p. 48, lived earlier than the others mentioned above.
Haqani Ḥaqání probably should be Ḥaqqání
Haqiq, Ahiqqa' Ḥaqíq, pl. Aḥiqqá’ worthy, deserving (of something), fit, competent, qualified;   entitled (to)
Haqiqa, Haqa'iq Ḥaqíqa(h or t), pl. Ḥaqá’iq truth, reality (also philosophy);   fact;   the true state of affairs, the facts;   true nature, essence;   real meaning, true sense.   The object of the mystic searcher (ṣúfí).
Haqiqi Ḥaqíqí real, true;   actual;   proper, intrinsic, essential;   genuine;   authentic;   positive
Haqq (Haq), Huquq Ḥaqq, Pers. also Ḥaq, pl. Ḥuqúq truth;   correctness, rightness;   rightful possession;   property;   ones due;   duty;   proper manner;   true, authentic, real;   right, fair and reasonable;   correct, sound, valid;   al-Ḥaqq an attribute of God;—pl. right, title, claim, legal claim.   Persian: name of a bird said to suspend itself by the claws at night and continually to cry ḥaq ḥaq.
Haqqa (Haqqah or Haqqat) Ḥáqqa(h) or Ḥáqqa(t) that which sorts out truth from falsehood;   that which is inevitable (an epithet of the Day of Judgement).   Qur’án 69.   The Sure Reality or the Reality
Haqqan Ḥaqqan really, in reality, in effect, actually, in fact, indeed, truly, in truth;   justly, rightly, by rights
Haqqani Ḥaqqání correct, right, proper, sound, valid, legitimate, legal
Haqqu'llah, Huququ'llah Ḥaqqu’lláh, pl. Ḥuqúqu’lláh “Right(s) of God”
Harah, Harat Haráh or Harát Herat (city in NW Afghánistán)
Haraka, Harakat Ḥaraka(t), pl. Harakát movement, motion;   commotion;   physical exercise;   stirring, impulse;   proceeding, procedure, policy;   action, undertaking, enterprise;   military operation;   continuation, progress;   traffic (rail, shipping, street);   movement (as a social phenomenon);   vowel (grammar)
Haram ash-Sharif al-Ḥaram ash-Sharíf “the Noble Sanctuary” or Temple Mount in Jerusalem
Haram-i-Aqdas Ḥaram-i-Aqdas Most Holy Sanctuary or Precincts.   Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí and the surrounding gardens.
Haram-i-Fatima-i-Ma'sumih Ḥaram-i-Fáṭima-i-Ma‘súmih Pers.   Shrine of Fáṭima al-Ma‘súmih, sister of Imám ‘Alí ar-Riḍá (8th Imám), in Qum, Írán.   See Ma‘súm
Haram, Ahram Ḥaram, pl. Aḥrám forbidden, prohibited, interdicted;   taboo;   holy, sacred, sacrosanct;   something sacred, sacred object;   sacred possession;   wife;   sanctum, sanctuary, sacred precinct.
[Ar.]   The sacred sanctuary at Mecca where no blood may be spilled, and the four months with the same sanction in the Arabic calendar.   Compare with Ḥill.
Haram, Ahram Haram, pl. Ahrám, Ahrámát pyramid.   al-Ahrám (“The Pyramids”) (5 August 1875–) is the most widely circulating Egyptian daily newspaper, and the second oldest after al-Waqá'i‘ al-Maṣriyyah. It is majority owned by the Egyptian government.
Haram, Hurum Ḥarám, pl. Ḥurum forbidden, interdicted, prohibited, unlawful;   something forbidden, offense, sin;   inviolable, taboo;   sacred, sacrosanct;   cursed, accursed
Haraman Ḥarámán Mecca and Madína, the two sacred cities
Haramayn (Haramain) al-Ḥaramayn (dual pl. form of Ḥaram, sanctuary) “The Two Holy Places” or “The Two Sanctuaries”, traditional Islamic appellations of the two holy cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina.   The “Twin Sacred Shrines” now refers to the places in Shíráz where the Báb was born and where He made His public declaration.
Harati Harátí from Herat, Írán
Harawi Harawí of Herat
Harb Ḥarb war, warfare, battle, conflict;   an enemy;   a proper name
Harf-i-Baqa Ḥarf-i-Baqá “Letter of Eternity”
Harf, Hiraf, Huruf, Ahruf Ḥarf, pl. Ḥiraf, Ḥurúf, Aḥruf (cutting) edge (of a knife, of a sword);   sharp edge;   border, edge, rim, brink, verge;—(pl. ḥurúf, aḥruf) letter;   consonant;   particle (grammar);   type (typography)
Hargah (Har-gah) Hargáh Pers.   whenever, wherever;   constantly
Harir, Hara'ir Ḥarír, pl. Ḥará’ir silk;—pl. silken wares, silks
Hariri Ḥarírí silken, silky, of silk.   Abú Muḥammad al-Qásim ibn ‘Alí ibn Muḥammad ibn Uthmán al-Ḥarírí, popularly known as al-Hariri of Basra (1054–1122) was an Arab poet, scholar of the Arabic language and a high government official of the Seljuk Empire.
Harith (Haritha(h)), Hurrath Ḥárith, pl. Ḥurráth ploughman, cultivator, farmer.   Banú al-Ḥárith Jewish tribe of Arabia.   Naḍr-ibn-i-Ḥárith: religious leader during the time of Muḥammad.   Ubaydah ibn al-Ḥárith (c. 562–624) was a cousin and a companion of Muḥammad.
Haritha Ḥáritha(h) Zayd ibn Ḥárithah (c. 581–629) a companion of Muḥammad and adopted as his son. He is the only Muslim apart from Muḥammad who is mentioned by name (as Zayd) in the Qur’án (33:37).
Harj Harj excitement, agitation, commotion;   disorder, muddle, confusion.   Harj can be interpreted as “killing”.
Harran, Harra, Hirar, Harara Ḥarrán, fem. Ḥarrá, pl. Ḥirár, Ḥarárá thirsty;   passionate, fervent, hot (figurative).   Ḥarrán was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia (now Turkey), 40 km SE of Şanlıurfa and 100 km north of ar-Raqqah (Syria).
Harun Hárún Aaron;   chief, leader;   a messenger, courier;   helplessness, indigence;   astonishment;   amazement
Harun-Abad Hárún-Ábád now Islám-Ábád-i-Gharb, Írán
Harunu'r-Rashid Hárúnu’r-Rashíd Aaron the Just.   Fifth Abbasid Caliph
Harut Hárút name of an angel, who, together with another named Márút (Qur’án 2:102), having severely censured mankind before the throne of God, was sent with him down to earth in human shapes to judge of the temptations to which man is subject. They could not withstand them: they were seduced by women, and committed every kind of iniquity; for which they were suspended by the feet in a well in Babylon, where they are to remain in great torment till the day of judgement. They are said to be teachers of magic to man.   See Márút
Hasan-'Ali Ḥasan-‘Alí
Hasan-'Amu Murtada Ḥasan-‘Amú Murtaḍá (MF)
Hasan-Abad (Hasanabad) Ḥasan Ábád an old and historical area to the north side of Ṭihrán
Hasan-i-'Ammu Ḥasan-i-‘Ammú
Hasan-i-Hakim-Bashi Ḥasan-i-Ḥakím-Báshí
Hasan-i-Khurasani Ḥasan-i-Khurásání
Hasan-i-Mazindarani Ḥasan-i-Mázindarání
Hasan-i-Niku Ḥasan-i-Níkú
Hasan-i-Safa Ḥasan-i-Ṣafá
Hasan-i-Vazir Ḥasan-i-Vazír
Hasan-i-Zunuzi Ḥasan-i-Zunúzí
Hasan, Hisan Ḥasan, pl. Ḥisán beautiful, handsome, lovely;   pretty, nice;   good, agreeable;   excellent, superior, exquisite.   Ḥasan is the name of the second Imám.
Hasana, Husn Ḥasana (Ḥusn) to be handsome, beautiful, lovely, nice, fine, good;   to be expedient, advisable, suitable, proper, fitting;   to be in a proper state, be in a desirable condition
Hasani Ḥasaní of Ḥasaní, descendant of Ḥasan
Hasanzadih-Shakiri Ḥasanzádih-Shákirí (Ḥasan-i-Zádih-Shákirí)
Hashara, Hashr Ḥashara, Ḥashr 1. to gather, assemble, rally (people), raising from the dead;   to cram, crowd, pack, jam (together);   to squeeze, press, force, stuff.   2. migration, evacuation, exile.
Hashim shim breaker of bread into a broth; surname of an ancestor (Háshim ibn 'Abd Manáf al-Mughírah, great grandfather?) of Muḥammad, on account of his providing broth to the poor at the time of a great famine.The Baní-Háshim were Muḥammad’s ancestors, a tribal group in southern Arabia.   From ‘hashama’, “to destroy or smash to pieces”.
Hashimi, Hashimite shimí Hashemite, member of the Baní-Háshim
Hashish, Hasha'ish Ḥashísh, pl. Ḥashá’ish herbs, grasses;   weeds;   hay;   hemp (Cannabis sativa), hashish, cannabis;   stillborn child.   Known by many names in Persia: ‘Parrot of all mysteries’, or plain ‘Mysteries’; or ‘Secrets’, or ‘Master Siyyid’—it being green, and the Siyyids, descendants of the Prophet, wear a turban as green as parrot feathers. (An ode of Ḥáfiẓ which must have puzzled translators is addressed to hashish and begins, ‘O thou parrot, speaker of secrets, may thy beak never lack for sugar!’) Summon up remembrance, p. 87.
Hashiya, Hawashin Ḥashiya, pl. Ḥawashin border;   seam, hem;   edge;   margin (of a book);   marginal gives;   marginal notes;   commentary on certain words and passages of a book, supercommentary;   footnote;   postscript;   retinue, entourage, suite, servants;   dependents;—pl. critical apparatus
Hashshash, Hashshashun (Hashshashin) Ḥashshásh, pl. Ḥashsháshún smoker or chewer of hashish, hashish addict.   Assassins (Ḥashsháshín, from Assassiyun—“those faithful to the foundation”) is a name used to refer to medieval Nizárí (an-Nizáriyyún) Ismailis (Ismá‘íliyyún).
Hasht Hasht eight
Hasht Bihisht Hasht Bihisht The eight paradises by Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Rúḥí
Hasib, Husaba' Ḥasíb, pl. Ḥusabá respected, esteemed;   noble, of noble birth, highborn.   Also a revenger or resenter of an injury;   a reckoner (al-Ḥasíb a name of God).
Hast Hast Pers.   is, exists, remains;   existence, being.   hastam (I am), hastí (you are), hast (he, she, it is), hastím (we are), hastíd (you are), hastand (they are)
Hasur Ḥaṣúr Pers.   close, avaricious
Hasuri Ḥaṣúrí Rúḥu’lláh Ḥaṣúrí
Hatif, Hawatif Hátif, pl. Hawátif shouting, calling loudly;   (in earlier Sufism) invisible caller, voice;—pl. telephone;   loudspeaker;   exclamations, shouts, cries, calls
Hatim at-Ta'i, Hatim-i-Ta'i Ḥátim aṭ-Ṭá’í, Pers. Ḥátim-i-Ṭá’í Arab poet known for his generosity/liberality.   Also transcripted as Ḥátim al-Ṭáyy (“Hatim al-Tai” or “Hatim al-Taaey”), Ḥátim of the Ṭáyy or Ṭá’í tribe, but formally Ḥátim bin ‘Abdu’lláh bin Sa‘d aṭ-Ṭá’iyy.   The nisba (patronymic) of Ṭayy is aṭ-Ṭá’í.
Hatim, Hatam Ḥátim, Pers. Ḥátam Who or what renders necessary;   one who decrees, ordains or pronounces judgement;   a judge;   a black crow, “the raven of separation”;   name of a man of the Arabian tribe Tayy, celebrated for his liberality
Hatta Ḥattá (preposition) until, till, up to, as far as;   (conjugated with perfect) until, so that;   (with subjunctive) until, that, so that, in order that
Hattab Ḥaṭṭáb wood gatherer;   wood-cutter, lumberjack;   vendor of firewood
Hawdaj (Haudaj) Hawdaj, pl. Hawádij camel litter, howdah;   sedan chair, litter.   Carried by a camel, mule, horse or elephant for travelling purposes.
Hawl (Haul), Ahwal, Hu'ul Hawl, pl. Ahwál, Hu’úl terror, fright, alarm, shook, horror, dismay;   power
Hawran, Hauran, Houran Ḥawrán the Hauran, a mountainous plateau in SW Syria and N Jordan.   The Druze of the area.
Haww Ḥawwá’ Eve
Hayat Ḥayát life, existence
Hayat-Quli Khan Ḥayát-Qulí Khán Governor of Karand and a member of the ‘Alíyu’lláhís, a sect that equates Imám ‘Alí with God.
Hayawan, Hayawanat Ḥayawán, pl. Ḥayawánát animal, beast;   (collectively) animals, living creatures
Haydar Ḥaydar Pers.   a lion;   a proper name
Haydar-'Ali Ḥaydar-‘Alí, Ḥájí Mírzá noted early Bahá’í, born into Shaykhí family of Iṣfahán. Known as the “Angel of Carmel”.
Haydari Ḥaydarí
Hayf (Haif) Ḥayf (pun on the name Haifa)   Pers.   practising injustice;   injustice, violence, oppression;   revenge;   a pity;   alas! what a pity
Hayfa' (Haifa') Ḥayfá’ Haifa.   Heb. Hefa or Hepha
Hayiya, Hayya, Yahya Ḥayiya, Ḥayya, Yaḥyá (Ḥayáh) to live;   ḥayya to live to see, experience, witness (something), live (through a time)
Haykal (Haikal), Hayakil Haykal, pl. Hayákil temple;   large building, edifice;   altar;   skeleton;   framework (of a structure), frame;   chassis (of an automobile);   colossal, gigantic, huge.   A broader definition given by Steingass: a figure, image, face, form, stature or shape of the body;   a long or tall horse;   anything large-sized;   a giant;   a tall plant;   a temple of idolaters;   a palace, stately edifice;   a Christian church;   a monastery;   an amulet or talisman inscribed with magic figures, hung round the body, as a defence against fascination or misfortune.
Haykalu't-tawhid Haykalu’t-tawḥíd “posture of unity”, or freely translated as cross-legged
Haytham (Haitham) Haytham young eagle.   Abú ‘Alí al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham (c.  965–c.  1040), Muslim Arab scientist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher.
Hayy Ḥayy, pl. Aḥyá’ living, live, alive;   lively, lusty, animated, active, energetic, unbroken, undaunted, undismayed;   living being, organism;   tribe, tribal community;   block of apartment houses;   section, quarter (of a city).   al-Ḥayy, divine name the Ever-Living
Hayyan Ḥayyán lively, energetic.   Abú Músá Jábir ibn Hayyán (Geber)
Hazar (Hizar) Hazár Pers.   a thousand;   a bird called the thousand voices, having an uncommon variety of melodious notes, a species of nightingale;   a term employed in the game of nard
Hazir, Haziran Ḥáẓir, pl. Ḥáẓirán present, at hand, ready, prepared;   at the service of, willing, content;   (in grammar) the present tense;   the second person;   a large tribe;—pl. the people present, the audience.   See ḥáḍir
Hazira, Haza'ir Ḥaẓírá, pl. Ḥaẓa’ir enclosure, railing, fence, palisade, hedge;   compound, yard, pound, pinfold;   corral, pen, paddock, coop;   hangar, shed;   field, domain, realm (figurative)
Hazirat Ḥaẓírat Pers.   a city, a fixed residence
Haziratu'l-Quds Ḥaẓíratu’l-Quds the Sacred Fold or Paradise.   Title (sometimes shortened to Ḥaẓíra) given to Bahá’í administrative headquarters owned by the Bahá’ís—local, regional and national. If rented it is a Bahá’í Centre.
Hiba, Hibat Hiba(t), pl. Hibát gift, present, donation, grant
Hibatu'llah Hibatu’lláh gift from God
Hibb, Ahbab Ḥibb, pl. Aḥbáb darling, dear, dearest (one)
Hidayat (Hedayat) Hidáya(t) guidance, showing the way and guiding in the right path to the goal of perfection.   Riḍá Qulí Khán Hidáyat, Persian literary historian, administrator, and poet of the Qájár period (8 June 1800–29 June 1871).
Hidayatu'llah Hidáyatu’lláh Guidance of God
Hidj, Huduj, Ahday Ḥidj, pl. Ḥudúj, Aḥdáj load, burden, encumbrance;   a camel’s litter in which women ride
Hifz Ḥifẓ preservation;   maintenance, sustentation, conservation, upholding;   protection, defence, guarding;   custody, safekeeping, keeping, storage;   retention;   observance, compliance (with);   memorizing, memorization;   memory;   (jurisprudence) discontinuance, stay, suspension (of legal action, of a judicial investigation)
Hija’i Hijá’í alphabetical;   satiric.   Modern dictionaries and other reference books use the hijá’í order wherein the Arabic letters are partially grouped together by similarity of shape.
Hijab Ḥijáb, pl. Ḥujub, Aḥjiba cover, wrap, drape;   curtain;   woman’s veil;   screen, partition, folding screen;   barrier, bar;   diaphragm.   A veil that covers the head and chest.
Hijaz Ḥijáz prohibiting, keeping asunder;   a barrier, or anything similar, by which two things are separated;   a rope;   one of the principal musical modes or styles of the Persians.   al-ḥijáz (Hejaz) is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia. It is bordered on the west by the Red Sea, on the north by Jordan, on the east by Najd, and on the south by Asir.
Hijr Ḥijr forbidden, interdicted, prohibited;   northern wall of the Ka‘ba;   lap;   mare.   Name of chapter 15 of the Qur’án (from 15:80, which refers to the rocky country of the Thamúd tribe to the north of al-Madínah) and translated as “rocky tract”.   For al-Ḥijr, see Madá’in Ṣáliḥ
Hijra Hijra(h) departure, exit;   emigration, exodus;   immigration to;   al-Hijra (the Hegira), the emigration of the Prophet Muḥammad from Mecca to Medina in AD 622 and start of Islamic calendar (assumed to be 15 July 622).
Hijri Hijrí of the Hegira pertaining to Muḥammad’s emigration in ad 622.   A year (sana) of the Hegira, a year of the Muslim era (beginning with Muḥammad’s emigration.   Muslim lunar calendar.
Hijriya Hijríya Muslim era, after the Hegira, until the end of the time of the Imams in ad 873 (ah 260), i.e. 260 years
Hikaya, Hikayat Ḥikáya, pl. Ḥikáyát story, tale, narrative, account;   (grammar) literal quotation (of the words of others)
Hikma Ḥikma(t), pl. Ḥikam prudence and wisdom, philosophy
Hikmat-i-Ishraqi Ḥikmat-i-Ishráqí (Hekmat-i-Eshrakieh)—a system of old philosophies
Hila, Hiyal, Ahayil Ḥíla, pl. Ḥiyal, Aḥáyíl artifice, ruse, stratagem, manoeuver, subterfuge, wile, trick;   device, shift;   a means to accomplish an end;   expedient, makeshift, dodge, way-out;   legal stratagem (for the purpose of in fraudem legis agere (in circumvention of the rules of law)
Hilal, Ahilla, Ahalil Hilál, pl. Ahilla, Ahálíl new moon;   half-moon, crescent;   parenthesis;   any crescent-shaped object
Hill Ḥill Pers.   being lawful;   a lawful thing;   the dissolution of an oath;   doffing the pilgrim's garb;   a butt or mark for archers
Hill, Hillin Ḥill, Ḥillin he was free to …, he was at liberty to …;   he had free disposal of ….   The unprotected area (outside the Sanctuary) and the unprotected months.   Compare with Ḥaram.
Hillah, Hilla, Hillih Ḥillah or Ḥilla, Pers. Ḥillih A city in central ‘Iráq on the river Euphrates, 100 km south of Baghdád
Hilm, Hulum, Ahlam Ḥilm, pl. Ḥulúm, Aḥlám gentleness, clemency, mildness;   forbearance, indulgence;   patience;   insight, discernment, understanding, intelligence, reason
Hilmi Ḥilmí
Himar, Hamir, Humur, Ahmira Ḥimár, pl. Ḥamír, Ḥumur, Aḥmira donkey, ass
Himma, Himam Himma, pl. Himam endeavor, ambition
Himmat-Abad Himmat-Ábád city in Raḍawí Khurásán Ústán Province, Írán
Hims Ḥimṣ Homs, city in Syria 140 km north of Damascus. Previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek).
Himyar Ḥimyar place and tribe of Yemen (Himyartes)
Himyari Ḥimyarí of Ḥimyar.   Ḥarbí al-Ḥimyarí was an Arab scholar from Yemen
Hin, Ahyan, Ahayin Ḥín, pl. Aḥyán, Aḥáyín time;   propitious time, good time, opportunity.   Abjad value of ḥín is 68. Hence, the “year of Ḥín” refers to ah 1268 or ad 1851–52.   Hin is an ancient Hebrew liquid measurement (mentioned in the Bible) of 3.8 to 6 litres.
Hind, Hindat Hind, pl. Hindát India;   the (East) Indians;   fem. name (in particular Hind bint ‘Utbah, a wife of Abú Sufyán, and the mother of Mu‘áwiyah I)
Hindi, Hunud Hindí, pl. Hunúd Ar.   Indian
Hindiya (Hindiyyih) al-Hindiya(h) (Pers. Hindíyyih 1. city (on the Euphrates River, 20 km se Karbilá) and district in the Karbilá Governorate. The city used to be known as Ṭuwaíríj.   2. Saddat al-Hindíya(h) is a city on the Euphrates River in Iraq, 25 km NE of Karbilá and 8 km south of Musayyib (المسيب). Name derived from the Arabic word for “Indian”, in reference to the dozens of Indian manual labourers imported to the area by the British post World War i, to work on the cities vast agricultural lands.
Hindiyan (Hindian, Hinijan) Hindíyán (Hindíján) (Hendijan, Hendian) a city in and the capital of Hendijan County, Khuzestan Province, SW Írán
Hindu, Hinduwan Hindú, pl. Hinduwán Pers.   Indian;   black;   servant;   slave;   robber;   infidel;   watch-man
Hindustan Hindústán Pers.   India
Hiqf, Ahqaf Ḥiqf, pl. Aḥqáf wavy heap of sand;—pl. hills of sand extending a great way; name of a large district in Arabia formerly inhabited by the people of ‘Ád. Qur’án 46: al-Aḥqáf “The Wind-curved Sand Hills” or “The Winding Sand-tracts”
Hira Ḥirá’ Ghár Ḥirá’ (the Cave of Hira) is located at the western end (6.3 km from the centre of Mecca) of Jabal Ḥirá’ (Mount Hira), a ridge of hills on the north side of Mecca. The “mountain” was renamed Jabal al-Núr (Mountain of Light) after Muḥammad’s revelation in the cave.
Hirah, Hirih Ḥíra(h), Ḥíri(h) al-Ḥírah was an ancient city in Mesopotamia located south of what is now al-Kúfah
Hirat Hirát Herat, Afghánistán
Hirawi Hirawí Pers.   a native of Herat
Hirbud Hirbúd [Herbod or Herbud]—the mystics and holy people
Hirman Ḥirmán deprivation, bereavement, dispossession (of someone, of something) debarment, exclusion, preclusion (from);   excommunication (Christian);   privation
Hisab, Hisabat Ḥisáb, pl. Ḥisábát arithmetic, reckoning, calculus;   computation;   calculation, estimation, appraisal;   accounting, settlement;   consideration;   caution;— (pl.) bill, invoice;   statement of costs (bank) account
Hisami Ḥisámí See Ḥusám
Hisan, Husan, Ahsina Ḥiṣán, pl. Ḥuṣun, Aḥsina horse;   stallion;   Ḥiṣán al-baḥr: hippopotamus (Ancient Greek, Hippos, Aramaic, Sussita, names of ancient city east side Sea of Galilee)
Hisar Ḥiṣár block, blockage, barrier;   blockade;   siege.   A town in Khurásán province.
Hisham Hishám Pers.   beneficence, liberality.   Hishám ibn ‘Abdu’l-Malik, 10th Umayyad Caliph
Hishmat Ḥishmat decorum, chastity, bashful, modesty (fem.)
Hishmatu'd-Dawlih Ḥishmatu’d-Dawlih
Hishmatu'llah Ḥishmatu’lláh “chaste one of God”
Hisn, Husun Ḥiṣn, pl. Ḥuṣún fortress, fort, castle, citadel, stronghold;   fortification, entrenchment;   protection
Hitta Ḥiṭṭa alleviation, relief, mitigation;   abasement, debasement, demotion, degradation (in rank, dignity, prestige);   humiliation, insult, indignity
Hizam, Hizamat, Ahzima, Huzum Ḥizám, pl. Ḥizámát, Aḥzima, Ḥuzum belt, girth;   girdle;   cummerbund, waistband (worn over the caftan to fasten it);   sword belt
Hizar Hizár Ar.   joking, jesting, fun-making.   Used in Persian with the same meaning as Hazár
Hizar Dastan Hizár Dastán Pers.   “thousand songs”
Hizavih Hizávih village <20 km NW of Arák (Sulṭán Ábád), Írán
Hizb, Ahzab Ḥizb, pl. Aḥzab group, troop, band, cohort, gang;   associates, auxiliaries, confederates;   arms, armour;   party (politics);   a 60th part of the Qur’án
Hizbu'llah Ḥizbu’lláh “Party of God” (Hezbullah)
Hizqil Ḥizqíl Pers.   Ezekiel
Hubal (Hobal) Hubal a god worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia, notably by Quraysh at the Ka‘bah in Mecca. His idol was a human figure, believed to control acts of divination, which was in the form of tossing arrows before the statue. The direction in which the arrows pointed answered questions asked of the idol.
Hubb Ḥubb love;   affection, attachment
Hubbu’llah Ḥubbu’lláh Love of God
Hubur Ḥubúr joy.   Ḥubúr (Hobour) Khánum
Hud Húd A prophet sent to the tribe of ‘Ád.   He is a descendent of Noah.
Hudaybiyyah Ḥudaybiyyah Truce of al-Ḥudaybiyyah, in ah 6 (ad 628), at Ḥudaybiyyah spring about 20 km west of Mecca on the Old Mecca-Jiddah Road.   The ruins of the old mosque marking the site is at 21.441960, 39.625601.
Huduri Ḥuḍúrí ḥuḍúrí (presence of) aḥkám (judgements)—judgements delivered in the presence of the litigant parties after oral proceedings.   Imám’s knowledge is inspired since it is obtained “in the presence of” (ḥuḍúrí) God.
Huduth Ḥudúth setting in (of a state or condition), occurrence, incidence (of a phenomenon);   occurrence, incident, happening.   “originated nature”—contrast with Imkán (Gate of the heart, p. 189)
Hujaja'l Bahiayyih Ḥújaja’l-Bahá’íyyih “Ḥujaja’l-Bahíyyih”, The Bahá’í Proofs by Mírzá Abu’l-Faḍl
Hujja Ḥujja(h or t), pl. Ḥújaj argument;   pretense, pretext, plea;   proof, evidence;   document, writ, deed, record;   authority.   A term used in Shí‘í terminology meaning “proof [implied: proof of God]”. It is usually used to refer to a single individual in any given human era who represents God’s “proof” to humanity.   The ḥujja is a prophet or an Imám who possess a relationship with God that is greater than anyone else.   “Ḥujahs” in The Promised Day is Come, p. 97 should be Ḥújaj.
Hujja ala al-kull ḥujja alá al-kull “proof for all”.   The Báb’s praise for Qurratu’l-‘Ayn
Hujjat'u'llah Ḥujjat’u’lláh the proof of God.   The last Imám is known as the Proof of God.   Title given to an aspiring mujtahid.
Hujjatiya (Hojjatieh) Ḥujjatíya(h) Ánjuman Khayríya Ḥujjatíyah Mahdíyah (“Charitable Society of Allah’s Proof Over Creation”).   The Hojjatieh Society was (1953–1983) a traditionalist Iranian Shí‘a lay religious organization that promoted orthodoxy through non-violent evangelism. It aimed to counter the proofs offered by the Bahá’í Faith.
Hujjatu'l-Islam Ḥujjatu’l-Islám Proof of Islám.   Mullá Muḥammad-‘Alí of Zanján was called Ḥujjatu’l-Islám. The Báb called him Ḥujjatu’l-Zanjání.
Hujr, Hajara, Hijr, Hujr, Hijran, Hujran Ḥujr, Ḥajara to deny access   (Ḥajr, Ḥijr, Ḥujr, Ḥijrán, Ḥujrán)
Hujra, Hujarat, Hujar Ḥujra, pl. Ḥujarát, Ḥujar Ar.   room;   cell;   (railroad) compartment;   chamber
Hujrat (Hujrih), Hujra, Hujarat Ḥujrat, Ḥujra, pl. Ḥujarát Pers.   a chamber, closet, cell;   a box in a theatre, circus
Hukm, Ahkam Ḥukm, Aḥkám judgement, valuation, opinion;   decision, (legal) judgement, verdict, sentence;   condemnation, conviction;   administration of justice;   jurisdiction, legal consequence of the facts of a case (Islamic Law);   regulation, rule, provision, order, ordinance, decree;   judiciousness, wisdom, judgeship, command, authority, control, dominion, power;   government, regime;—pl. statutes, by-laws, regulations, rules, provisions, stipulations, principles, precepts
Hukuma, Hukumat Ḥukúma(t), pl. Ḥukúmát government
Hulul Ḥulúl stopping, putting up, staying;   descending, coming on, befalling, overtaking;   incarnation;   setting in, advent, arrival (of a time, of a deadline), beginning, dawn;   substitution (for someone).   In the sense of incarnation: the descent of God or the spirit of God into a person.
Huma (Homa) Humá Pers.   a bird of Eastern fable, supposed to fly constantly in the air without touching the ground, and looked upon as a bird of happy omen, prognosticating a crown to every head it overshades;   a bird of paradise, phœnix, large royal eagle, or pelican.   Fem. name.
Humay Humáy Pers.   a queen of Persia, grandmother to Dáráb II;   name of a sister of Isfandyár;   name of a daughter of Bahman;   name of a daughter of the Emperor of Constantinople married to Bahrám Gúr;   name of the lover of Humáyún;   a standard bearing a figure of the bird humá.
Humayun Humáyún Pers.   blessed, sacred, fortunate, august, royal, imperial;   name of several kings;   name of the mistress of Humáy
Humazatun (Humazah) Humazatun (Humazah) one given to backbiting, defamer, slander-monger
Hums Ḥums al-Ḥums is the name traditionally given to the inhabitants of the ḥaram of Mecca at the time of Muḥammad’s appearance, in so far as they were distinguished by special customs during the iḥrám from the other tribes who were together known as al-Ḥilla.
Hunar Hunar Pers.   skill, science, knowledge, ingenuity, art, industry, excellence, virtue;   profession;   a bill of exchange
Hunayn (Hunain) Ḥunayn Battle of Ḥunayn (Qur’án 9:25) in a valley between Mecca and the city of Ṭá’if to the east of Mecca
Huquq Ḥuqúq rights
Huququ'llah Ḥaqqu’lláh (sing.), Ḥuqúqu’lláh “Right(s) of God”
Hur-i-'Ujab Ḥúr-i-‘Ujáb “The Wondrous Maiden” by Bahá’u’lláh
Hur, Huran Ḥúr (originally pl., also used as sing.) Pers.   virgins or a virgin of Paradise, houri;—pl. ḥúr and ḥúrán
Hurayra (Huraira), Hurayrih Hurayra(h), Pers. also Hurayrih a little cat or kitten.   Spelling variations of i or y, and endings of “ah” or “ih”.   Surname given to Abú Hurayrih ‘Abdu’r-Raḥmán bin Sakhr (a companion of Muḥammad) because of the favourite kitten he used to carry around with him.   A village about 24 km NW of central Damascus, Syria.
Huriya, Huriyat, Hur Ḥúríya, pl. Ḥúríyát, Ḥúr houri, virgin of paradise;   nymph;   young locust.   Ḥúrí (adjective) (literally, white one).   “Most Great Spirit” symbolized by the “Maiden” (Bahá’u’lláh);   formerly the “Sacred Fire” (Zoroastrian), “Burning Bush” (Mosaic), “Dove” (Christian) and “Angel Gabriel” (Islám)
Hurmuduk (Hurmuzak) Húrmudúk Hormodok, small village 55 km SW of Yazd. 5.5 km by road from the village of Sakhvíd (Sakhoid) (to the NW)
Hurmuz (Hormuz), Hurmuzd (Hormuzd) Hurmúz, Hurmúzd Pers.   name of an angel;   the first day of the solar month;   the planet Jupiter;   name of the grandson of Isfandíyár;   Strait of Hurmúz (Tang-i-Hurmúz) between Írán and Oman
Hurmuzan (Hormuzan, Hormazdan) Hurmuzán was an Iranian aristocrat who served as the governor of Khúzistán, and was one of the Sasanian military officers at the Battle of al-Qádisiyyah. He was later taken prisoner by the Muslims after the fall of Shúshtar in 642.
Hurqalya, Havarqalya Húrqalyá, Havarqalyá (speculative Pers.) intermediary world between the physical and spiritual worlds. Everything in the physical world has its counterpart in the world of Húrqalyá. Each individual human being has two bodies, one of which exists in the physical world and one in Húrqalyá. The occulted but living twelfth Imám and the cities of Jábulsá and Jábulqá, where he is supposed to live, all exist in the realm of Húrqalyá.   Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Moojan Momen, p. 227.   From Hebrew רָקִיעַ (firmament, sky, ductile, heaven, expanse, canopy).   See 21263244/HURQALYA-HAVARQALYA and The development of Shaykhí thought in Shí‘í Islam, pp. 106–7.
Hurr, Ahrar, Hara'ir Ḥurr, pl. m. Aḥrár, f. Ḥará’ir noble, free-born;   genuine (jewels, etc.), pure, unadulterated;   free; living in freedom;   freeman;   independent;   free unrestrained;   liberal
Hurriya al-'Ibada Ḥurriya al-‘Ibada freedom of worship
Hurriya al-Fikr Ḥurriya al-Fikr freedom of thought
Hurriya al-Kalam Ḥurriya al-Kalam freedom of speech
Hurriya an-Naṣr Ḥurriya an-Naṣr liberty of the press
Hurriya, Huriyat Ḥurriya, Per. Ḥurriyyah, pl. Ḥurriyát freedom, liberty;   independence, unrestraint, license (e.g., poetic)
Huruf Muqatta'at Ḥurúf Muqaṭṭa‘át “disjoined letters”, “disconnected letters”, and also “mysterious letters” are combinations of one to five Arabic letters following the Bismi’lláh at the beginning of 29 chapters (surahs) of the Qur’án. The letters are also known as fawátiḥ or “openers” as they form the opening verse of their respective surahs.
Huruf-i-Hayy Ḥurúf-i-Ḥayy Letters of the Living.   See Ḥarf and Sábiq
Hurufat-i-'Alin Ḥurúfát-i-‘Álín The Exalted letters by Bahá’u’lláh.   See Ḥarf
Hurufi Ḥurúfí (Pers. with Ar. influence)   a relator of traditions, a traditionist.   See singular Ḥarf
Hurufiyyya Ḥurúfiyyya Hurufism, Sufi doctrine.   Not ḥurúfís (MCI , p. 403)
Husam (Hisam) Ḥusám (Ḥisám) (sharp) sword, sword edge
Husam-i-Din, Hisam-i-Din Ḥusám-i-Dín (Ḥisám-i-Dín) sword of faith
Husamu's-Sultani, Hisamu's-Saltanih Ḥusámu’s-Sulṭaní (Ḥisámu’s-Salṭanih) (“Sword of the sovereign”)   Title of Prince Sulṭán Murád Mírzá, son of ‘Abbás Mírzá and grandson of Fatḥ-‘Alí Sháh
Husayn Ḥusayn (Diminutive form of Haṣan “Good”)   Name of the third Imám, Ḥusayn.
Husayn-'Ali Ḥusayn-‘Alí
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Isfahani Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Iṣfahání
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Jahrumi Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Jahrúmí
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Nur Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Núr (GPB p. 338)
Husayn-'Aliy-i-Nuri Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Núrí Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Núrí, Mírzá   Bahá’u’lláh
Husayn-Abad Ḥusayn-Ábád
Husayn-Aqa Ḥusayn-Áqá (MF)
Husayn-Aqay-i-Tabrizi Ḥusayn-Áqáy-i-Tabrízí (MF)
Husayn-i-Ashchi Ḥusayn-i-Áshchí
Husayn-i-Bushru'i Ḥusayn-i-Bushrú’í Muḥammad-Ḥusayn-i-Bushrú’í, Mullá   From Bushrúyih, Khurásán
Husayn-i-Kashani Ḥusayn-i-Káshání
Husayn-i-Kashi Ḥusayn-i-Káshí
Husayn-i-Shiraziy-i-Khurtumi Ḥusayn-i-Shírázíy-i-Khurṭúmí
Husayn-i-Turshizi Ḥusayn-i-Turshízí
Husayn-i-Yazdi Ḥusayn-i-Yazdí
Husayn-ibn-Ruh Ḥusayn-ibn-Rúḥ (one of “Four Gates”)
Husayn-Khan Ḥusayn-Khán (the Mushiru’d-Dawlih)
Husayni Ḥusayní of Ḥusayn
Husayniyyih Ḥusayníyyih In Shí’ih Islám, a place used to mourn the death of Imám Ḥusayn
Husban Ḥusbán calculation, reckoning, accounting;   computation.   bi-Ḥuṣbán “By final calculation”
Hushang (Hoshang) Húshang Pers.   name of the second king of Persia, of the Peshdadian dynasty;   wisdom, prudence, intellect.   “The first emanation, intelligence”
Hushidar, Hoshidar Hushidár One who increases holiness or promotes righeousness;   name of a future saviour.   Zoroastrian origin.   Úshídar-Máh
Hushmand shmand Pers.   wise
Husn Ḥusn beauty, handsomeness, prettiness, loveliness;   excellence, superiority, perfection
Husn al-Madkhal Ḥusn al-Madkhal good manners, good conduct
Husni-Farang Ḥusní-Farang Pers.   white, as the complexion of Europeans
Husniyya, Husniyyih Ḥusniyya(h) fem. , Pers. Ḥusníyyih possessing beauty
Huss Ḥuṡṣ saffron.   See za‘farán
Huwa (Pers. Huva) Huwa he; it (3rd pers. m. sing. of the pers. pronoun); God (or “the Most Great Name of God” according to the Báb). Huwa (“he” or “he is”) in the context of “‘He is’ God” is often incorrectly understood (as in the definition) to be the name of God. In the Bible it is represented in Hebrew by the tetragrammaton “YHWH”, sometimes pronounced as Yahweh. However, the Jews were forbidden to utter the name of God, and as ancient Hebrew script did not use vowels, it is not known how YHWH would have been pronounced, if it was permitted. If we say “yá huwa” in Arabic in reference to God, it means “O He is …”. Since Hebrew and Arabic are sister languages, it is not surprising that “yá huwa” sounds like Yahweh, which has commonly been represented by Jehovah. (In some European languages the “J” is pronounced as “Y”, “V” as “U”, and “W” as “UU”.) See note under Bahá’.
Huwa'llah Huwa’lláh He is God (huwa+ Alláh). Hence, defining Huwa as “God” gives “God God”???
Huwaydar, Huvaydar Huwaydar, Pers. Huvaydar village north of the city Ba‘qúba, which is 60 km NE of Baghdád
Huwiya (Pers. Huwiyyat, Huviyyat) Huwíya(h) or Huwíya(t), Pers. Huwíyyah essence, nature;   coessentiality, consubstantiality;   identity;   identity card.   “Essence of Divinity”
Huzn, Hazan, Ahzan Ḥuzn, Pers. Ḥazan, pl. Aḥzán grief, sadness, affliction, sorrow
Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic “names” of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots and underscores · Vowel sounds · Microsoft Word
Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
I'tidal I‘tidál moderation
I'jaz I‘jáz inimitability, wondrous nature (of the Qur’án—I‘jáz al-Qur’án).   See ahdá
I'qilhá wa tawakkal I‘qilhá wa tawakkal Tie up (your camel) and trust (in God)—in Tirmidhi’s collection of traditions
I'rab I‘ráb literally “making the [word] Arabic” or “making a thing expressed, disclosed or eloquent” (variation IV of ‘Arab) manifestation, declaration, proclamation, pronouncement, utterance;   speaking, reasoning in Arabic;   using shameful, indecent, and obscene language;   inflecting, declining an Arabic noun or verb;   the vowels and diacritical points in Arabic
I’tikaf I‘tikáf continuing in prayer, remaining constantly in the mosque;   retirement, seclusion (in a place of worship);   restraining one’s passions from religious motives;   constant devotions.
I'timad, I'timadat I‘timád, pl. I‘timádát reliance, dependence (on), confidence, trust (in);   confirmation;   sanction, approbation, authorization;   accreditation (of diplomats);—(pl.) credit, loan
I'timadu’d-Dawlih I‘timádu’d-Dawlih Mírzá Áqá Khán-i-Núrí, the I'timádu'd-Dawlih, chief minister of state at time of the attempt on the Sháh's life by a crazed Bábi, August 1852.
I'timadu’t-Tujjar I‘timádu’t-Tujjár
I'tiqad, I'taqadat I‘tiqád, pl. I‘tiqádát (firm) belief, faith, trust, confidence, conviction;—pl. (religious) creed, faith;   article of faith;   principle of faith, tenet;   doctrine;   dogma
I’tiraf I‘tiráf recognition, acceptance;   acknowledgment, avowal, admission, confession;   (Christian) confession
Iahut Iáhút divinity;   the inward or eternal aspect of reality
Ibada, 'Ibadat ‘Ibáda(t), pl. ‘Ibádát worship, adoration, veneration;   devotional service, divine service (Christian);—pl. acts of devotion, religious observances (Islamic Law)
Ibadu'llah ‘Ibádu’lláh worshippers of God
Ibaha, Ibahih Ibáḥa(h), Pers. Ibáḥih divulgence, disclosure (of a secret);   permission, authorization;   licentiousness.   “Permission” or abrogation of Islamic law on return of the Hidden Imám.
Ibda' Ibdá‘ creation, fashioning, shaping;   a marvellous, unique achievement;   uniqueness, singularity, originality;   creative ability
Ibda’i Ibdá‘í romantic (literally)
Ibda'iya Ibdá‘íya romanticism (literally)
Ibdal Ibdál exchange, interchange, replacement (by), substitution (of);   change;   phonetic change.
Iblis (Eblis), Abalisa Iblís, pl. Abálisa devil, Satan.   A figure often occurring in the Qur’án, regarded by many classical scholars as an angel, but as a jinn in most contemporary scholarship.
Ibn, Abna', Banun, Bani, Banu Ibn, (colloquial bin), pl. Abná’, Banún son;   descendant, scion;   offspring, son (of a nation or people).   Other plurals: baní, banín and banú.
Ibna, Bint, Banat Ibna (colloquial bint), pl. Banát daughter;   bint girl;   ibna al-‘amm (female)
Ibnu'l-, Ibn-i- Ibnu’l-, Pers. Ibn-i- elided forms of ibn
Ibnu'l-Alusi Ibnu’l-Álúsí the chief jurisconsult [muftí] of Baghdád—one of the five sons of the famous Shaykh Maḥmúd al-Álúsí. Probably one of the three eldest: ‘Abdu’lláh, Bahá’u’d-Dín; ‘Abdu’l-Baqí‘; and Siyyid Na‘mán, Khayru'd-Dín.
Ibrahim Ibráhím (Abraham)   Patriarch of the people of Israel.   Variations: ibráhim, ibráhum, ibráham, or ibráhúm.
Ibrahim-i-Isfahani Ibráhím-i-Iṣfahání
Ibrahim-i-Khalil Ibráhím-i-Khalíl
Ibrahim-i-Khayru'llah Ibráhím-i-Khayru’lláh Syrian doctor, the first Bahá’í teacher in America, and later joined forces with Muḥammad-‘Ali, the half-brother of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. His English wife, Miriam, remained loyal to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and later they were divorced.   Refer to Balyuzi: Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá’í Faith, pp. 114–117.
Ibrani Ibrání Hebrew, Hebraic;   a Hebrew
Ibtihaj Ibtiháj joy, rejoicing, delight (at)
Ibtihaju'l-Mulk Ibtiháju’l-Mulk Ibtiháju’l-Mulk of Gílán
Id (Eid), 'Ayad ‘Íd, pl. ‘Ayád anything which returns (of care, grief, or sickness);   a solemnity, feast, festival, holiday;—pl. manners, customs, habits
Id al-Adha ‘Íd al-Aḍḥá the Feast of Immolation (see Aḍḥan), or Greater Bayrám, on the 10th of Dhu’l-Ḥijjih
Id al-Fitr ‘Íd al-Fiṭr Feast of Breaking the Ramaḍán Feast, or Lesser Bayrám, celebrated on the 1st of Shawwál
Idafiya (Idafiyyah) Iḍáfíya(h) relativity or correlational (philosophical)
Idal ‘Idál justice.   See ‘adl
Idbar Idbár flight, retreat;   “turn around”
Idda (‘Iddah, ‘Iddat) ‘Idda number;   several, numerous, many.   ‘iddat, legally prescribed period of waiting during which a woman may not remarry after being widowed or divorced (Islamic Law)
Idha Idhá 1. (introducing a nominal clause the subject of which may he expressed by ب ("b") with following genitive) and then, and all of a sudden;   (with noun in nominative case or with ب) there was … and all of a sudden there was …;   2. (conjunction) when;   if, whenever;   whether, if (introducing indirect questions)
Idhn Idhn permission, authorization
Idris Idrís Idris.   IslamicProphet typically identified as Enoch, but Bahá’u’lláh identifies him with Hermes.   See Urmus
Iflat Iflát (“Aflát”)   escape
Ifranj al-Ifranj Ar.   the Franks, the Europeans
Ifranji Ifranjí Ar.   European
Ifridaws al-Ifrídaws Garden of Innermost Paradise (Gate of the Heart 60)
Ihata Iḥáṭa encirclement, encompassment;   comprehension, grasp, understanding, knowledge, cognizance (of something), acquaintance, familiarity (with);   information, communication
Ihram Iḥrám state of ritual consecration of the Mecca pilgrim (during which the pilgrim, wearing two seamless woollen or linen sheets, usually white, neither combs nor shaves, and observes sexual continence);   garments of the Mecca pilgrim
Ihsan Iḥsán beneficence, charity, almsgiving, performance of good deeds
Ihsanu'llah Iḥsánu’lláh beneficence of God
Ihtiraq Iḥtiráq burning, combustion;   fire, conflagration
Ihtisham Iḥtishám being ashamed;   bashfulness, chastity, modesty, decency, decorum;   having many dependants, followers, or domestics;   pomp, retinue, magnificence, grandeur, state.   See Taḥashshum
Ihtisham al-Dawla, Ihtisham-i-Dawlih Iḥtishám al-Dawla Pers.   Iḥtishám-i-Dawlih.   A title.
Ihtiyaj, Ihtiyajat Iḥtiyáj, pl. Iḥtiyáját want, need, requirement, (pre)requisite, necessity;—pl. needs, necessities, necessaries
Ihtiyat, Ihtiyatat Iḥtiyáṭ, pl. Iḥtiyáṭát caution, cautiousness, prudence, circumspection, carefulness;   provision, care, attention, precaution, prevention;   (pl.) precautionary measures, precautions
Ihya' Iḥyá’ animation, enlivening;   revival, revitalization, revivification;   arranging, staging, conducting, putting on, holding (of a celebration)
Ijad Íjád creation, procreation, production, origination;   procuring, procurement, furnishing, supply;   calculation, computation, evaluation
Ijadiyah (Ijadiyyah) Íjádíya(h) an islamic school of mystical philosophy—creationists or transcendentalists, who believe in a God separate from His creation
Ijaza (Ijazih), Ijazat Ijáza(h), Pers. also Ijázih, pl. Ijázát licence or diploma bestowed by higher-ranking members of the ulama on those deemed knowledgeable in particular aspects of Islamic sciences
Ijl, 'Ujul, 'Ijala ‘Ijl, pl. ‘Ujúl, ‘Ijala calf (e.g. the golden calf, al-dhahabí al-‘ijl)
Ijma' Ijmá‘ agreement, unanimity;   unanimous resolution;   (Isl. Law) consensus (of the authorities in a legal question;   one of the four uṣúl of Islamic Law)
Ijtihad Ijtihád effort, exertion, endeavour, pains, trouble;   application, industry, diligence;   (Islamic Law) independent judgement in a legal or theological question, based on the interpretation and application of the four uṣúl, as opposed to taqlíd;   individual judgement.   The power of a Shí‘ih divine to issue ex cathedra decrees and judgements.
Ijtima', Ijyima'at Ijtimá‘, pl. Ijtimá‘át meeting;   get-together, gathering, assembly;   reunion;   rally;   convention;   conjunction, constellation (astron.);   confluence (of rivers);   life in a social group, community life, social life
Ijtima'i Ijtimá‘í community, group (used attributively);   social;   socialist(ic);   sociological
Ikhlas Ikhláṣ sincerity or fidelity
Ikhtiyar, Ikhtiyarat Ikhtiyár, pl. Ikhtiyárát choice;   election (pl. also politics);   selection;   preference (to);   option;   free will (philosophy)
Ikram Ikrám honour, respect, deference, tribute;   hospitable reception, hospitality;   kindness;   honorarium
Iksir Iksír elixir, the philosopher's stone;   alchemy
Il-Khan Íl-Khán Pers.   a commander;   a title of the Mogul emperors
Il, Ilat Íl, pl. Ílat Pers.   tribe (especially nomadic)
Ilah, Ilaha, Aliha, Ilahat Iláh, fem. Ilaha(t), pl. Áliha, fem. Ilahát a god, deity, godhead.   Dual ilahayn.   Normally, if the dual form is used, the word for “two” (ithnán) is implied and is not added. However, in Qur’án 16:53, not only is the word for “two” included, but it itself is used in its dual form (ithnayn). This emphasizes the prohibition of worshipping ‘more than one deity—i.e., anything but the One God (Alláh).
Ilahi Iláhí divine, of God;   theological.   Bashír-i-Iláhí
Ilahiya Iláhíya(t) divinity, deity, divine revelation;   theophany (Christian)
Ilahiyat al-Iláhíyát theological, spiritual concerns
Ilan Ílán a village 60 km NE of Qazvín and another 70 km SW Shíráz
Ildirim Íldirím May be from Turkisk Yildirim (lightning)
Ilhad Ilḥád apostasy;   heterodoxy, heresy
Ilham, Ilhamat Ilhám, pl. Ilhámát inspiration;   instinct;   divine revelation
Ilkhani Ílkhání Pers.   Belonging or referring to an Ilkhan;   the leader of an army.   Also the name of a garden outside Ṭihrán where Ṭáhirih was martyred.
Ilkhchi Ílkhchí is a town and capital of Ílkhchí District, East Azerbaijan Province, Írán.
Illa, 'Illat, 'Ilal ‘Illa(t), pl. ‘Illát, ‘Ilal illness, sickness, disease, malady;   deficiency, defect, weakness;   weakness, defectiveness (of a letter or word;   grammar);   a cause, reason;   metrical variation or irregularity (prosody);—(pl. ‘Ilal) cause, reason, occasion;   excuse, pretence, pretext, plea.   Aristotle claimed that there are four causes (or explanations) needed to explain change in the world: ‘illat al-máddí, material cause, matter of which a thing is made;   ‘illat aṣ-ṣúrí, formal cause, i.e. that form in which the essence of a thing consists;   ‘illat al-fá‘ilí, notional or efficient cause (as the maker, if the work of man);   and ‘illat agh ghá’í, final cause for which it was made.
Illa'llah Illá’lláh “but God” or “save God”
Illiyun or 'Illiyyun ‘Illíyún or ‘Illiyyún (plural form of ‘ulúw or ‘illiyy) high, sublime;   high places or the persons who sit in high places;   the upper apartments of heaven;   a place in the seventh heaven, where the records of men’s actions are laid up;   the books themselves;   a ledger for the righteous deeds.   See Qur’án 83:18–20.   The opposite of sajín.
Ilm adh-Dhawqi al-‘Ilm adh-Dhawqi intuitive insight (Remembrance of God, p. 5, Scholl)
Ilm al-Ilahi ‘Ilm al-Iláhí theology
Ilm al-wujudi ‘ilm al-Wujudi existential knowledge
Ilm Ilahiyat, 'Ilm Ilahiyun ‘Ílm Iláhíyat, pl. ‘Ílm Iláhíyún theologian
Ilm-al-Yaqin ‘Ilm-al-Yaqín “certain knowledge” or knowledge that is impossible to deny or disprove
Ilm, ‘Ulum ‘Ilm, pl. ‘Ulúm Ar.   knowledge, learning, lore;   cognizance, acquaintance;   information;   cognition, intellection, perception, knowledge;   (pl.) science
Ilmi Ilmí scientific;   erudite (book);   learned (society)
Ilmiya, 'Ilmiyyyih ‘Ilmíya(t), Pers. also ‘Ilmíyyih learning, scholarship
Ilmu't-Tajwid ‘Ilmu’t-Tajwíd al-‘Ilmu’t-Tajwíd or ‘Ilmu’l-Qira’ah—the science of reading the Qur’an correctly.
Iltibas Iltibás confusion, tangle, intricacy, obscurity, ambiguity, dubiousness, doubt.   Also veiled or disguised.
Ilyas, Alyas Ilyás, Alyás Elijah (alternative spelling: Elyas, Ilias, Eliasor, Elias)
Ilzam Ilzám coercion, compulsion
Ilzami Ilzámí forced, compulsory, obligatory, required.   As a philosophical term, “necessary” may give a clearer meaning of the word.
Imad, Amad ‘Imád, pl. ‘Amad support, prop, stay (also figuratively);   bracket, buttress, post, pole, pillar.   Mír ‘Imád famous calligrapher.
Imadi'd-Dawlih ‘Imádi’d-Dawlih “the Mainstay of the State”
Imadu'd-Din Imádu’d-Dín pillar of the Faith
Imam-Husayn Imám-Ḥusayn the third Imám
Imam-Jum'ih Imám-Jum‘ih Pers.   (Imam-Jom’a or Imam Jomai)   The leader of the Shí’ah Friday prayers in the mosque of a city or town.
Imam-Zadih Imám-Zádih descendant of an Imám or his shrine
Imam-Zadih Ma'sum Imám-Zádih Ma‘ṣúm also known as the Shrine of ibn Bábuyyih (Babawayh) in the ibn Bábuyyih Cemetery, south of Ṭihrán.   Place where the Báb’s body was kept at the instruction of Bahá’u’lláh.   Nabil suggests the Shrine of Imám-Zádih-Ḥasan.
Imam, A'imma Imám, pl. A’imma imam, prayer leader;   leader;   master;   plumb line.   The person who leads the congregation in the mosque, in prayer (hence, “prayer leader”).   The A’imma are called the “Kindred of God”, “Suns of immaculacy and Moons of majesty” by Bahá’u’lláh (GDM).
Imama Imáma(h or t) Imamah.   Function or office of the prayer leader;   imamate;   leading position;   precedence
Iman Ímán faith, belief
Imara Imára position or rank of an emir;   princely bearing or manners;   principality, emirate;   authority, power
Imara, Imarat ‘Imára(h or t), pl. ‘Imárát, ‘Amá’ir building, edifice, structure;   real estate, tract, lot
Imarat-i-Khurshid ‘Imárat-i-Khurshíd Structure of the sun or sun room (missing ‘Ayn in texts?)
Imatu'l-Kubra ‘Imatu’l-Kubrá al-‘Imatu’l-Kubrá (“Most Great Name”)
Imda' Imḍá’ realization, execution, accomplishment, completion;   signing, signature
Imkan, Imkanat Imkán, pl. Imkánát power, capacity, capability;   faculty, ability;   possibility.   “inherent contingency”—contrast with Ḥudúth (Gate of the heart, p. 189)
Imkani Imkání possible, potential;   contingent
Imra', Imru' Imra’ and Imru’ (with definite article al-mar’) a man;   person, human being;   frequently for son, human being
Imra’a Imra’a woman, wife.   See plural Nisá’ and imra’
Imran ‘Imrán (Amran in Bible and Joachim is known as ‘Imrán in the al-Qur’án) name of the father of Moses, Mary and of Abú Tálib
Imru’ al-Qays (Imru’u’l-Qays) Imrú’ al-Qays ibn Ḥujr al-Kindí 6th century Arab poet
Imruz Imrúz today or this day.   See yúm
Imtihan, Imtihanat Imtiḥán, pl. Imtiḥánát test, experiment;   examination.   Tests occur when a Manifestation appears.   See also Fitna.
Imtiyaz, Imtiyazat Imtiyáz, pl. Imtiyazát distinction, (mark of) honour;   advantage, benefit, merit;   difference, distinction, differentiation, discrimination;   special right, privilege;   concession, patent, permit, license, franchise;   (oil) concession;   prerogative, priority right
In Ín Pers.   this, the demonstrative pronoun for the nearer object;   doubt;   irresolution
Inab, Inabun, A'nab ‘Inab (coll.; n. ‘Inabun), pl. A‘náb grape(s).   Not ‘Anab as in PUP 248 [aneb].
Inaya ‘Ináya(t) “Enayat” concern;   care, solicitude, providence (for);   care(fulness), painstaking, meticulousness (in);   heed, notice, regard, attention (to);   interest (in)
Inayatu'llah ‘Ináyatu’lláh (Enayet’o’llah) care of God.   ‘Ináyatu’lláh Ishráqí.   Mírzá ‘Ináyatu’lláh Khán, the son of Ḥájí Mullá Ismá‘íl (martyred at Shaykh Ṭabarsí)
Infi'al, Infi'alat Infi‘ál, pl. Infi‘álát (state of) being affected, acted upon, or influenced, passivity;   stimulation, irritation (biology);—pl. agitation, excitement, excitation, commotion
Infi'ali Infi‘álí excitable, irritable, susceptible (biology);   caused by affect, affective (philosophy)
Infitar Infiṭár being split, cleft, riven
Inhitat Inḥiṭáṭ decline, fall, decay, decadence;   inferiority
Inja Ínjá Pers.   this place;   here
Injil, Anajil Injíl, pl. Anájíl (Gk. Evangel) gospel.   Injíl occurs twelve times in the Qur’án (as Gospel in English) and refers to the book given to Jesus by God. It is believed to be the true lost original Gospel promulgated by Jesus.
Inkar Inkár denial, disavowal, negation, contestation;   refusal, rejection, non-acceptance, e.g. of Imám ‘Alí
Ins Ins (colloquial) man, mankind, human race
Insaf Inṣáf justice, equity
Insan-i-Kamil Insán-i-Kámil perfect human being
Insan, Insana Insán, fem. Insána man, human being.   Insán al-‘ain pupil (of the eye)
Insani Insání human;   humane;   humanitarian, philanthropist
Insha' Inshá’ creation;   origination;   bringing about;   setting up.   Establishment, organization, institution;   formation;   making, manufacture, production;   erection;   building, construction;   founding, foundation;   installation;   composition, compilation, writing;   letter writing;   style, art of composition;   essay, treatise.
Insha'allah Inshá’alláh “God willing” or “If God wills it”
Inshaqqa ’Inshaqqa (verb, form VII intransitive of Shaqqa) to split up, to crack (Qur’án 54:1)
Inshaqqu'l-Qamar ’Inshaqqu’l-Qamar splitting, cleaving or cracking the moon.   A miracle or “an impossible act”.   Refer to Qur’án 54:1.
Inshiqaq Inshiqáq separation, segregation, dissociation, spilt;   schism (Christian);   dissension, discord, disunion
Inshirah Inshiráḥ relaxedness, relaxation, joy, delight, glee, gaiety
Insi Insí human;   human being
Intizam Intiẓám (a variation of niẓám), being arranged, strung in a line;   arrangement, regulation, disposition, order, method, system;   plan, scheme;   administration, government
Intizar Intiẓár waiting, wait;   expectation
Iqab ‘Iqáb infliction of punishment, punishment;   penalty.   Translated by Shoghi Effendi as “retribution” in The Hidden Words #93 (Persian).   Mistaken for “eagle” in an early translation.   See ‘uqáb
Iqal, 'Uqal ‘Iqál, pl. ‘Uqul cord used for hobbling the feet of a camel;   a headband made of camel’s hair, holding the kúfíya (headdress) in place
Iqan Íqán being sure, knowing for certain;   certitude
Iqbal Iqbál drawing near, advance, approach;   coming, arrival, advent;   turning, application, attention, response, responsiveness
Iqd, 'Uqud ‘Iqd, pl. ‘Uqúd chaplet, necklace
Iqlim, Aqalim Iqlím, pl. Aqálím climate;   area, region;   province, district;   administrative district.
Iqrar Iqrár establishing, fixing (in a place);   promise, agreement, assurance, pledge;   consent, acquiescence, acceptance;   confirmation, ratification, affirmation, attestation, declaration;   settlement, compact, bargain;   confession, acknowledgment.
Iqtidar, Iqtidarat Iqtidár, fem. pl. Iqtidárát might, power, strength, potency;   ability, capability, faculty, capacity, efficiency, aptitude.   Iqtidárát wa chand lawḥ-i-dígár ḥaḍrat-i-Bahá’u’lláh (Magnificences and select other Tablets of His Holiness Bahá’u’lláh)—a compilation of Tablets by Bahá’u’lláh.
Iqtiran Iqtirán connection, conjunction, union, association, affiliation;   link, connectedness, simultaneous interaction;   conjunction (astron.);   new moon (as an astronomical aspect);   marriage, wedding
Irada (Iradih), Iradat Iráda(h), (Pers. Irádih), pl. Irádát will, volition;   wish;   desire;—(pl.) irade (a decree of an Islamic ruler), decree (of a ruler);   will power
Iraj (Iradj) Íraj Pers.   the sun;   name of the youngest son of Farídún;   name of a king of Babylon.   A village near Nayríz.
Iram, Aram Iram, pl. Árám stone erected in the desert for the direction of travellers.   Iram of the Pillars (Iram dhát al-‘imád), also called “Aram”, “Irum”, “Irem”, “Erum”, or the “City of the tent poles”, is a reference to a lost city, country or area mentioned in Qur’án 89:7, a place in ancient Arabia
Iran Írán Írán, the kingdom of Persia proper, said to be named after Íraj, son of Farídún, to whom this part of his father's dominions was given
Irandukht Írándukht Írán + dukht
Irani, Iranun Írání, pl. Íránún Iranian, Persian;—(pl.) a Persian, an Iranian
Iranzad Íránzád Pers.   son of Írán
Iraq al-‘Iráq Iraq
Iraq-i-'Ajam ‘Iráq-i-‘Ajam Persian ‘Iráq.   ‘Iráq between the 11th to 19th centuries consisted of two neighbouring regions: Arabic Iraq (‘Iráq-i ‘Arab) and Persian Iraq (‘Iráq-i ‘Ajam). Arabic Iraq = ancient Babylonia (now central-southern Iraq), and Persian Iraq = ancient Media (now central-western Iran). The two regions were separated by the Zagros Mountains.
Iraq-i-'Arab ‘Iráq-i-‘Arab Arabic ‘Iráq.   See note in previous entry.
Iraq-i-A'zam ‘Iráq-i-A‘ẓam A part of Írán once known as Persian ‘Iráq (the country around Media (the triangle between the ancient cities of Ecbatana (believed near Hamadan), Rhagae (southern Ṭihrán) and Aspadana (Iṣfahán)), in today's central Írán.
Iraqan (Iraqain , Iraqayn) al-‘Iráqán, Pers. al-‘Iráqayn cities of Baṣra and Kúfa
Iraqi, Iraqun ‘Iráqí, pl. ‘Iráqún Iraqi, Iraqian;—(pl.) an Iraqi
Irbil Irbíl (“)Erbil) capital of ‘Iráqí Kurdistán
Irfan ‘Irfán gnosis, mystic knowledge, true or spiritual understanding
Irhaq Irháq pressure, oppression;   suppression;   heavy load (e.g., of work)
Iriwan (Irivan) Iriwán Yerevan, capital of Armenia
Irshad al-'Awamm, Irshadu'l-'Avam Irshád al-‘Awámm, Pers. Irshádu’l-‘Avám “Guidance unto the ignorant” by Hájí Muḥammad-Karím Khán
Irshad, Irshadat Irshád, pl. fem. Irshádát guidance;   a conducting, showing the way (to);   guiding hand;   care;   spiritual guidance;   instruction;   direction;   directive;   information;   advising, advice;—pl. directives, directions, instructions, advice
Irtifa' Irtifá‘ rise (e.g., of prices);   elevation;   increase;   height, altitude (e.g., of a mountain).   The Báb uses irtifá‘ to mean abrogation (both removing and elevating) in relation to the abrogation of a former Dispensation and its fulfilment and exaltation by a new Dispensation.   “Each Revelation, in simultaneously abrogating and exalting the previous Dispensation, is the return of the previous Revelation in the station of its perfection.”  Gate of the heart, p. 277.
Irtiqa' Irtiqá‘ climbing, mounting;   ascension;   ascent;   progress, rise, progressive development;   “evolution”
Isa ‘Ísá Pers.   Jesus.   See Yasú’
Isam, A'sima, 'Usum ‘Iṣám, fem. ‘Iṣámí, pl. A‘ṣima, ‘Uṣum (“Essam”)   strap, thong.   Also safeguard.   Male given name and surname.   Derived from ‘Iṣma.
Isfahan Iṣfahán Pers.   city 340 km south of Ṭihirán.   Transcription as per Shoghi Effendi.   Iṣfáhán, Ispáhán and Ṣifáhán transcriptions are also used outside the Faith as the name of the city, carpets, business names and food.
Isfahan nisf-i-jihan Iṣfahán niṣf-i-jihán “Iṣfahán is half the world”
Isfahani Iṣfahání Ḥájí Mírzá Ḥaydar ‘Alí-i-Iṣfahání (b. Iṣfahán, ca. 1830; d. Haifa, 1920). Bahá’u’lláh gave him the titles “The Angel of Carmel” and “Sulṭán-i-Mu‘allimún” (The king of teachers). Author of Bihjatu’ṣ-Ṣudúr (Delight of Hearts)
Isfand Isfand Pers.   A species of rue;   a province of Nishábúr;   twelfth month of Iranian calendar
Isfandabad Isfandábád Esfandabd or Isfand-Abad.   Village between Yazd and Shíráz
Isfandiyar Isfandíyár Pers.   Esfandiyár, Sepandiár, Sepandiyar, Esfandyar, Isfandiar, Isfandiyar or Esfandiar.   Legendary Iranian hero.   (“Created holy and pure”)   Name of loyal servant of Bahá.
Ishan Íshán “They” a designation by which Bahá’u’lláh was known.   Also said to be honorific form of Persian pronoun for the third person singular
Ishaq Isḥáq Isaac;   becoming threadbare;   shrinking after milking (the teats);   drying up
Ishara, Isharat Ishára, pl. Ishárát sign, motion, nod, wink, wave;   gesture;   signal;   indication;   allusion, hint, intimation;   symbolic expression;   (silent) reminder;   advice, counsel, suggestion;   instruction, order, command
Ishq ‘Ishq love, ardour of love, passion
Ishqabad ‘Ishqábád “City of Love” (Ashkabad or Ashgabat) capital of Turmenistan
Ishqi ‘Ish belonging to love
Ishqiy-i-Qarn-i-Bistum ‘Ishqíy-i-Qarn-i-Bístum “‘Ishqí of the twentieth century” (abjad value 1342 (ah 1342 or ad 1923.).   See Arches of the Years, p. 257.
Ishraq, Ishraqat Ishráq, pl. Ishráqát radiance;   radiation, eradiation, emanation;   illumination;   Pers.   rising (the sun);   sunrise, morning;   splendour, lustre, beauty.   Tablet of Ishráqát (Splendours) by Bahá’u’lláh published in Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, pp. 101-134.   Ishráq Khávarí ‘Adbu’l-Ḥamíd
Ishraqi Namaz Ishhráqí Namáz Pers.   morning prayer
Ishraqi, Ishraqiyan (Ishraqiyun) Ishráqí, pl. Ishráqiyán (Pers.   with Ar. influence) of or pertaining to sunrise;   eastern, oriental;   having the splendour of the East.—pl. a sect of philosophers, illuminati, the Illuminists, adherents of Illuminism.
Ishraqiya, Ishraqiyyih Ishráqíya, Pers. Ishráqiyyih a Persian mystical order founded by Shaháb ad-Dín Yaḥyá ibn Ḥabash Suhrawardí (c. 1155–1191), a Persian theologian and philosopher. Ideas arose out of perpatetic philosophy.
Ishti’al Ishti‘ál ignition, inflammation, combustion, burning.   Name/pen name (aflame or blazing fire) given to Ali-Kuli Khan by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Ishtihard Ishtihárd a village between Karaj (west of Ṭihrán) and Qazvín
Iskaf, Iskafi Iskáf and Iskáfí, pl. Asákifa shoemaker
Iskandar Iskandar Persian for Alexander
Iskandariya al-Iskandaríya Alexandria, Egypt
Iskandarun Iskandarún (Turkish İskenderun, Arabic Iskandarúna)   Originally Alexandria, later Alexandretta, on Turkish coast north of Syria
Islah, Islahat Iṣláḥ, pl. Iṣláḥát restoration, restitution, redressing, reparation;   improvement, amelioration, betterment, mending, correction;   reconstruction;   reconditioning, repair;   renovation, refurbishing;   adjustment, settling, remedying, removal, elimination;   restoration of order, establishment of peace, happiness and order;   reformation, reform;   reclamation, cultivation (of land);   (re)conciliation, settlement, compromise, peace making
Islam Islám submission, resignation, reconciliation (to the will of God in every age);   or the total surrender of oneself to God.   Titled “Perspicuous Religion” and “Well-established Path”.   Redefined by the Báb as “Verily, the essence of religion is none other than submission unto This Remembrance [the Báb].”   Root is al-Silm rather than al-Salima or al-Salám.
Islami (Islamic) Islámí Islamic.   No accents for the English Islamic!   Incorrectly given as Muhammadan, Muhammadic or Muhammedic
Islamshahr (Eslamshahr, Islam-Shahr) Islámshahr city on SW side of Ṭihrán
Ism al-A'zam, Ism-i-A'zam al-Ism al-A‘ẓam, Pers. Ism-i-A‘ẓam The Greatest Name (of God) (100th) is Bahá’.   See Asmá’u’l-Ḥusná
Ism, Asma, Asamin Ism, pl. Asmá’, Asámin name;   appellation;   reputation, standing, prestige
Isma adh-dhatiyya al-‘Iṣma adh-Dhátiyya Essential infallibility
Isma al-sifatiya al-‘Iṣma al-Ṣifátíya Conferred infallibility (bestowed rather than innate).   Immunity from error and infallibility of judgement—not freedom from sin, sinlessness or immaculateness.
Isma, 'Isam ‘Iṣma(h or t), pl. ‘Iṣam hindering, hindrance, prevention, obviation;   preservation, guarding, safeguarding;   defence;   protection;   chastity, purity, modesty, virtuousness;   impeccant, sinlessness, infallibility.   ‘immunity from sin and error’, (from ‘aṣama, ya‘ṣimu = to protect, to save from)
Isma'il Ismá‘íl (Ishmael in Hebrew, “God listens or hears”), the son of Abraham and the Egyptian Hagar, who was considered to be the forerunner of the desert Arabs.   “Ismael”
Isma'il-i-Kashani Ismá‘íl-i-Kashání
Isma'il-i-Kashi Ismá‘íl-i-Káshí
Isma'il-i-Zavari'i Ismá‘íl-i-Zavari’í
Isma'ili Ismá‘ílí, pl. Ismá‘íliyyún disciple, follower
Isma'iliyya, Isma'iliyyih, Isma'iliyyun Ismá‘íliyya, Pers. Ismá‘íliyyih Isma’ilism—branch of Shi’a Islám that followed the Imám succession through the eldest son (he died before his father) of Ja‘far aṣ-Ṣádiq.   pl. Ismá‘íliyyún.   Pers. Ismá‘íliya
Ismat Khanum ‘Iṣmat Khánum ‘Iṣmat Khánum Ṭihrání, Bahá’í, journalist, feminist, known as Ṭá’irih (“Bird”)
Ismatu’l-Kubra, Ismat-i-Kubra al-‘Iṣmatu’l-Kubrá, Pers. ‘Iṣmat-i-Kubrá “the Great or Most Great Infallibility” of the Manifestation of God, doctrine enunciated by Bahá’u’lláh
Ismu'l-Azal Ismu’l-Azal Name of Eternity (Mírzá Yaḥyá)
Ismu'llah Ismu’lláh “Name of God”
Ismu'llahi'l-A'zam Ismu’lláhi’l-A‘ẓam Name of God, Greatest
Ismu'llahi’l-Akhir Ismu’lláhi’l-Ákhir The Last name of God. This was the title given by the Báb to Quddús.
Ismu’llahi'l-Jud Ismu’lláhi’l-Júd “The Name of God, the Bounteous” (name given to Muḥammad Javád-i-Qazvíní by Bahá’u’lláh)
Ismu'llahi'l-Mihdi Ismu’lláhi’l-Mihdí “The Name of God, Mihdí’”
Ismu'llahu'l-Akhar Ismu’lláhu’l-Ákhar “The Last Name of God”
Ismu'llahu'l-Asdaq Ismu’lláhu’l-Aṣdaq “The Name of God, the Most Truthful”
Ismu'llahu'l-Fatiq Ismu’lláhu’l-Fatíq “In the Name of God, the Eloquent”
Ismu'llahu'l-Jamal Ismu’lláhu’l-Jamál “The Name of God, Jamál”.   Name given to Siyyid-i-Mihdíy-i-Dahají by Bahá’u’lláh.
Ismu'llahu'l-Javad Ismu’lláhu’l-Javád “The Name of God, the All-Bountiful”.   Title given to Muḥammad Javád-i-Qazvíní by Bahá’u’lláh.
Ismu'llahu'l-Mihdi Ismu’lláhu’l-Mihdí “The Name of God, Mihdí”.   Name given to Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Dahají.
Ismu'llahu'l-Munib Ismu’lláhu’l-Muníb “The Name of God, the Patron”
Isnad, Asanid Isnád, pl. Asáníd ascription (of an Islamic tradition), the (uninterrupted) chain of authorities on which a tradition is based
Ispahan Ispáhán Middle Persian.   Arabicized modern form is Iṣfahán
Isr, Asar Iṣr, pl. Áṣár covenant, compact,contract;   load, encumbrance, burden;   sin;—pl. bonds, ties
Isra' Isrá‘ acceleration, speed-up; hurry
Isra' Isrá’ nocturnal journey;   al-Isrá’ the “night journey” of Muḥammad “to the seven heavens”
Isra'il Isrá’íl Israel.   Banú Isrá’íl—the Israelites;   Daulat Isrá’íl the State of Israel.
Israfil Isráfíl “the burning one” (Israfel) seraph.   The Angel whose function is to sound the trumpet (ram’s horn) on the Day of Judgement.
Istahban (Estahban), Istahbanat Iṣṭahbán Pers.   (pre-1970 Ar. name was Iṣṭahbánát “Istah-banat”), is a city (29 km ENE of Nayríz and 150 km ESE Shíráz) and capital of Estahban County, Fárs Province, Írán.
Istarabad (Astarabad) Istarábád See Astarábád
Istidlal Istidlál reasoning, argumentation, demonstration;   conclusion, inference, deduction;   proof, evidence (of)
Istidlaliyya, Istidlaliyyih Istidláliyya, Pers. also Istidláliyyih testimony (book) or (book) of apologetics
Istijlal Istijlál Ar.   majesty
Istikhlaf Istikhláf appoint someone to be successor.   In the Qur’anic context, appointing a trustee or vicegerent, or “Law of Succession of Prophets”.
Istiqbal, Istiqbalat Istiqbál, pl. Istiqbálát reception;   opposition (astron.);   full moon (as an astronomical aspect);   the future
Istiqlal Istiqlál independence
Itabaki-A'zam Íṭábakí-A‘ẓam “the greatest tutor”.   Probably should be Atábak-i-A‘ẓam
Itabaki-Chupan Íṭábakí-Chúpán probably should be Atábak-i-Chúpán (The Dawn-Breakers, p. 421)
Ithbat Ithbát establishment;   assertion;   confirmation;   affirmation, attestation;   demonstration;   proof, evidence;   registration, entering, listing, recording;   documentation, authentication, verification
Ithna 'Ashara, Ithnata 'Ashrata Ithná ‘Ashara, fem. Ithnatá ‘Ashrata twelve.   Pers.   Ithná-‘Asharíyyih, the Twelvers, the Imamites.   Twelver Shí‘í or the branch of Islám Shi’ism that believes there were 12 imams.
Ithnan, Ithnatan Ithnán, fem. Ithnatán, dual Ithnayn two
Itmam Itmám completion;   perfection;   termination, conclusion;   consummation, execution, fulfilment, realization, effectuation, accomplishment
Itmam-i-Ni’mat Itmám-i-Ni‘mat completion of favour
Itmi'nan (Itminan) Iṭmi’nán calm, repose, serenity, peace, peacefulness, tranquillity;   reassurance, peace of mind, composure, calmness, equanimity;   trust, confidence
Itmi'nan-i-Qalb (Itminan-i-Qalb) Iṭmi’nán-i-Qalb heart attaining tranquillity or composure of the heart
Itr, 'Utur, 'Uturat ‘Iṭr, pl. ‘Uṭúr, ‘Uṭúrát perfume, scent;   essence
Itra, ‘Itrat ‘Itra(t) little balls formed of musk or other aromatics, and worn as a necklace;   a progeny, family, near relations;   a bit of pure musk;   sweet marjoram;—‘Itrat al-Nabí “Family of the Prophet”
Itri ‘Iṭrí sweet-smelling, fragrant, aromatic
Ittihad Ittiḥád oneness, singleness, unity;   concord, accord, unison, harmony, unanimity, agreement;   combination;   consolidation, amalgamation, merger, fusion;   alliance, confederacy;   association;   federation;   union.   Symbolically, the identification of man with God
Ittihadi, Ittihadiyyih Ittiḥádí, Pers. also Ittiḥádiyyih unionist;   unionistic;   federal
Iwil, Ivil Íwil, Ívil (“Ivel”, also known as Ídel) is a small village 12 km east of Kiyásar, 90 km SE of Sárí, 45 km west of Dámghán in Sari County, Mázandarán Province
Iyala (Iyalih), Iyalat Iyála(h or t), pl. Iyálát province;   regency;   governing, administering;   government, dominion
Izadi Ízadí Pers.   God;   an angel
Izar, Uzur Izár m. and f., pl. Uzur loincloth;   wrap, shawl;   wrapper, covering, cover
Izdiwaj (Izdivaj) Izdiwáj Pers.   marrying;   marriage, wedding
Izhar Iẓhár presentation, exposition, demonstration, exhibition, disclosure, exposure, revelation, announcement, declaration, manifestation, display;   developing (photography)
Izmir (Smyrna) Izmír City in western extremity of Anatolia, Turkey. Formerly ancient city of Smyrna
Izra'il ‘Izrá’íl (Israfel) angel of death
Izza ‘Izza might, power, standing, weight;   strength, force;   honour, glory, high rank, fame, celebrity, renown;   pride
Izzat ‘Izzat Pers.   being great, powerful, rare, valuable;   grandeur, glory, power, might;   honour, esteem;   rareness
Izzatu'llah ‘Izzatu’lláh Might or Power of God
Izzatu'llah Zahra'i ‘Izzatu’lláh Zahrá’í (Ezzat Zahrai)
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Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
Ja'far Ja‘far little river, creek (Djaffar)
Ja'far as-Sadiq, Ja'far-i-Sadiq Ja‘far aṣ-Ṣádiq, Pers. Ja‘far-i-Ṣádiq the Sixth Imám
Ja'far-i-Istarabadi Ja‘far-i-Istarábádí
Ja'far-i-Tabrizi Ja‘far-i-Tabrízí
Ja'far-i-Yazdi Ja‘far-i-Yazdí (MF)
Ja'far-Quli Ja‘far-Qulí
Ja'fari Ja‘farí Pers.   the finest kind of gold (named after a celebrated alchemist);   a kind of cupola;   a sort of screen (the interstices of the frame being lozenged);   lattice-work;   name of a yellow flower;   parsley;   name of a fortress.   Ja‘farí jurisprudence, derived from the name of the sixth Imám
Ja'fariya, Ja'fariyyih Ja‘faríya(t), Pers. Ja‘faríyyih followers of the Sixth Imám
Jabal al-Basit, Jabal-i-Basit Jabal al-Básiṭ, Pers. Jabal-i-Básiṭ “the Open Mountain”—Máh-Kú (same numerical value as Básiṭ, 72) al-Básiṭ “the one who expands or stretches”)
Jabal al-Lawz Jabal al-Lawz a mountain located in northwest Saudi Arabia, near the Jordan border, above the Gulf of Aqaba at 2,580 metres above sea level.   The name means “mountain of almonds”.   Logic suggests that this may be the biblical “Mt. Sinai”.   Studying The Holy Qur’án, Vol. 1: The early years, pp. 231–5.
Jabal al-Maqla Jabal al-Maqlá “burnt mountain”, about 7 km to the south, and a few hundred meters lower than, Jabal al-Lawz.
Jabal al-Shadid, Jabal-i-Shadid Jabal al-Shadíd, Pers. Jabal-i-Shadíd “the Grievous Mountain”—fortress of Chihríq
Jabal, Jibal, Ajbal Jabal, pl. Jibál, Ajbál mountain;   mountains, mountain range
Jabarut Jabarút omnipotence;   power, might;   tyranny.   ‘álami jabarút, “the highest heaven”, “the All-highest Dominion” or “the Empyrean Heaven”—realm of being.   See Háhút, Láhút and Násút.
Jabbar, Jabbarun, Jababir, Jababira Jabbár, pl. Jabbárún, Jabábir, Jabábira giant;   colossus;   tyrant, oppressor;   almighty, omnipotent (God);   gigantic, giant, colossal, huge;   Orion (astronomy)
Jabir Jábir bonesetter   Jábir Ibn-i-Ḥayyán was a follower of Imám Ṣádiq who handed down his traditions.
Jabr Jabr setting (of broken bones);   force, compulsion;   coercion, duress;   power, might;   (predestined, inescapable) decree of fate.
Jabr wa'l-muqabala Jabr wa’l-muqábala Al-Jabr wa’l-muqábala (“completing” or “restoring”, and “simplifying” or “balancing”)   Part of a book title from which the word “algebra” is derived.
Jabra'il, Jibril Jabra’íl, Jibríl Gabriel
Jabri, Jabariyan Jabrí, pl. Jabariyán one who believes in predestination, a fatalist
Jabriyya Jabríyya(h) Muslims who championed determinism
Jabulqa and Jabulsa Jábulqá and Jábulsá (According to Shí’ih traditions, the mythical twin cities of Jábulqá and Jábulsá are the dwelling place of the Hidden Imám (the Promised One), whence He will appear on the Day of Resurrection.)
Jadhb (Jazb) Jadhb attraction;   gravitation;   appeal, lure, enticement, captivation
Jadhba (Jazba), Jadhbat (Jazbat) Jadhba, pl. Jadhbát Pers.   passion, rage, fury;   strong desire, craving for
Jadhdhab Jadhdháb Attractive;   magnetic;   suction;   winning;   charming
Jadhib dhib attractive; magnetic (fig.);   winning, fetching, engaging;   charming, enticing, captivating, gripping
Jadhibiya, Jadhbiyyih dhibíya(h), Pers. also Jádhibíyyih gravitation;   attraction;   attractiveness;   charm;   fascination;   magnetism.   Eminent Bahá’ís in the Time of Bahá’u’lláh has Jadhbíyyih.
Jadid, Judud, Judad Jadíd, pl. Judud, Judad new, recent;   renewed;   modern;   novel, unprecedented
Jadidu'llah Jadídu’lláh “New one of God”   Jadídu’lláh Ashraf
Jaffa, Jafaf, Jufuf Jaffa, Jafáf, Jufúf to dry, become dry;   to dry out
Jafr Jafr Islamic science of the numerical values of letters;   numerology.   ‘ilm al-jafr: divination, fortune telling.
Jahada, Jahd Jahada (Jahd) to endeavour, strive, labour, take pains, put oneself out;   to over-work, overtax, fatigue, exhaust (someone).   Form III to endeavour, strive;   to fight (for something);   to wage holy war against the infidels.   Form IV to strain, exert (something);   to tire, wear out, fatigue (someone), give trouble (to).
Jahan (Jihan) Jahán (Jihán) Pers. world
Jahangir Jahángír Pers.   “conqueror of the world”   Núri’d-Dín Muḥammad Salím (Mughal Emperor)
Jahansuz Jahánsúz Pers.   Jahán+súz “the burning of the world”
Jahil, Jahala, Juhhal, Juhala Jáhil, pl. Jahala, Juhhal, Juhhál, Juhalá’ not knowing (something, how to do something);   ignorant, uneducated, illiterate;   foolish;   fool
Jahiliya, Jahiliyyih Jáhilíya, Pers. Jáhilíyyih state of ignorance;   pre-Islamic paganism.   The dark age of ignorance among the Arabs before the appearance of Muḥammad.
Jahl, Jahal Jahl and Jahála ignorance;   folly, foolishness, stupidity.   Amr ibn Hishám, often known as Abú Jahl (556–17 March 624), was one of the Meccan polytheist pagan Qurayshí leaders known for his critical opposition towards Muḥammad and early Muslims in Mecca.
Jahrum (Jahram, Jahrom) Jahrum city and county 155 km SE of Shíráz
Jalal Jalál loftiness, sublimity, augustness;   splendor, glory
Jalal Khadih Jalál Kháḍih Jalál Kházeh (1897–21 Feb. 1990) was a Hand of the Cause of God
Jalali Jalálí Ar.?   great, illustrious, majestic, glorious;   terrible, awe-inspiring;   an era reckoned from Jalálu’d-Dín (Akbar Sháh), and beginning ad 1079
Jalaliya, Jalaliyyih Jalaliya(t), Pers. Jalálíyyih name of a sect who worships the more terrible attributes of the deity;   the followers of Jalál Bukhárí
Jalalu'd-Dawlih Jalálu’d-Dawlih
Jalalu'd-Din Rumi Jalálu’d-Dín Rúmí [or Jaláli’d-Dín Rúmí or Jalála’d-Dín Rúmí] (called Mawláná (“our Master”), is the greatest of all Persian Súfí poets, and founder of the Mawlaví “whirling” dervish order.)
Jali, Jaliy Jalí, Jálí, Jalíy clear, plain, evident, patent, manifest, obvious, conspicuous;   shining, polished.   Loudly and publicly, as in prayers, etc.
Jalil-i-Khu'i Jalíl-i-Khu’í
Jalil-i-Tabrizi Jalíl-i-Tabrízí
Jalil, Ajilla', Ajilla, Jala'il Jalíl, Ajillá’, Ajilla, Jalá’il great, important, significant, weighty, momentous;   lofty, exalted, sublime;   revered, honourable, venerable;   glorious, splendid
Jalinus, Ghalinua, Isqinus Jálínús Aelius or Claudius Galenus (AD 129–c. 200/c. 216), commonly known as Galen of Pergamon, a very famous physician. (also from Greek Ghálínús or Isqilínus)
Jallabiya, Jallabiyat, Jalalib, Jalabiya Jallábíya, pl. Jallábíyát, Jalálíb, Jalabiya (Egyptian) a loose, shirtlike garment, the common dress of the male population in Egypt.   Gallábíya, pl. Gallábíyát, Galálíb, Galabiya
Jam Jam Pers.   name of an ancient king of Persia, whom they confound with Solomon and Alexander the Great;   a monarch, a great king;   the pupil of the eye;   pure, free, exempt;   essence, nature, person.   (Zend or Avestan: yima and Sanskrit: yama [“the twins”]. Yama became Jam).   See Jamshíd
Jam, Jamat Jám, pl. Jámát cup;   drinking vessel;   bowl
Jam', Jumu' Jam‘, pl. Jumú‘ gathering;   collection;   combination;   connection, coupling, joining;   accumulation;   (arithmetic) addition;   union, merger, aggregation, integration (of) holding together (of divergent, separate things);—(pl.) gathering, crowd, throng;   gang, troop
Jam'iya, Jam'iyat Jam‘iya(t), pl. Jam‘iyát club, association, society;   corporation, organization;   assembly, community
Jama'a, Jama'at Jamá‘a(h), pl. Jamá‘át group (of people);   band, gang, party, troop;   community;   squad (military unit)
Jamad, Jamadat Jamád, pl. Jamádát a solid;   inorganic body; mineral;   inanimate body, inanimate being
Jamadiyu'l-Avval Jamádíyu’l-Avval Fifth month in Islamic calendar
Jamadiyu'th-Thani Jamádíyu’th-Thání Sixth month in Islamic calendar
Jamal Jamál beauty
Jamal Afandi (Jamal Effendi) Jamál Afandí (Effendi) name given to Sulaymán Khán-i-Tunukábání
Jamal-Abhá Jamál-Abhá Abhá Beauty, a title of Bahá’u’lláh
Jamal-i-Burujirdi Jamál-i-Burújirdí
Jamal-i-Mubarak Jamál-i-Mubárak “The Blessed Beauty”.   Title used by some Bahá’ís for Bahá’u’lláh.
Jamal-i-Qidam Jamál-i-Qidam Ar.   The Ancient Beauty.   A title of Bahá’u’lláh.
Jamal, Jimal Jamal, pl. Jimál, Ajmál camel
Jamali Jamálí (Ar. influence) amiable, lovable
Jamali'd-Din Jamáli’d-Dín Beauty of the Faith
Jamalu'd-Din-i-Afghani Jamálu’d-Dín-i-Afghání
Jami', Jawami' Jámi‘, pl. Jawámi‘ total;   whole, entire;   all;   entirety;   comprehensive, extensive, broad, general, universal;   collector, gatherer;   compiler (of a book);   compositor, typesetter;—(pl.) mosque
Jamil, Jamilih Jamíl, Pers. Jamílih beautiful, graceful, lovely, comely, pretty, handsome;   friendly act, favour, service, good turn;   courtesy
Jammal, Jammalun Jammál, pl. Jammálún camel driver.   Gardens of Jammál are at the south entrance of the Mansion of Bahjí.
Jamshid Jamshíd (“Djemsheed”)   mythical King in Iranian traditions and culture.   A compound of Jam and shíd formed by changes to the original Avestran names.
Jamshid-i-Gurji Jamshíd-i-Gurjí (MF)
Jan Ján Pers.   soul, vital spirit, mind;   self;   life;   spirit, courage;   wind;   the mouth;   arms;   the father of demons;   name of a race said to have inhabited the world before Adam;   in modern conversation a word of endearment.   See nafs
Jan Aqa Big Ján Áqá Big known as a Kaj Kuláh
Jan-i-Khamsih Ján-i-Khamsih
Janami Jánamí you are my life and soul;   you are close to me
Jandaq Jandaq city 230 km north of Yazd and 178 km NE of Ná’ín, Írán
Jangal Jangal Pers.   a wood, forest, thicket;   a country overgrown with wood, reeds, or long grass;   a jungle
Jangali Jangalí Pers.   wild, untilled, jungle-like.   Insult referring to uncultured people (raised in jungles)
Jani Jání Pers.   soul;   cordial, heartily loved, devoted.   Title of a merchant of Kashán, Ḥájí Mírzá Jání, early historian of the Bábí Cause and a martyr.
Jani, Junat Jání, pl. Junát one who gathers fruit;   sinning, a sinner
Janib, Jawanib Jánib, pl. Jawánib side;   lateral portion;   sidepiece;   flank;   wing;   face (geometry);   part, portion, partial amount;   partial view, section (of a scene, picture or panorama);   quantity, amount;   a certain number (of), a few, some.   “draw back”? Seven Valleys p. 43
Janna, Jannat (“Jinnat”), Jinan Janna(h or t), pl. Jannát, Jinán garden;   paradise, heaven
Jarib Jaríb 10,000 sq metres
Jarrah, Jarrahun Jarráḥ, pl. Jarráḥún surgeon
Jasad, Ajsad Jasad, pl. Ajsád body.   Compare Jism
Jasb Jásb rural district, Markazí Province, Írán
Jashn Jashn Pers.   A feast, social entertainment;   convivial meeting;   a solemn feast
Jashn-i-A'zam Jashn-i-A‘ẓam (the Greatest Festival because ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was known as the Ghusn-i-A’ẓám [the Greatest Branch])—Day of the Covenant
Jasim Jásim healthy, strong, powerful, good health.   Bahá’u’lláh sent Ḥájí Jásim-i-Baghdádí to Sudan.   Small city in southern Syria.
Jasim, Jisam Jasím, pl. Jisám great, big, large;   voluminous, bulky, huge;   vast, immense;   stout, corpulent;   weighty, most significant, momentous, prodigious
Jathiya thiya fem., the kneeling or crouching one
Javad-i-Karbila'i Javád-i-Karbilá’í
Javad-i-Qazvini Javád-i-Qazvíní Muḥammad Javád-i-Qazvíní.   He went to Adrianople in 1867 and worked for many years as one of Bahá’u’lláh’s amanuenses. Bahá’u’lláh gave him the title Ismu'llahu'l-Javad (The Name of God, the All-Bountiful). He later joined Mírzá Muḥammad ‘Alí in opposing ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
Javad-i-Tabataba'i Javád-i-Ṭabáṭabá’í
Javahiru'l-Asrar Javáhiru’l-Asrár “Gems of Divine Mysteries” or “The Essence of Mysteries” by Bahá’u’lláh.   See jawhar and sirr
Jaw'an (Jau'an), Jaw'a' (Jau'a), Jiya' Jaw‘án, fem. Jaw‘á’, pl. Jiyá‘ hungry, starved, famished
Jawab (Javab), Ajwiba, Jawabat Jawáb, pl. Ajwiba, Jawabát answer, reply;   octave (to a given tone; music);   (e.g. pronounced gawáb pl. jawabát) letter, message
Jawad (Jaouad), Ajwad, Ajawid, Jud Jawád, pl. Ajwád, Ajáwid, Ajawíd, Júd openhanded, liberal, generous, magnanimous;—pl. jiyád, ajyád, ajáwíd race horse, racer;   charger
Jawan (Javan), Jawanan Jawán, pl. Jawánán Pers.   young;   young man, youth, lad
Jawanmardi Jawánmardí loosely translated as chivalry.   See lúṭígarí.
Jawhar (Jauhar), Jawahir Jawhar, pl. Jawáhir intrinsic, essential nature, essence;   content, substance (as opposed to form;   philosophy);   matter, substance;   atom;   jewel, gem, pearl;—pl. jewellry.   From Persian Gawhar
Jawhar (Jauhar), Jawahir, Jawwal Jawhar, pl. Jawáhir, Jawwál wandering, migrant, itinerant, roving;   cruising;   traveling;   ambulant;   traveler, tourist
Jawhara (Jauhara), Jawharat Jawhara(t), pl. Jawharát jewel, gem
Jawid Jáwid Pers.   eternal, perpetual
Jawid Jáwíd Pers.   eternal;   eternity
Jawidukht, Javidukht Jáwidukht Jávidukht, wife of Dhikru'lláh Khádem (sic).   See ukht
Jawsh (Jaush) Jawsh Pers.   the breast;   the middle of a man;   midnight;   a large section of the night, or the latter part of it;   a march during the whole of the night. See jayb
Jawshan (Jaushan) Jawshan breast plate, steel plate or chain mail
Jawshan Kabir Jawshan Kabír long (“big”) Islamic prayer with 1,000 names and attributes of God that is Muḥammad’s “coat of amour” to protect Him from injuries
Jayb (Jaib), Juyub Jayb, pl. Juyúb breast, bosom, heart;   sine (mathematics);   hole, hollow, cavity, excavation;   pocket;   purse
Jayhun Jayhún Oxus River
Jaysh 'Aramram Jaysh ‘Aramram a numerous, huge army.   See furúghí
Jaysh (Jaish), Juyush Jaysh, pl. Juyush army, troops, armed forces
Jaz Jaz Pers.   An island;   name of a country between Euphrates and Tigris (Mesopotamia, al-Jazírat)
Jazbatu'llah Jaẓbátu’lláh rages of God
Jazira (Jazirih), Jaza'ir, Juzur Jazíra(h or t), pl. Jazá’ir, Juzur sland.   Cizre (Kurdish), Jazírat ibn ‘Umar (Ar.), Jazírih (Pers.), town and district in SE Turkey.   NW or upper Mesopotemia became known as al-Jazíra after the Arab Islamic conquest of the mid-7th century AD.
Jazirat al-Bahr Jazírat al-Baḥr Name given to Búshihr by the Báb
Jaziriy-i-Khadra Jazíriy-i-Khaḍrá’ “Verdant Isle”, reference to Riḍván Garden of Na‘mayn near ‘Akká and forest of Mázandarán (Quddús and Mullá Ḥusayn)
Jazzar, Jazzarun Jazzár, pl. Jazzárún butcher
Jibt Jibt sorcery, divination or any false belief
Jidal, Mujadala, Mujadalat Jidál (m.), Mujádala (f.), pl. Mujádalát quarrel, argument;   dispute, discussion, debate
Jidda Jidda(h) newness, novelty;   modernity;   rebirth, renaissance.   Judda(h)—Jidda, seaport western Saudi Arabia.
Jiha, Jihat, Juhat Jiha (Pers. Jihat, Juhat), pl. Jihát side;   direction;   region, part, section, area;   district, precinct, city quarter;   agency, authority;   administrative agency
Jihad Jihád Commonly understood to be: fight, battle;   jihad, holy war (against the infidels, as a religious duty).   Literally means “striving” (see root jahada)—a witness or martyr.   During and immediately after the time of Muḥammad, jihad was directed against pagans and idolaters—the polytheists—and was undertaken in defence of the realm of Islám. Meaning was later obscured and lost.   See Qitál
Jihadi Jihádí fighting, military
Jihan Jihán Pers.   world
Jihat-i-Mahiyyati Jihat-i-Máhíyyatí Pers.   essential aspect
Jihat-i-Vujudi Jihat-i-Vujúdí Pers.   existential aspect
Jilf-ast Jilf-ast “he is a light-weight”
Jilf, Ajlaf Jilf, pl. Ajláf Ar.   boorish, rude, uncivil.   Pers.   i) any empty vessel, pot or pan;   an animal disembowelled, and skinned;   anything empty in the middle;   ii) silly, trifling
Jillabiya (Jilabiya, Jellabiya, Gallabiya) Jillábíya, pl. Jilábi galabia or galabieh, a loose, shirt-like garment, the common dress of the male population in Egypt, Sudan and Eritrea.   Gallábíya, pl. Gallábíyát, Galálíb in Egyptian Arabic.
Jim Jím Arabic letter (j)
Jinab Jináb Ar.   Courtesy title sometimes translated as ‘His Honour’, or ‘The Honourable’.
Jinab-i Jináb-i (Janabe)
Jinab-i-'Azim Jináb-i-‘Aẓím
Jinab-i-Amin Jináb-i-Amín
Jinab-i-Avarih Jináb-i-Ávárih (Unfolding Destiny, p. 13.)
Jinab-i-Fadil-i-Mazindarani Jináb-i-Fáḍil-i-Mázindarání (Jenabi Fazel)
Jinab-i-Husayn Jináb-i-Ḥusayn
Jinab-i-Ibn-'Abhar Jináb-i-Ibn-‘Abhar (Jenabe Ayadi, Ibn Abhar)
Jinab-i-Ismu'llah Jináb-i-Ismu’lláh
Jinab-i-Ismu'llahu'l-Asdaq Jináb-i-Ismu’lláhu’l-Aṣdaq
Jinab-i-Khan Jináb-i-Khán
Jinab-i-Mirza Jináb-i-Mírzá
Jinab-i-Mishkin Jináb-i-Mishkín (MF p. 100)
Jinab-i-Muhammad-Taqi Jináb-i-Muḥammad-Taqí
Jinab-i-Mulla Jináb-i-Mullá
Jinab-i-Munib Jináb-i-Muníb (Memorials of the Faithful, GPB & Child of the Covenant 73)
Jinab-i-Munir Jináb-i-Munír Bahá’í exile who died at Smyrna en route to ‘Akká prison
Jinab-i-Nabil-i-Akbar Jináb-i-Nabíl-i-Akbar
Jinab-i-Quddus Jináb-i-Quddús
Jinab-i-Sayyah Jináb-i-Sayyáḥ (MF)
Jinab-i-Shaykh Jináb-i-Shaykh
Jinab-i-Tahirih Jináb-i-Ṭáhirih
Jinab-i-Varqa Jináb-i-Varqá
Jinab-i-Zayn Jináb-i-Zayn (Jinabi Zain)
Jinaza, Janaza, Jinazat, Janazat, Jana'iz Jináza, Janza, pl. –át, Janá’iz bier;   funeral procession.   Pers. sing. also jinázih.
Jinn Jinn (collective) jinn, demons (invisible beings, either harmful or helpful, that interfere with the lives of mortals)
Jinni, Jinniya Jinní, Jinníya (fem.) jinní, (demonic);   jinni (demon);   Jinníya (female demon)
Jins, Ajnas Jins, pl. Ajnás kind, sort, variety, species, class, genus;   category;   sex (male, female);   gender (grammar);   race;   nation
Jirjis Jirjís Pers.   George, particularly St. George of England;   ranked among the prophets by Muslims.
Jism al-Kull Jism al-Kull the universal substance
Jism, Ajsam, Jusum Jism, pl. Ajsám, Jusúm body (also [new meaning] of an automobile);   substance, matter;   mass;   form, shape.   Compare jasad
Jizya (Pers. Jizyah), Jizan, Jiza' Jizya(h), pl. Jizan, Jizá’ tax;   tribute;   head tax on free non-Muslims under Muslim rule
Ju Jú‘ hunger, starvation
Ju'an Jú‘án be hungry
Jubayr (Jubair) Jubayr Sa‘íd bin Jubayr (665–714), also known as Abú Muḥammad, was originally from Kufá. He was a leading Shí‘a jurist of the time.
Jubbih Jubbih Pers.   Outer coat, overcoat.
Jubbiy-i-Hizari'i Jubbiy-i-Hizári’í A type of overcoat
Jud Júd open-handedness, liberality, generosity, bounty
Judi al-Júdí Jabal al-Júdí, Turkey (Cudi Daǧi in Turkish, 2089 m peak, the Tigris River flows along the western side), mentioned in Qur’án 11:44 as the landing site for Noah’s ark.   134 km NW Mosul, 15 km WNW Silopi and 15 km ENE of Cizre.   Mt Ararat is 310 km ENE of Jabal al-Júdí.
Juhd Juhd strain, exertion
Juhfah al-Juhfah (al-Jihfah) city 183 km NE of Mecca
Juj (Jujih), Jawj (Jauj) Júj, Jawj Pers.   a cock's comb;   a crest;   a pennant, vane
Jujih Khanum Jújih Khánum The minuscule Leona Barnitz was called Jújih Khánum (Little Chick Lady) by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Juk Júk Jug-Basisht (Book of Juk), the Persian translation of the Yoga Vasistha, a syncretic philosophic text
Julab Juláb, Julláb rose water
Julfa (Jolfa) Julfá “new” Julfá (since ad 1606) is an Armenian-populated area (one of the world’s largest) of Iṣfahán, located south of the Záyandí-Rúd. The people migrated from the Armenian city of Julfá in Azerbaijan.
Juljul, Jalajil Juljul, pl. Jalájil (little) bell, sleigh bell;   cowbell;   jingle
Jull, Gul Jull, Pers. Gul rose
Jullah, Julah Julláh, Juláh Pers.   a weaver.   Yulláh may be a variation.
Jum'a, Jum'ih, Juma', Juma'at Jum‘a, Per. Jum‘ih, pl. Juma‘, Juma‘át week;   Friday
Jum'ih-Bazar Jum‘ih-Bázár Friday Bazaar. Normal market with many temporary traders on Friday
Jumada Jumádá dry.   Name of the fifth and sixth months of the Muslim year
Jumada al-Awwal, Jumada al-Ula Jumádá al-Awwal Fifth Islamic calendar month (the first of parched land).   Also known as Jumádá al-Úlá.
Jumada ath-Thani, Jumada al-Akhir Jumádá ath-Thání Sixth Islamic calendar month (the second/last of parched land).   Also known as Jumádá al-Ákhir.
Jumhur, Jamahir Jumhúr, pl. Jamáhír multitude;   crowd, throng;   general public, public;   a community;   a republic
Jumhuriya, Jumhuriyat Jumhúriya, pl. Jumhúriyát republic
Jumu’at al-Jumu‘at [a proper name] [the day of gathering, the day of congregating] Friday.   Súra 62 named al-Jumu‘ah because verse 9 mentions the call for the 'Congregational Prayer on Friday”.   See jum‘a
Junaina, Junaynih Junaina, pl. Junainát, Pers. Junaynih little garden;   garden.   Junaynih Garden—garden NW of Mazra‘ih, Israel
Jund, Junud, Ajnad, Junayd (Junaid) Jund m. and f., pl. Junúd, Ajnád soldiers;   army.   Junayd (a name, soldier or warrior) is a diminutive of jund.   Abu’l-Qásim al-Junayd ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Junayd al-Khazzáz al-Qawárírí was a mystic and one of the most famous of the early Saints of Islam.
Jundub, Jundab, Janadib Jundub, pl. Janádib grasshopper
Junun Junún possession, obsession;   mania, madness, insanity, dementia;   foolishness, folly;   frenzy, rage, fury;   ecstasy, rapture.   Pen name of Mírzá Faraju’lláh Faná’yán, see Faná’yán.
Jurj Jurj Pers.   wallets;   saddlebags.   Jurjí Zaydán
Justan Justan Pers.   to search, seek, inquire, ask for, examine, investigate;   to heap up, accumulate;   to find, acquire.
Juvayn, Juwayn Juvayn, Ar. Juwayn Joveyn, area about 50 km NNW of Sabzivár, Írán
Juy Júy Pers.   (imperative and participle of justan), seek thou;   seeking, desiring, wishing, asking
Juz', Ajza' Juz’, pl. Ajzá’ part, portion;   constituent, component;   fraction;   division;   section;   a 30th part (of varying length) of the Qur’án (= 2 ḥizb), into which the Qur’án was divided due to printing costs in medieval times or to facilitate recitation of the Qurʼán in a month.
Abbaside Caliphs · Arabic letters & abjad values · Arabic numbers · ‘Ayn & Hamza consonants · Bahá’í principles · Bahá’u’lláh’s Apostles · Badí‘-Bahá’í days of the week · Badí‘-Bahá’í months · Badí‘-Bahá’í years · Caliphs · Categories of words in Arabic · Elative word forms · Gregorian week days & months · Hands of the Cause of God · Imams (A’imma) · Islamic calendar months · Letters of the Living · Occultation & return of 12th Imám · Persian solar calendar · Qur’án chapters · Qur’anic “names” of God · Shrine of the Báb · Traditional Qur’anic/ṣúfí concepts · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh · Underdots and underscores · Vowel sounds · Microsoft Word
Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
Ka'aba, Ku'ub Ka‘aba (Ku‘úb) to be full and round, be swelling (breasts)   Form II to make cubic, to cube (something);   to dice (something)
Ka'b-ibn-i-Ashraf Ka‘b-ibn-i-Ashraf a hermit who denounced Muḥammad as an imposter
Ka'b, Ka'ba, Ka'aba, Ka'iba Ka’b, Ka’ba(h), Ka’ába(h), Ka’iba to be dejected, dispirited, downcast, sad
Ka'b, Ki'ab, Ku'ub Ka‘b, pl. Ki‘áb, Ku‘úb knot, knob, node (of cane);   joint, articulation;   ankle, anklebone
Ka'ba, Ka'abat, Ka'bih Ka‘ba(h), pl. Ka‘abát, Pers. Ka‘bih cube, cubic structure;   (figurative) shrine;   object of veneration, focus of interest.   The cubic building (the Kaaba (al-Ka‘ba) or the exalted Kaaba (al-Ka‘ba al-Musharrafah)) in the centre of the Mosque at Mecca that contains the Black Stone (al-Ḥajar al-Aswad). The sanctuary is believed to have been originally built by Ibráhím (Abraham) and Ismá‘íl (Ishmael), and appointed by Muḥammad as the Qiblih (the Point of Adoration) to which people turn in prayer in Mecca. The structure is 13.1 × 11.03 × 12.86 m (HxWxD)
Kabab (Kebab) Kabáb fried or broiled meat;   meat roasted in small pieces on a skewer;   meatballs made of finely chopped meat (Syria, Egypt)
Kabara, Kabr, Kabri Kabara, Kabr to exceed in age (someone by), be older (than someone).   Aqueduct from Kabrí (NE of Naḥáríya) to ‘Akká.
Kabir, Kibar Kabír, pl. Kibár great, big, large, sizable;   bulky, voluminous, spacious;   extensive, comprehensive;   significant, considerable, formidable, huge, vast, enormous;   powerful, influential, distinguished, eminent; important;   old. e.g. Amír Kabír.   Superlative form of ‘kabura’.
Kabul Kábul capital of Afghánistán
Kabura Kabura to be or become great, big, large, to grow, increase
Kad-Khuda Kad-Khudá Pers.   chief officer of a district;   a mayor, magistrate, alderman or bailiff.   Head man of a village, town, district or ward.
Kadhdhab Kadhdháb liar, swindler;   lying, untruthful;   false, deceitful
Kadhub Kadhúb liar
Kaf Káf Arabic letter (k)
Kafan, Akfan Kafan, pl. Akfán shroud, winding sheet
Kafara Kafara to disbelieve (in), to close oneself off to;   to be ungrateful;   to disclaim association with, to renounce
Kaffara Kaffara(h) to cover, hide;   to expiate, do penance, atone;   to forgive, grant pardon;   to make an infidel, seduce to unbelief;   to accuse of infidelity, charge with unbelief.   A religious donation of money or food, made to help those in need, when someone deliberately misses a fast or intentionally breaks their fast.
Kaffara, Kaffarih Kaffára(h), Pers. also Kaffárih penance, atonement (‘an for a sin), expiation (‘an of);   reparation, amends;   expiatory gifts, expiations (distributed to the poor at a funeral)
Kafi Káfí Pers.   sufficient, enough;   efficacious, effective;   entire, perfect.   Kitáb al-Káfí (The Sufficient Book) is a Twelver Shí‘í ḥadíth collection compiled by Muḥammad ibn Ya‘qúb al-Kulayní.
Kafir, Kafirun, Kuffar, Kafara, Kifar Káfir, pl. Káfirún, Kuffár, Kafara, Kifár irreligious, unbelieving;   unbeliever, infidel, atheist;   ungrateful
Kafiya Káfíyá or Káfiya Pers.   name of a celebrated grammatical work by ‘Uthmán Ibn-‘Umar Ibn-al-Ḥájíb
Kafshgarkula, Kafshgar Kula Kafshgarkulá, Kafshgar Kulá (“Kafshgar Kola”, “Khafagarkolah”)   1) village 12 km south of Babol, in Babol County, Mázandarán Province. It is near and to the west of the Shrine of Shaykh Ṭabarsí.   2) Kafshgar Kulá-i-Áraṭah (also known as Kafshgar Kulá) is a village 8 km NE of Qá’im Shahr.
Kafur Káfúr (kafur) (a fountain intended to be drunk by the true and firm believers)—literally camphor, a medicine that is given as a soothing tonic in Eastern medicine. It is cool and it may have a good odour. Symbolically it is referred to as a spring in heaven or an added spiritual flavour etc. Used to denote whiteness—a compound of all colours
Kahf, Kuhuf Kahf, pl. Kuhúf cave, cavern;   depression, hollow, cavity
Kahin, Kuhan, Kahana Káhin, pl. Kuhhán, Kahana diviner, soothsayer, prognosticator, fortuneteller;   priest
Kahraba Kahrabá’ and Kahrabá amber;   electricity
Kahraba’i, Kahrabi Kahrabá’í and Kahrabí electric(al);   electrician
Kahrabiya, Kahrabiya Kahrabá’íya and Kahrabíya electricity
Kahruba’i Kahrubáʼí Pers.   electricity
Kaj Kulah (Kajkulah) Kaj Kuláh (or Kaj-Kuláh) Pers.   A beau, lit. “wearing the cap awry”;   a beloved object
Kajawa (Kajawih, Kajavih, Kijawih) Kajawa, Kajáwa, Kazáwa Pers.   a type of pannier, howdah or litter for women, placed on camels (sometimes mules).   See Hawdaj
Kalam Kalám talking, speaking;   speech;   language, mode of expression, style;  talk, conversation, discussion;   debate, dispute, controversy;   words, word, saying, utterance, statement, remark;   aphorism, maxim, phrase, idiom, figure of speech;   (grammar) sentence, clause.   Described as “speculative theology” by Momen.   In Islám “the term ‘theology’ has never been used.  Instead, the term kalám (discourse on the divine) was coined because the term ‘theology’ was identified with the doctrine of the holy trinity.”  Making the crooked straight, p. 786.
Kalantar Kalántar A mayor or prefecture of police?
Kalat-i-Nadiri Kalát-i-Nádirí Kalat Nader, city 80 km north of Mashhad
Kalb, Kilab Kalb, pl. Kiláb dog.   The Banú Kalb (“Kalbites”) was an Arab tribe.   Nisba Kalbí.
Kalbasi Kalbásí Ḥájí Muḥammad-Ibráhím-i-Kalbásí
Kaldah, Kalda Kaldah (Kaldih), Kalda Pers.   dry, barren ground;   a name.   Mas’súd-Kaldih
Kalim, Kalma, Kulama Kalím two meanings: 1. wounded, injured;   sore;   (pl. kalmá).   2. person addressed;   speaker, spokesman, mouthpiece (pl. kulamá’).   Hence, “The Interlocutor”—title of Mírzá Músá, Bahá’u’lláh’s faithful brother;   also Áqáy-i Kalím, Master of Discourse, his usual full title.
Kalima (Kalimah, Kalimat), Kalim Kalima fem., pl. Kalimát, Kalim (Kalim is the collective masc. pl.)   word;   speech, address;   utterance, remark, saying;   aphorism, maxim;   brief announcement, a few (introductory) words;   short treatise;   importance, weight, influence, authority, ascendancy, powerful position.   Final Arabic letter is a tá mabúta, hence singular forms Kalimah and Kalimat.
Kalimat-i-Firdawsiyyih Kalimát-i-Firdawsíyyih (“The Words of Paradise”) by Bahá’u’lláh
Kalimat-i-Maknunih Kalimát-i-Maknúnih “The Hidden Words” by Bahá’u’lláh. Also known as Ṣaḥífiy-i-Fáṭimíyyih (Book of Fáṭimih) and Muṣḥaf Fáṭimah.
Kalimu'llah Kalímu’lláh “One who converses with God”.   Title given to Moses in the Islamic Dispensation.
Kam Kam Pers.   few, little;   deficient, defective, mutilated, wanting, diminished, scarce, less (hence frequently imparting a negative sense);   worse;   poor, wretched;   base;   abandonment;   deficiency, destitution;   excellent, precious, glorious, honoured;   the waist, side.   Kam-kam, little by little
Kam, Chand Kam, Pers. Chand (interrogative and exclamatory particle with following noun in accusative) how much? how many! how much!
Kamal, Kamalat Kamál, pl. Kamalát perfection;   completeness;   completion, consummation, conclusion, termination, windup;   maturity, ripeness
Kamalu'd-Din-i-Naraqi Kamálu’d-Dín-i-Naráqí
Kamana, Kamina, Kumun Kamana and Kamina (Kumún) to hide;   to be hidden, concealed, latent;   to have its secret seat (in);   to ambush, waylay (someone)   Form V to lie in wait (for someone), ambush, waylay (someone)   Form X to hide, lie concealed
Kamil-Muqaddam Kámil-Muqaddam
Kamil, Kamala Kámil, Kamala perfect, consummate;   genuine, sterling;   complete, full, plenary, full-strength;   completed, concluded;   whole, entire, total, integral
Kamran Kámrán Pers.   Name.   successful, blessed, fortunate
Kana, Kawn (Kaun), Kiyan, Kainina Kána (Kawn, Kiyán, Kainína) to be (past tense);   to exist;   to happen, occur, take place.   Kuntu (I was)
Kanad Kanád Pers.   a turtle-dove
Kand Kand Pers.   cutting.   Village in the province of Ṭihrán.
Kangavar Kangávar Persian town west of Mt. Alvand and Hamadán.
Kanz, Kunuz Kanz, pl. Kunúz treasure
Kar, Karat Kár, pl. Karát Ar.   work, job, occupation, business;   calling, vocation, profession, trade.   e.g. Ustádhkár
Karaj Karaj becoming stale and mouldy (bread).   Karaj is the capital of Alborz Province, Írán, and effectively a suburb on the NW side of Tehran.
Karama (Kirama, Kiramat), Karamat Karáma(t), Karámát nobility;   high-mindedness, noble-heartedness;   generosity, magnanimity;   liberality, munificence;   honour, dignity;   respect, esteem, standing, prestige;   mark of honour, token of esteem, favour;—pl. miracle (worked by a saint)
Karand, Kirand (Kerand) Karand, Kirand a village about 100 km SE of Ṭihrán, home of the ‘Alíyu’lláhís (an Islamic sect, followers of the Imám ‘Alí).
Karb Karb pressing heavily, weighing down the spirits (grief);   drawing tight (a fetter);   ploughing;   twisting a rope;   being near setting (the sun), almost extinguished (fire);   affliction, anguish, vexation, distress
Karbala, Karbila Karbalá, Karbilá a Shi’ite holy city in ‘Iráq where the Imám Ḥusayn was murdered and is buried.   Imám Ḥusayn said of the name: “Anguish and distress” (a combination of karb (the land that will cause many agonies) and balá’ (afflictions)).   There are two villages of the same name in Fars and Zanjan Provinces.   See Karb and Balá’
Karbala’i Karbalá’í prefixed title given to those performing the pilgrimage to Karbalá.   Karbalá’í Mihdí Mílání (Kerbelaiy Mehdi Milani)
Karim Khan Karím Khán Ḥájí Mírzá Karím Khán, a writer described as “ambitious and hypocritical” (GPB 91), and condemned by Bahá’u’lláh for advocating the study of the science of metaphysical abstractions, of alchemy and natural magic, which Bahá’u’lláh described as “vain and discarded learnings”. He wrote a vicious attack on the Bábí Faith at the request of the Sháh. (GPB 91)
Karim, Kurama', Kiram Karím, pl. Kuramá’, Kirám noble;   distinguished, high-ranking, eminent;   high-minded, noble-minded, noble-hearted;   generous, liberal, munificent, hospitable, beneficent;   benefactor;   kind, kindly, friendly, amicable, obliging, gracious;   respectable, honourable, decent;   precious, valuable, costly;   thoroughbred;   “All-Bountiful”
Karkh Karkh Pers.   mansion, habitation, turreted building;   al-Karkh is a quarter in Baghdád bounded by the west bank of the Tigris River.   Bahá’u’lláh’s family moved to al-Karkh prior to His return from Kurdistan
Karkuk (Kirkuk) Karkúk city in northern ‘Iráq
Karmal Karmal (karmel, Hebrew “garden”).   Jabal al-Karmal (Mount Carmel).   The term Mt. Carmel is defined as: 1. the 39 km-long mountain range;   2. northwestern 19 km of the mountain range;   and 3. the headland at the northwestern end of the range (Shoghi Effendi called the temple site as the “Head” of Mount Carmel and the Shrine of the Báb as the “Heart”).   The description Jabal al-Quds (the Holy Mountain) in Miracles & Metaphors, p. 45, may refer to Mt. Carmel.
Karmali Karmalí Carmelite.   Carmelite Monastery (Kamalí Dayr)
Karwan-saray (Karvan-saray) Kárwán-saráy Pers.   caravanserai (roadside inn for travellers)
Kashan shán One of the oldest cities of Írán, located in north central Persia.
Kashani shání from Káshán.   Mullá Muḥsin Fayḍ Káshání, Kalimát al-Maknúnah (Hidden Words)
Kashanih shánih town (Keşan, Turkey) that Bahá’u’lláh passed through on His way to Gallipoli (100 km south of Edirne)
Kashf, Kushuf, Kushufat Kashf, pl. Kushúf, Kushúfát uncovering, disclosure;   baring, exposure, unveiling;   revelation, illumination (mysticism);   investigation, inquiry, search, quest, study;   examination, scrutiny;   inspection;   boy scout movement;—(pl.) report, account;   statement, specification, enumeration;   table, schedule, chart;   list, roster, index, register, inventory;—(pl. kushúfát) discoveries
Kashfi Kash of or pertaining to boy scouts.   “the Discloser” or “one who discovers and explains the divine secrets”
Kashfiya Kashfíya alternative name for the Shaykhis because God lifted (kashf) from their intellect and from their vision the veil of ignorance and lack of insight into the Religion, and removed the darkness of doubt and uncertainty from their minds and their hearts. They are the ones whose hearts God illumined with the light of guidance. The development of Shaykhí thought in Shí‘í Islam, p. 48.
Kashghar shghar (Kashgar) part of Sinkiang, China
Kashi shí Pers.   short form of Káshání
Kashif, Kashafa shif, pl. Kashafa uncovering, revealing, etc.;   serving exploratory purposes, instrumental in reconnaissance, conducive to discovery, detection or disclosure;   examiner, investigator, discoverer;   supervisor, inspector
Kashifi (Kashefi) shifí (Pers.   with Ar influence) revelation, manifestation
Kashifu'l-Ghita shifu’l-Ghiṭá Muḥammad Ḥusayn Káshif al-Ghiṭá’ (b. 1294/1877–d. 1373/1953), a Shí‘a intellectual and marja‘ of Najaf.
Kashkul Kashkúl beggar’s bag;   scrapbook;   album.   Described as a globe-shaped alms-basket (originally made from a sea-coconut) carried by dervishes.
Kashmar shmar formerly Turshíz or Sulṭánábád, city (155 km SW Mashhad) and county, in Raḍawí Khurásán Province, Írán.
Kashmir Kashmír cashmir—a soft, twilled woolen fabric.   Jammu and Kashmír is a state in northern India.
Kashmiri Kashmírí a native of Kashmír
Kasr-i-Hudud Kasr-i-Ḥudúd lift or break bounds imposed by God
Kasr, Kusur Kasr, pl. Kusúr breaking, fracturing;   shattering, fragmentation;   (pl.) break, breach, fracture;   crack, rupture; fracture of a bone
Kasra Kasra defeat, breakdown, collapse;   the vowel point for the short vowel i (grammar);   nook of the house.   See ḍamma and fatḥa
Katama, Katm, Kitman Katama (Katm, Kitmán) to hide (something, from someone);   to conceal, secrete, keep secret (something, from someone);   to suppress, repress, restrain, check, curb, subdue (anger, passion);   to hold (one’s breath);   to lower, muffle (the voice);   to stifle, smother, quench (fire)
Kathir, Kithar Kathír, pl. Kithár much, many, numerous, abundant, plentiful, copious;   frequent;   a large portion, a great deal, a great many, a lot
Kathiran Kathírán very, much, to a large extent;   often, frequently
Kathiri Kathírí al-Kathírí, officially the Kathírí State of Seiyun in Hadhramaut (Arabic: al-Salṭanah al-Kathíríyah-Say’ún-Ḥaḍramawt) was a sultanate in the Hadhramaut region of the southern Arabian Peninsula, in what is now part of Yemen and the Dhofar region of Oman.
Kathr Kathr much;   surplus
Kathra Kathra(t) large quantity, great number, multitude, abundance, copiousness, numerousness, frequency, multiplicity, plurality;   majority, major portion (of)
Katibu's-Sirr, Katib-i-Sirr Kátibu’s-Sirr, Pers. Kátib-i-Sirr private secretary
Katib, Katibun, Kuttab Kátib, pl. Kátibún, Kuttáb, Kataba writer;   scribe, scrivener;   secretary;   clerk typist;   office worker, clerical employee;   clerk, registrar, actuary, court clerk;   notary; writer, author
Katiba, Katibat Kátiba, pl. Katibát woman secretary;   authoress, writer
Katibpur-Shahidi Kátibpúr-Shahídí Ni‘matu’lláh Kátibpúr-Shahídí
Katurah Katúráh Abraham’s third wife
Kawih (Kavih) Káwih Pers.   “Kaveh” in Iranian mythology is a blacksmith (Áhangar) from Isfahan.   Pers./Kurdish Káwa.   May mean strength, vigour. May have derived from the Ar. Qahwa.
Kawkab (Kaukab, Kokab), Kawakib Kawkab pl. Kawákib star (also, figuratively, of screen, stage, etc.);   white opacity in the cornea of the eye
Kawm (Kaum), Akwam, Kiman Kawm, pl. Akwám, Kímán heap, pile;   hill;—pl. kímán especially garbage piles, refuse dump
Kawm as-Sa'aydah, Kawmu's-Sa'ayidih Kawm aṣ-Ṣa‘áydah Per.   Kawmu’ṣ-Ṣa’áyidih.   A village about 8 km SW of Bibá, Egypt. A fierce attack on a small band of Bahá’ís in this village ended in being the “initial step”, Shoghi Effendi said, in “the eventual universal acceptance of the Bahá’í Faith, as one of the independent recognized religious systems of the world” (Bahá’í Administration, p. 101) by the Appellate religious court of Bibá, which delivered its judgement on 10 May 1925. (Priceless Pearl, p. 318).   See entry for Bibá and The Bahá’í World, III:48–50.
Kawmu Kawmú gathering, assembly, group of people
Kawn, Akwan Kawn, pl. Akwán being;   existence;   event, occurrence, incident.   al-kawn the existent, the existing, reality;   the world;   the cosmos, the universe   al-Kawn al-A‘lá, the Supreme Being, God.
Kawthar, Kawsar Kawthar, Pers. Kawsar much, ample, abundant, plentiful, large quantity;   al-Kawthar—name of a lake or river in Paradise (that Muḥammad saw on his mystic night journey, Qur’án 108:1) whence all the other rivers derive their source.
Kawus (Kavus) Káwús Pers.   name of an ancient king of Persia;   pure;   elegant, graceful;   radical;   firm, constant;   generous, noble;   strengthened by divine aid;   a subduer, conqueror;   a spark;   light, splendour, coruscation;   swiftness, impetuosity.
Kay (Kai), Kayan Kay, pl. Kayán Pers.   a star;   the point made by the compasses at the centre of a circle;   (pl.) great kings;   the surname of the second dynasty of the Persian kings
Kayani, Kayaniyan Kayání, pl. Kayániyán Pers.   of the Kayanian race;   imperial, royal.   Dynasty [time of Alexander the Great] of the Kayániyán (Keyanian) kings of Persia.
Kaykhusraw (Kaikhusraw) Kaykhusraw Pers.   Also Kay Khusraw, Kay-Khusraw.   Legendary Persian warrior
Kaysaniyya Kaysániyya Kaysanite, see Mukhtáriyya. Name may have been based on the kunya (surname) Kaysán, allegedly given to Al-Mukhtár (see Mukhtár) by ‘Alí, or the name of a freed Mawlá of ‘Alí who was killed at the Battle of Ṣiffín called Kaysán. More likely named after Abú ‘Amra Kaysán, a prominent Mawlá and chief of Al-Mukhtár’s personal bodyguard. The Kaysanites were also known as Ḥanafiyya (after Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥanafiyyah)
Kaywan (Kaiwan, Kayvan) Kaywán the planet Saturn;   like-wise his orbit;   a bow;   the seventh heaven
Kazim Káẓim “One who suppresses his passion or anger”   The title of the seventh Imám of the Shí‘ih.
Kazim Kaẓím filled with anger
Kazim-i-Rashti Káẓim-i-Rashtí, Siyyid
Kazim-i-Zanjani Káẓim-i-Zanjání
Kazimayn Káẓimayn Káẓimayn (“Kazmin” or “Kazemain”)   “the two Ká’ẓims” (Imám Músá al-Káẓim and Muḥammad al-Taqí, the seventh and ninth A’imma).   Káẓimayn was a city built around the shrines of these A’imma—Al-Káẓimiya Mosque—now a suburb of Baghdád (about 7 km north of the city centre)
Kazimi-Manshadi Káẓimí-Manshádí
Kazirun, Kazrun Kázirún (Kazerun, Kázirán, Kázarún) also known as Kasrun, is a city (90 km west of Shíráz) and capital of Kazeroon County, Fárs Province, Írán.
Kha Khá name of an Arabic letter.   Land of Khá: reference to the Khurásán Province and neighbouring areas, including the city of ‘Ishqábád (Ashkhabad).
Khabar-Dar Khabar-Dár Pers.   informed, appraised, certified;   aware;   careful, cautious;   an informer, scout, spy;   take care! beware! look out!
Khabar, Akhbar Khabar, pl. Akhbár news;   information, intelligence: report, communication, message;   notification;   rumor;   story;   matter, affair.   Traditions, sayings attributed to Muḥammad and to the Imams.
Khabir Khabír experienced, expert (in);   familiar, conversant, well-acquainted (with), cognizant (of)
Khada (Khadih), Khawd, Khiyad Kháḍa (Khawḍ, Khiyáḍ) to wade (into water);   to plunge, dive, rush (into something), tackle courageously (something), embark boldly (on).   Pers.   also kháḍih.   Jalálu’lláh Kháḍih, last name also transcripted Kházih or Kházeh (1897–21 February 1990), a Hand of the Cause of God appointed by Shoghi Effendi in 1953.
Khadar Khaḍár green, greenness, green colour;   greens, herbs, pot-herbs
Khadhala, Khadhl, Khidhlan Khadhala (Khadhl, Khidhlán) to leave, abandon, forsake, desert, leave in the lurch (or someone);   to stay behind;   to disappoint;   pass
Khadi', Khudda', Khud'an, Khid'an Kháḍi‘, pl. Khuḍḍa‘, Khuḍ‘án, Khiḍ‘án submissive, humble;   obedient, pliant, tractable;   subject, liable, prone (to something).   Pers. may use Kházih (Khazih)
Khadi'i Kháḍi‘í [Doubtful Kháḍí’í in MUHJ 1963–86, p. 502.]
Khadij Khadíj Pers.   an abortion (of an animal)
Khadija (Khadijah or Khadijat), Khadijih Khadíja(h or t), Khadíjih Muḥammad’s first wife.
Khadijih Khanum Khadíjih Khánum Mother of Bahá’u’lláh.   Children of second marriage—Daughters Sárih Khánum and Nisá Khánum.   Sons Bahá’u’lláh, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Mihdí
Khadijih-Bagum Khadíjih-Bagum Wife of the Báb.
Khadijih-Sultan Khadíjih-Sulṭán
Khadim, Khuddam, Khudama Khádim, pl. Khuddám, Khudama (“Khadem”) domestic servant, help;   manservant;   woman servant;   employee;   attendant;   waiter;   deacon (Christian)   (Dhikru’lláh Khádem (sic), appointed Hand of the Cause of God, 1957)
Khadimu'llah Khádimu’lláh (“Servant of God”)   Title given to Mírzá Áqá Ján, he was the personal attendant of Bahá’u’lláh and later His amanuensis as well.   (EGB, p. 65 by Balyuzi refers to the Tablet where the concept of Hand of the Cause of God is first mentioned in the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh)
Khadir Khaḍir green, verdant;   verdure, greenery;   young green crop (of grain)
Khadir, Khidir, Khidr al-Khaḍir, al-Khiḍir (al-Khiḍr) a well-known legendary figure (“The Green One”) or immortal saint. Identified as “One of our servants” Qur’án 18:65. His name is not mentioned in the Qur’án, but tradition gives it as Khiḍr. His knowledge is fresh and green, and drawn out of the living sources of life (Alláh). Equivalent in the Bible is considered to be Melchizedek.   Bahíyya Khánum, p. 99 states the Cave of Khiḍr is the Cave of Elijah.
Khafid Kháfiḍ a depressor;   one of the attributes of God (as depressing the proud)
Khafiya, Khafiyyih, Khafaya Khafíya(h), (Pers. Khafiyyih), pl. Khafáyá a secret, a secret affair.   Quietly and privately, as in prayers, etc.
Khajih Khájih (“Title of honour”) Name of a fortress near the town of Nayríz.   Alternative spelling, see Khwája.
Khal-i-A'zam Khál-i-A‘ẓam “the Greatest Uncle”   ‘Alí, Ḥájí Mírzá Siyyid, maternal uncle of the Báb
Khal-i-Asghar Khál-i-Aṣghar “Younger or Junior Uncle”
Khal, Akhwal, Khu'ul, Khu'la Khál, pl. Akhwál, Khu’úl, Khu’úla (maternal) uncle;— (pl. khílán) mole, birthmark (on the face);   patch, beauty spot
Khalaj Khalaj Pers.   the aching of the bones from excessive labour.   The Khalaj people (also spelt Xalaj or Khaladzh; Persian: Xalajhá) are primarily classified as a Turkic people likely of Indo-Iranian origin that speak the Khalaj language. Became largely Persianized in the mid-20th century.
Khalajabadi Khalajábádí (Khalaj + Ábádí) Pers.   Kayván Khalajábádí
Khalal, Khilal Khalal, pl. Khilál gap, interval, interstice;   cleft, crack, rupture, fissure;   a defective, unbalanced state, imbalance;   defectiveness, imperfection;   fault, flaw, defeat, shortcoming;   disturbance, upset, disorder;   damage, injury, harm (that something suffers or suffered);   khilála during;   between;   through
Khalaqa, (Khalq) Khalaqa (Khalq) to create, make, originate (something);   to shape, form, mould (something)
Khaldun Khaldún Ibn-i-Khaldún (“Ibn-Kaldoon”) (a famous Oriental historian)
Khali (Khalin) Khálí (Khálin) free, unrestrained, open, vacant (office, position), void;   idle, unemployed;   free (from), devoid
Khalid, Khwalid Khálid, pl. Khwálid everlasting, perpetual, eternal;   immortal, deathless, undying;   unforgettable, glorious;—pl. mountains
Khalidiya, Khalidiyyih Khálidíya(h), Pers. Khálidíyyih al-Khálidíya “belonging to Khálid”. Naqshbandíya Khálidíya, Khálidíya or Khálidí is the title of a branch of the Naqshbandíya Ṣúfí lineage, from the time of Khálid al-Baghdádí
Khalifa, Khulafa Khalífa, pl. Khulafá’, Khalá’if caliph, literally, successor.   The vicar, deputy, successor or representative of the Messenger of God (see Khiláfa);—pl. the institution, the caliphate
Khalifatu Khalífatu successor of Muḥammad
Khalij, Khulj, Khuljan Khalíj pl. Khulj, Khulján bay, gulf;   canal;   al-Khalíj—name of Cairo’s ancient city canal that was abandoned and leveled at the end of the 19th century.   al-Khalíj Farsí—the Persian Gulf
Khalil Khalíl, pl. Akhillá, Khullán friend, bosom friend;   lovers.   al-Khalíl, the Friend, Abraham.
Khalil-i-Khu'i Khalíl-i-Khu’í
Khalilu'llah Khalílu’lláh the Friend of God (Abraham is known as)
Khaliq Kháliq creative;   Creator, Maker (God).   Used as a name, preceded by ‘Abd (servant)—‘Abdu’l-Kháliq “Servant of the Creator”.
Khalis, Khalisa, Khullas Kháliṣ, fem. Kháliṣa(h), pl. Khullaṣ clear;   pure, unmixed, unadulterated;   sincere, frank, candid, true;   free, exempt (from);   name of a stream in the east of Baghdád on the banks of which a castle of the same name is situated.   Persian also government revenue department office;   lands under government management.
Khalisizádih Kháliṣízádih itinerant traveller, Ákhúnd Turábí, Shaykh Muḥammad Kháliṣízádih
Khalji Khaljí ‘Alá’ud-Dín Khaljí (r. 1296–1316) was the second and the most powerful ruler of the Khaljí dynasty in India
Khalkhal, Khalakhil Khalkhál, Khalákhíl anklet.   (Azerbaijani: Khálkhál) (formerly and local, Azerbaijani: Híruw, Persian: Híruwábád (Hírábád)) is a city and capital of Khalkhál County, in Ardabíl Province, Írán.
Khall Khall Ar.   vinegar.   See Pers. Sirka
Khalq Khalq creation;   making;   origination;   something which is created, a creation;   creatures;   people, man, mankind;   physical constitution.   Khalqan a creation
Khalq-i-Jadid Khalq-i-Jadíd Pers.   (spiritual) rebirth
Khalwa, Khalawat Khalwa(t), pl. Khalawát privacy, solitude;   seclusion, isolation, retirement;   place of retirement or seclusion, retreat, recess;   secluded room;   hermitage;   religious assembly hall of the Druses;   booth, cabin
Khamanih Khamaneh, Khameneh Khámanih, Kháminih Pers.   (also Khamneh, Khumla and Khumna) is a town 60 km WNW of Tabríz.
Khaminiy (Khamenei) Kháminíy Pers.   Sayyid ‘Alí Ḥusayní Kháminíy (family are from Kháminih, the h is silent in his name), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khamenei (second “supreme leader” of Írán)
Khamir Khamír leavened (dough);   ripe, mature, mellow;   leaven;   leavened bread
Khamis Khamís a fifth;   the fifth day of the week (Thursday);   a garment or piece of cloth of five cubits;   anything consisting of five parts (especially an army composed of van, centre, rear, and two wings)
Khamisa Khamisa(h) black or red garment with decorations
Khammar Khammár vintner, wine merchant, keeper of a wineshop
Khammar, 'Udi Khammár, ‘Údí He placed the inscription “Greetings and salutations rest upon this mansion which increaseth in splendour through the passage of time. Manifold wonders and marvels are found therein, and pens are baffled in attempting to describe them” over his mansion’s door in ‘Akká   (David Ruhe, Door of Hope).   Grid co-ordinates 32.921563, 35.067297
Khamsa, Khams Khamsa(h or t), fem. Khams five;   the five fingers, the hand.   Khamsih (Khamseh) (Pers.) is the former name of Zanján Province.
Khan-i-'Arab Khán-i-‘Arab
Khan-i-'Avamid Khán-i-‘Avámíd Inn of Pillars, ‘Akká.   Also known as Khán-i-Jurayní, or Khán al-‘Umdán.   See ‘Awámíd.
Khan-i-Ahi Khán-i-Áhí Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, a secretary of Russian Legation
Khan-i-Kalantar Khán-i-Kalántar
Khan-i-Kashi Khán-i-Káshí
Khan-i-Kirmani Khán-i-Kirmání
Khan-i-Larijani Khán-i-Laríjání
Khan-i-Nuri Khán-i-Núrí
Khan-i-Qazvini Khán-i-Qazvíní
Khan-i-Shavirdi Khán-i-Shávirdí (A caravanserai in ‘Akká)
Khan-i-Tanakabuni Khán-i-Tanakábúní (GPB) Khán-i-Tunukábúní, Sulaymán (MF)
Khan, Khanat Khán, pl. Khánát hostel, caravansary;   inn, pub, tavern.   Originally from the Mongolian term for a ruler;   a title meaning prince, chieftain or man of rank.
Khandil Khándil pronunciation of Turkish Kandil (candle or oil lamp).   Arabic qindíl
Khani Khání
Khanidan Khánidán Pers.   to echo;   to obtain celebrity
Khanih Khánih Pers.   house
Khaniq, Khawaniq Khániq, Khawániq choking, strangling;   suffocating, asphyxiating, stifling, smothering;   throttling, throttle (in compounds;   tech.);   (pl.) choke coil, reactor (radio);   gorge, ravine, canyon
Khaniqayn Khániqayn A town in ‘Iráq on the border of Írán near Baghdád.
Khaniqin Khániqín city near eastern border of ‘Iráq, 145 km NE of Baghdád
Khaniqiyi Khángiyí Pers.   homemade
Khanjar, Khanajir Khanjar, pl.Khanájir dagger.   Shaykh Khanjar was given the name Salmán by Bahá’u’lláh—thereafter known as Shaykh Salmán
Khanum Khánum (Lady, wife) The feminine form of khán.
Khaqan, Khawaqin Kháqán, pl. Khawáqín overlord, ruler, sovereign, monarch, emperor
Khar Khar Pers.   an ass;   a stupid fool;   black viscous clay;   sediment;   the bridge of a violin;   the commonest, ugliest, largest, or coarsest of its kind
Kharaba, Kharabat, Khara'ib Kharába, pl. Kharábát, Khará’ib disintegrating structure, ruin, ruins, desolation;   destroyed, deserted, depopulated, spoiled;   debauched;   overcome by wine, drunk, intoxicated;   reprobate;   noxious, vicious;   indecent;   miserable.   (Pers. with Ar. influence) Kharábát, a tavern;   a gaming-house.
Kharaj Kharáj tax;   land tax (Islamic Law)
Kharaja, Khuruj Kharaja, Khurúj to go out, walk out;   to come out.   An act of rebellion against authorities.
Kharif Kharíf autumn, fall
Khariq-i-'Adat Kháriq-i-‘Ádat (Khareki-Adat) Things that are contrary, rend or change the habits of men. Hence, sometimes ‘miracles’.
Kharput Khárpút Harput/Khárpút, ancient fortress about 5 km NE of Elâziǧ, Turkey
Kharras (Kharraz), Kharrasun Kharráṣ, pl. Kharráṣún liar, slanderer, calumniator
Khartum, Kharatim Kharṭúm, pl. Kharáṭím proboscis, trunk (of the elephant);   hose.   al-Kharṭúm (Khartoum)—capital of the Sudanese Republic
Khasa'il-i-Sab'ih Khaṣá’il-i-Sab‘ih “The Seven Proofs or Qualifications” by the Báb
Khash Khásh city in SE of Írán
Khasilat, Khasa'il Khaṣílat, pl. Khaṣá’il Pers.   manner, custom, usage, moral
Khasm, Khusum, Akhsam Khaṣm, pl. Khuṣúm, Akhṣám adversary, antagonist, opponent;   opposing party (in a lawsuit)
Khass Kháṣṣ special, particular;   specific, peculiar;   relative, relevant
Khassa, Khawass Kháṣṣa(h), pl. Khawáṣṣ exclusive property;   private possession;   specialty, particularity, peculiarity, characteristic, property, attribute;   essence, intrinsic nature;   leading personalities, people of distinction, al-kháṣṣa the upper class, the educated
Khassiya, Khassiyat, Khasa'is Kháṣṣíya, pl. Kháṣṣíyát, Khaṣá’iṣ Ar.   specialty, particularity, characteristic, peculiarity, property, special attribute, feature, trait, qualification;   prerogative, privilege;   jurisdiction, competence
Khata Khatá Pers.   region in Tibet known for musk production
Khataba, Khutba, Khataba Khaṭaba, Khuba(h), Khaṭába(t) to deliver a public address, make a speech;   to preach, deliver a sermon
Khatam al-Nabiyin Khátam an-Nabíyín the Seal (of approval) of the Prophets (Muḥammad), or “the best of prophets” (khayr an-nabiyyin).   Muḥammad was the last of the Manifestations to prophesy the coming of Bahá’u’lláh, and His Dispensation the last of the prophetic cycle of religion. With the appearance of the Báb, this cycle closed. The Báb’s Mission was not to foretell the Day of God but to announce it. Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh I:66.   Christopher Buck argues, based on The Kitáb-i-Íqán, that Muḥammad was last in terms of authority rather than in the temporal sense.
Khatam al-Wasiyyin Khátam al-Wasiyyín Seal of the Successors (‘Alí, son-in-law of Muḥammad)
Khátam an-Nabiyin, Khatamu’n-Nabiyyin Khátam an-Nabíyín the Seal (i.e., the best) of t