Glossary and transcription
for Arabic and Persian terms
Compiler: Michael W. Thomas, Queensland
Contents
• IntroductionRomanisation of Arabic   →  · Standardisation, · Bahá’í transcriptionAccuracyInformation sourcesList arrangementSearching the listPhonetic or common spellingSuffixes
Download MS Word copy
Feedback and suggestions are welcomed and encouraged.
Top -s ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
• Arabic and Persian   →   · Letters, transcription & abjad values, · ‘Ayn & hamza consonants, · Capitalisations, · Elative word forms, · Hybrid words/names, · Numbers, · Plurals (Arabic, Persian) · Underdots, · Underscores, · Vowel Sounds
• Bahá’í   →   · Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh, · Bearers of the throne of God (8), · Hands of the Cause of God, · Letters of the Living, · Principles, · Shrine of the Báb, · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh
• Calendars (days, months)   →   · Badí‘-Bahá’í days, months, years (Days, Months, Years), · Gregorian days, months, · Islamic months, · Persian Solar Months
• Caliphs (first 28 caliphs)   →   · The Rightly-guided, · The Umayyad, · The Abbaside.
• Imams   →   · Twelfth Imám, · Deputies of the 12th Imám
• Twelfth Imám—occultation and return
• Meccan pilgrim meeting points
• Qur’án suras
• Qur’anic “names” of God
• Special characters   →   · Non-printing characters, · Unusual characters,
• Traditional Qur’anic/Ṣúfí concepts
• Microsoft Word
Introduction.
This document lists the Latin script transcription forms of many of the Arabic (Ar.) and Fársí (Pers.) (including some of Turkish (T.) origin) names and words used in the Bahá’í Writings, books by Bahá’ís and the Qur’án as a GUIDE to their transcription. The full names of some people are listed, but for others the listing for each individual name will have to be checked. Some root words have been added as a guide to the meaning of their derivatives.
Some glossary terms, and information on them, can be found in the Glossary of This Decisive Hour: Messages from Shoghi Effendi to the American Bahá’ís 1932–1946.
Romanisation of Arabic
Although there has been no agreement as to a standard method of rendering Arabic words into the Latin alphabet, there are basically two philosophies with regard to the process of Romanization: various diacritics and non-standard Latin characters are used to represent Arabic graphemes1 or phonemes2 that do not exist in the Latin alphabet.
Romanisation is often termed “transliteration”, but this is not always technically correct. Transliteration is the direct representation of foreign letters using Latin symbols, while more useful systems for Romanisation of Arabic, in particular, are transcription systems in which Latin symbols are used to represent the sound of Arabic letters. Technically, transliteration is concerned primarily with accurately representing the graphemes of another script, whilst transcription is concerned primarily with representing its phonemes. In addition, transliteration is concerned with scripts, whilst transcription (from one language to another) is concerned with writing systems (the way a script is applied to a particular language). As an example, مناظرة الحروف العربية is transcripted as munáẓaratu’l-ḥurúfi’l-‘arabíyah, indicating the pronunciation, and transliterated as mnaẓrḧ alḥrwf al‘rbyḧ.
Transliteration shows only the characters as they appear in the Arabic text, giving no indication of pronunciation. Also since Arabic and Persian normally does not include short vowels, then no vowels are represented in the Romanized script.
Transcription uses diacritical marks to represent Arabic characters without equivalent letters in the Latin alphabet. It indicates the short vowels “a”, “i” and “u” that are not usually included in normal Arabic text but were included in the Qur’anic text to prevent misinterpretation. Long vowels are represented by adding an acute or a macron (a straight bar above a letter) to the vowel. Transcription of Qur’anic (classical) or Modern Standard Arabic text (see “Standardisation” section), whether fully vowelled or not, is the most useful for a non-Arabic speaker. When Arabic text does not include the short vowels, it can be read by speakers of various Arabic dialects who will pronounce it according to their own vernacular.
Another issue is the representation of the Arabic definite article, which is always spelled the same way in written Arabic but has numerous pronunciations in the spoken language depending on context, in particular whether the following letter is a “sun” letter (see the “Arabic letters & abjad values” section. Likewise, the pronunciation of short vowels may be modified according to preceding consonants or may vary from place to place according to local dialects. This accounts for variations such as Moslem for Muslim; and Mohammed or Mohamed for Muḥammad.
Shoghi Effendi introduced a system of transcription of Arabic letters to Roman letters that is an adaptation of the system recommended by the Tenth International Congress of Orientalists held in September 1894 at Geneva. Refer to Muḥammad and the Course of Islám, pp. xiii–xvi for more details. The Persian language used by Bahá’ís can reflect various dialects. However, the Persian used by Shoghi Effendi reflected the Iṣfahání dialect (described in the list as Iṣfahání Persian or Bahá’í Persian) used by his grandmother, Munírih Khánum, and taught to her children and grandchildren. This is reflected in Shoghi Effendi’s use of Persian forms of Arabic words where “w” is replaced by “v”, and the last one or two letters (especially after a tá’ marbúṭa) are replaced by “ah”, “ih”, “yah” and “yih”. Shoghi Effendi also uses hybrid “words”, such as in The Promised Day Is Come, where the singular form of a word (and sometimes a plural form) is “converted” to a “plural” by adding an English “s” instead of using the correct plural form of the Arabic or Persian word. Paragraph 229 (pp. 91–2) of The Promised Day Is Come is an atypical example where a large number of hybrid “words” have been used.
Standardisation
Modern Standard Arabic is a standardised form of Arabic used for written and formal spoken communications. It incorporates a large vocabulary derived from classical Arabic (al-‘Arabíyah al-Fuṣḥá), which is derived from the Arabic used in the Qur’án. ‘Uthmán ibn ‘Affán standardised the pronunciation of Qur’anic Arabic by adding short vowel marks (see Tashkíl) based on the Ḥijází dialect. The Qur’án normally includes special recitation guide marks (see Qur’án). Punctuation did not exist in classical Arabic (or Persian)—it is a modern innovation.
“Standard” Persian is the official language of Írán and Tajikistan, and one of the two official languages of Afghánistán. It is a set of spoken and written formal varieties used by the educated persophones of several nations around the world.
In Írán, the Academy of Persian Language and Literature acts as the official authority on the language, and contributes to linguistic research on Persian and other languages of Írán. Hence, the “Standard Persian” that is the official language of Írán encompasses various linguistic norms (consisting of prescribed usage), and it is based on the Ṭihrání dialect. Obviously, there will be some differences between the official Iranian Persian and that based on the Iṣfahání dialect learnt by Shoghi Effendi.
The two other “standard” varieties of Persian, the official language used in Tajikistan and Afghánistán, are based on the Kabuli, and Bukharan varieties, respectively.
Bahá’í transcription
On another page [The complete list of terms is to be found in many volumes of The Bahá’í World] is given the list of the best known and most current Bahá’í terms, and other Oriental names and expressions, all properly and accurately [there are errors] transliterated [transcripted], the faithful spelling of which by all the Western friends will avoid confusion in future, and insure in this matter a uniformity which is greatly needed at present in all Bahá’í literature.3
Regarding the transliteration [transcription] of Persian and Arabic words the House of Justice requests that the method adopted by the beloved Guardian, and which is described in the various volumes of The Bahá’í World, be followed, as it permits all languages which use the Roman alphabet to transliterate [transcript] such terms in the same way throughout the Bahá’í world.4
We agree ... to use the ending -a when the word is in an Arabic context and -ih when it is in a Persian one.
... since the purpose of the accent is merely to indicate a long vowel, we see no objection to permitting Bahá’í orientalists to use the horizontal accent [macron] (or indeed a circumflex or any other accent) in their scholarly works if they so wish, although, as stated above, we prefer the acute accent and this should be retained for general Bahá’í usage.
The [final] hamza is dropped in Persian but not in Arabic. Thus, Qayyúm’l-Asmá’, being an Arabic form, needs a hamza at the end, but the Persian form, Qayyúm-i-Asmá does not require it.5
The terms “Guardian” and “Universal House of Justice” are explained in the alphabetical list below.

1 The smallest meaningful contrastive unit in a writing system.
2 Any of the perceptually distinct units of sound in a specified language that distinguish one word from another.
3 Shoghi Effendi, postscript to a letter dated 12 March 1923, Bahá’í Administration, p. 43.
4 The Universal House of Justice, 21 July 1998, Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963–1986, p. 187.
5 The Universal House of Justice letter to an individual dated 20 October 1978, paras 5.2, 5.5 & 5.9.
Accuracy
Any variations in transcription by the authors listed under the Information sources heading, and information from all other Bahá’í authors have been subjected to the following progressive checks:
a)Consistency with transcription rules as used by Shoghi Effendi, and similar words.
b)An internet search of transcripted forms of the words.
c)An internet search for the original Arabic of the words that are then manually transcripted.
d)A search for the words in dictionaries such as The Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic and A comprehensive Persian-English Dictionary by Francis Steingass.).
e)Consulting knowledgeable Arabic and/or Fársí speaking Bahá’ís. However, this information needs to be cross checked with the above sources.
Entries in this document are amended when new information is found, and new ones are added when new names and words are found in relevant publications. Hence, it is recommended that you use the latest available Word copy from www.miscellanie.com/transcription/index.html or https://bahai-library.com/glossary_arabic_persian_transcription.
Corrections, additions and suggested improvements to the list are welcomed. Contact jonahwinters@gmail.com or romane@miscellanie.com.
Information sources
Some sources of information are given in brackets. The most reliable sources of information are to be found in documents issued by the Universal House of Justice; and books by Shoghi Effendi, Hasan Balyuzi and Adib Taherzadeh (caution: there are some errors in all published documents). Entries are checked using digital copies of Arabic (Hans Wehr, also a printed copy) and Persian (Steingass) dictionaries. If these sources lack the required information, then information is sought from the internet and a few knowledgeable individuals.
List arrangement
The first column of the following list contains forms (correct and incorrect) of the words/names without acute accents, initial ‘Ayns or underdots. This makes it possible to make a simple search for a word without having any knowledge of the correct transcription, and it is used to make an alphabetical sort (the sorting used by Word is not the desired order) of the list itself.
Searching the list
It is easier to search for words if you:
a)Remove all accents and underdots.
b)Remove the definite article (“al-”, “ul-”, etc.; refer to the entry for “al-” and the description of the sun letters in the Arabic letters and abjad values section at the end of this list.)
c)Remove final letters such as “ah”, “yah” and “yyah” (usually Persian forms); “ih”, “yih” and “yyih” (forms representing an Iṣfahání dialect or Shoghi Effendi’s “Persian Bahá’í variation”); and “h” and “t” that often represent a tá’ marbúṭa (refer to the tá’ marbúṭa entry).
d)Replace “o” and “e” by “u” and “i” respectively. Then replace double vowels (representing á, í, ú) with a, i and u respectively. Also try replacing “v” (Persian) with “w”. In some cases “u” following a vowel should also be replaced by “w” or “y”.
e)Use the following table for the replacement of transliterated (translit.) Persian letters with single or double (diaeresis below) underdots with the letters in the letter(s) in the transcription (transcr.) column. The transliterated letter z may represent ḍ, dh, z or ẓ.
Translit Transcr. Plain text Translit Transcr. Plain text
th th d
t z z z
z z dh dh
Phonetic or common spelling
Words in brackets in the third column may indicate an old-style phonetical spelling found in some older publications. Others are variations of place names found in books or on maps—these can be useful to determine correct transcription or to locate the places when searching Google maps. Emphasis is given to what is described as Modern Standard Arabic.
Glossary and Roman transcripted forms of
Arabic & Persian terms
Top -s ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
• Arabic and Persian   →   · Letters, transcription & abjad values, · ‘Ayn & hamza consonants, · Capitalisations, · Elative word forms, · Hybrid words/names, · Numbers, · Plurals (Arabic, Persian) · Underdots, · Underscores, · Vowel Sounds
• Bahá’í   →   · Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh, · Bearers of the throne of God (8), · Hands of the Cause of God, · Letters of the Living, · Principles, · Shrine of the Báb, · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh
• Calendars (days, months)   →   · Badí‘-Bahá’í days, months, years (Days, Months, Years), · Gregorian days, months, · Islamic months, · Persian Solar Months
• Caliphs (first 28 caliphs)   →   · The Rightly-guided, · The Umayyad, · The Abbaside.
• Imams   →   · Twelfth Imám, · Deputies of the 12th Imám
• Twelfth Imám—occultation and return
• Meccan pilgrim meeting points
• Qur’án suras
• Qur’anic “names” of God
• Special characters   →   · Non-printing characters, · Unusual characters,
• Traditional Qur’anic/Ṣúfí concepts
• Microsoft Word
Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments

Prefixes, suffixes and links

Prefixes
Ma- Ma- prefix creating nouns of place. e.g. khubz, “bread” → makhbaz, “bakery”; daras, “to study” → madrasah, “school”.
Mi- Mi prefix used to create instrument nouns. e.g. fataḥ, “to open” → miftáḥ, “key (instrument for opening)”; wazan, “to weigh” → mízán, “scales (instrument of weighing)”.
Mu- Mu- as pronoun prefix for Forms II and above—he who or those who. e.g. ḥamd, “praise” → Muḥammad, “someone who prays”.

Links
-i-, y-i- (-e, -yi-, y-e, -ye, -i) -i-, y-i- Persian (iḍáfa) –i- (“-e”) sound inserted in pronunciation (not represented in Persian script) at the end of one word to indicate that the following word stands in a possessive or adjectival relation to it; equivalent to “of” in English. If the noun ends in a long vowel (not a “y”) or a silent h, the link y-i- (“y-e-”) is used, e.g. Ágháy-i-Karand (formal) and Ághá Karand (informal). See iḍáfa entry.

Suffixes
dan -dán Pers. (suffix and prefix) denoting what holds or contains anything (i.e. container/box); know thou; (in compound) knowing, intelligent.
ha “-há” Pers. most common form of pluralization for Persian nouns. See above Persian section under Plurals heading.
hood -hood role denoted by the word it is suffixed to, usually a noun, e.g. childhood. 2. A group sharing a specified condition or state, e.g. brotherhood
istan -istán home or place
parast, -parastan -parast, pl. -parastán Pers. a non-joining suffix roughly equivalent to “ist”, frequently denoting a worshiper or follower of, but often with unpredictable meanings. Example: átish-parast, a fire-worshipper; a physician.
ship -ship English suffix of nouns denoting condition, character, office, skill, etc.
stan -stán Pers. “place of” or “country”
un, an, in, át -un, -an, -in; m. pl. -ún, -án, -ín; f. pl. -át subjective/nominative, objective/accusative and possessive/genitive singular noun case endings (respectively) where they exist See i‘ráb.
yy, yya (iya), yyih -yy, fem. -yya[h or t], Pers. -yyih nisba, a suffix used to form adjectives in Arabic grammar. Sometimes íya is used. Often denotes either a group of people who follow a certain person, or a group with a certain ideological system. The feminine nisbah is often used as a noun relating to concepts, most frequently to ones ending in “ism”, with the m. (ـِيّ) and fem. (ـِيَّة) nisbah being used as adjectival forms of the concept-noun (e.g. “ist”) depending on agreement. Thus al-ishtirákiyyah “socialism”, and ishtirákiyy (m.) and ishtirákiyyah (fem.) socialist.
Top -s ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
• Arabic and Persian   →   · Letters, transcription & abjad values, · ‘Ayn & hamza consonants, · Capitalisations, · Elative word forms, · Hybrid words/names, · Numbers, · Plurals (Arabic, Persian) · Underdots, · Underscores, · Vowel Sounds
• Bahá’í   →   · Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh, · Bearers of the throne of God (8), · Hands of the Cause of God, · Letters of the Living, · Principles, · Shrine of the Báb, · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh
• Calendars (days, months)   →   · Badí‘-Bahá’í days, months, years (Days, Months, Years), · Gregorian days, months, · Islamic months, · Persian Solar Months
• Caliphs (first 28 caliphs)   →   · The Rightly-guided, · The Umayyad, · The Abbaside.
• Imams   →   · Twelfth Imám, · Deputies of the 12th Imám
• Twelfth Imám—occultation and return
• Meccan pilgrim meeting points
• Qur’án suras
• Qur’anic “names” of God
• Special characters   →   · Non-printing characters, · Unusual characters,
• Traditional Qur’anic/Ṣúfí concepts
• Microsoft Word
Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
A
A’ila, ‘A’ilat, ‘Awa’il ‘Á’ila, pl. ‘A’ilát, ‘Awá’il family, household
A’ish, A’isha ‘Á’ish, ‘Á’isha[h or t], Pers. also ‘Á’ishih living comfortably. ‘Á’isha bint Abú Bakr, third wife of Muḥammad. Also spelt Aisha[h or t], ‘A’ishih, Aisyah, Ayesha or Ayisha.
A’la, ‘Ulya (Olya), ‘Ulan, A’alin, A’lahu A‘lá, fem. ‘Ulyá, pl. ‘Ulan, A‘álin higher, highest; upper, uppermost, exalted; ‘Álin the highest portion of something; heights, peaks (figuratively). A‘láhu further up, above.
A’lam, ‘Alma’ A‘lam, fem. ‘Almá’ more or most learned
A’rabi, A’rab A‘rábí, pl. A‘ráb an Arab of the desert, a Bedouin. This is not the “a‘rábs” (i‘ráb) in DND and MIS 1923–1957.
A’raj, ‘Arja, ‘Urj, ‘Urjan A‘raj, fem. ‘Arjá, pl. ‘Urj, ‘Urján lame, limping;—jack (in a deck of cards)
A’sam, ‘Asma’, ‘Usm A‘ṣam, fem. ‘Aṣmá’, pl. ‘Uṣm having a white foot (animal); excellent, valuable, precious
A’war, ‘Aura’. ‘Ur A‘war, fem. ‘Aurá’, pl. ‘Úr one-eyed
A’zam, (see Azim) A‘ẓam, f. ‘Uẓmá, pl. A‘áẓim greater, bigger; more significant, more important; greatest, major, supreme; most significant, paramount. Comparative form of ‘aẓuma’ (to make great). al-A‘ẓam Wáḥid “The Most Exalted One” is a title of the Báb.
A’zami A‘ẓamí Ghulám Ḥusayn A‘ẓamí
Ab Áb Pers. father (in parts of Írán).
Ab, Aban Áb, pl. Ábán Pers. water; river; largesse, gift, price. Ábán is the 8th month of the Persian solar year and 10th day of every month. Áb anbár (“cistern”) a traditional underground reservoir or cistern of drinking water in Persia. Usually underground to support the weight of water, topped with a dome and towers with wind catchers/breakers (Pers. bádgír).
Ab, Abu, Aba, Abi, Aba’ Ab, pl. Ábá’ a father (also ecclesiastical); ancestor, forefather. Abú’l- (father of; Abú, Abá and Abí (iḍáfa or partial names, nominative, accusative and genitive respectively) must be followed by another name); e.g. abú’l bashar, the father of man, Adam.
Aba-Basir ‘Abá-Baṣír Áqá Naqd-‘Alí, blind martyr from Zanján, given the name Abú-Baṣír (father of insight) by Bahá’u’lláh
Aba, A’bi’a, Aba’a, ‘Aba’at ‘Abá’ (Pers. also ‘Abá), pl. A‘bi’a ‘Abá’a(h) fem., pl. ‘Abá’át. loose outer garment, cloak, mantle. English aba or abba.
Abad Abad, fem. Abada[h or t] (pl. Ábád) Ar. endless, eternal, eternity without end; abadan always, forever; ever, (with negative) never (in the future). Pers. populous, thriving, prosperous, developed, inhabited; a city, building; cultivated, peopled, full of buildings and inhabitants; replenished, well filled (treasury); an open plain; good, elegant, fair, beautiful, convenient; salutation, congratulation; praise, eulogium, well done! ábád suffix used in compound Persian names of towns and inhabited areas, e.g. Alláhábád (“Abode of God”). Ábádah (Abadeh) is a city (31.163094, 52.6483765) in Fars Province, Írán. The city is 170 km north of Shiraz and 200 km SSE Iṣfahán. cf. azal.
Abada, ‘Ibada, ‘Ubuda, ‘Ubadiya ‘Abada (‘Ibada, ‘Ubúda, ‘Ubádíya) to serve, worship (a god), adore, venerate (someone, a god or human being), idolize, deify (someone); form II to enslave, enthral, subjugate, subject (someone); to improve, develop, make serviceable, make passable for traffic (a road); form V to devote oneself to the service of God; form X to enslave, enthral, subjugate (someone)
Abadan Ábádán Pers. nearly synonymous with but more emphatic than ábád, and never used in forming compounds. City (30.369238, 48.275891) in Írán to the north of Kuwait City, Kuwait.
Abadi Ábádí, pl. Ábádiyán Pers. pleasantness; a follower of Ábád or Mahábád, the first prophet sent to Persia, and alleged author of the Dasátír.
Abadih’i Ábádih’í Layla Ábádih’í, Mírzá Ḥusayn Khán Ábádih’í
Abahab, ‘Adhabat, A’dhiba ‘Adháb, pl. ‘Adhábát, A‘dhiba pain, torment, suffering, agony, torture; punishment, chastisement, castigation
Abarkuh (Abarqu, Abarquh, Abargu) Abarkúh (Abar-Kúh) city (31.129471, 53.282411) and capital of Abarkúh County, Yazd Province. 133 km SW of Yazd and 182 km NNW of Shíráz. Many variations of spelling.
Abasa, ‘Abs, ‘Ubs ‘Abasa (‘Abs, ‘Ubs) to frown, knit one’s brows; to glower, lower, scowl, look sternly
Abayd (Abaid), Bayda’, Bid, Bidan Abayḍ, fem. Bayḍá’, pl. Bíḍ (Abayze, Bayze) white; bright; clean, shiny, polished; blameless, noble, sincere (character); empty, blank (sheet of paper);—pl. al-bíḍán the white race; bayáḍ al-bíḍ white of egg, albumen. ad-dár al-Bayḍá’ “the white house”, Casablanca.
Abaziya (Abazi, Abazih) Abáẓíya[h or t] the Republic of Abkhazia (capital Sukhumi), is a partially recognized state in the South Caucasus, on the Black Sea, north of Georgia. The Abaza family in Egypt originally came from Abaza, Russia. They were known as the “family of the pashas”. Abáẓih Páshá was a governor of ‘Akká during the time of Bahá’u’lláh, but Bahá’u’lláh would not meet him.
Abbas ‘Abbás the lion, also stern looking, formidable, stentorian. Derived from ‘abasa, originally meaning a furious lion, hence with a lion’s characteristics. al-‘Abbás ibn ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib; c. 568—c. 653) was paternal uncle and companion of Muḥammad, just three years older than his nephew. A wealthy merchant who protected Muḥammad while He was in Mecca, but only became a convert after the Battle of Baḍr in 624. His descendants founded the Abbasid Caliphate (al-Khiláfah al-‘Abbásíyah) in 750. His son, ‘Abd Alláh ibn ‘Abbás (c. 619–687), also known simply as Ibn ‘Abbás, was an early Qur’anic scholar and a nephew of Maymúnah ibnat al-Ḥárith al-Hilálíyah (c. 594–673)—she married Muhammad.
Abbas Abad, Abbas-Abad, Abbasabad ‘Abbás Ábád, ‘Abbás-Ábád, ‘Abbásábád villages in Írán: Caspian Sea coast and a part of Ṭihrán.
Abbas-‘Ali ‘Abbás-‘Alí Ḥájí Mullá ‘Abbás-‘Alí
Abbas-i-Nuri ‘Abbás-i-Núrí Mírzá ‘Abbás-i-Núrí or Mírzá Buzurg-i-Vazír, Bahá’u’lláh’s father
Abbas-Quli Khan-i-Larijani ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán-i-Laríjání sniper who killed Mullá Ḥusayn, 1 February 1849.
Abbasi, Abbasiyyun, Abbasiyan ‘Abbásí, pl. ‘Abbásiyyún, Per. ‘Abbásiyán Abbaside, descendant of al-‘Abbás, uncle of Muḥammad. ‘Abbásiyyán, the princes of the house of ‘Abbás, the Abbasides.
Abbasiya, ‘Abbasiyya ‘Abbásíya[h or t], Pers. ‘Abbásiyya[h or t] al-Khiláfah al-‘Abbásíyah, Abbasid (Abbaside) Caliphs (750–861). al-‘Abbásíya[h], formerly al-Yahúdíya[h], former Palestinian village, now Israeli city of Yehud.
Abbud ‘Abbúd devoted or obedient worshipper of God. Derived from ‘abada. Ilyás ‘Abbúd was a Christian merchant of ‘Akká. His house in ‘Akká (32.921563, 35.067297) is joined on the eastern side to the smaller house of ‘Údí Khammár. The common wall has been opened. Both are now known as the House of ‘Abbúd.
Abd Allah, ‘Abdu’llah ‘Abd Alláh, ‘Abdu’lláh (Abdallah, Abdillah, Abdullah, Abdo’llah) “Servant of God”
Abd an-Nabi ‘Abd an-Nabí Shaykh ‘Abd an-Nabí (d. 1583) served as ṣadr aṣ-ṣudúr (1566 and 1579), the head officer in charge of madad-i ma‘ash grants (revenue of tax-free lands given in charity to religious or worthy individuals) and of the appointment of judges throughout the Mughal empire.
Abd Manaf (Abdu Manaf), Abd-i-Manaf ‘Abd Manáf, Pers. ‘Abd-i-Manáf name of an Arab tribe
Abd, ‘Abid, ‘Ubdan, ‘Ibad ‘Abd, pl. ‘Abíd, ‘Ubdán, ‘Ibád slave, serf; bondsman, servant, worshipper (as a servant of God);—(pl. ‘ibád) servant (of God), human being, man. al-‘ibád humanity, mankind. Names as plurals (“worshippers”) of ‘Abd: ‘Abdín, ‘Abadín, ‘Abidín (“‘Abdin, ‘Abadin, ‘Abidin”).
Abda, ‘Abdat ‘Abda, pl. ‘Abdát woman slave, slave girl, bondwoman
Abda’ Abda‘ more amazing, more exceptional; of even greater originality. See Badí‘
Abd-i-Hadir ‘Abd-i-Ḥáḍir “Servant in Attendance”
Abdar Ábdár Pers. watery, moist, juicy; of a good water (as a diamond or a sword); a keeper of water, a servant whose office is to keep water cool (hence water-carrier or butler); keen, sharp; glancing, dazzling, resplendent; flowing (verse); a sociable and convivial man; a man of understanding, reflection or wealth; a species of plant resembling the fibres of a palm-tree
Abdu’dh-Dhikr ‘Abdu’dh-Dhikr “the Servant of Remembrance”—a designation of the Báb
Abdu’l-... (“Abdil”, “Abdul”, etc.) ‘Abdu’l-... this is not a name or word, it is an iḍáfa or partial name [‘Abdu (slave or servant) + ’l (the) = slave or servant of the …] followed by the second part of the name (e.g. of God, ‘Abd Alláh or ‘Abdu’lláh). The same applies where the “l” is replaced by a sun letter reflecting the first letter of the second part of the name if it starts with one of the sun letters (e.g. ‘Abdu’s-Salám).
Abdu’l-‘Ali ‘Abdu’l-‘Alí
Abdu’l-‘Aliy-i-Harati ‘Abdu’l-‘Alíy-i-Harátí
Abdu’l-‘Azim ‘Abdu’l-‘Aẓím
Abdu’l-‘Azim-i-Khu’i ‘Abdu’l-‘Aẓím-i-Khu’í
Abdu’l-‘Aziz ‘Abdu’l-‘Azíz (1830–1876) Sulṭán of the Ottoman Empire
Abdu’l-Ahad ‘Abdu’l-Aḥad “servant of the only one”, a title of Mírzá Hádí Shírází, who served Bahá’u’lláh in ‘Akká
Abdu’l-Baghi ‘Abdu’l-Baghí Mírzá ‘Abdu’l Baghí, father of Mírzá Aḥmad Suhráb (known as Mirza Ahmad Sohrab)
Abdu’l-Baha ‘Abdu’l-Bahá “the Servant of Glory” (i.e. servant of Bahá). ‘Abbás Afandí (“Effendi”) (23 May 1844–28 November 1921). He initialled his correspondence, Tablets, etc., with the letters ع ع (‘Ayn ‘Ayn, A.A.). After the theft of His Seal, he signed with His name. Following the passing of Bahá’u’lláh he asked to be known as ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. Wife Munírih Khánum. 4 daughters: Ḍíyá’íyyih (mother of Shoghi Effendi), Ṭúbá, Rúḥá and Munavvar. The Shrine of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá (under construction, 2020–2022) is a low dome with gently sloping sides within a 170 m circle of gardens on the NW side of the Riḍván Garden to the east of ‘Akká.
Abdu’l-Baqi ‘Abdu’l-Baqi “servant of the everlasting”
Abdu’l-Baqir ‘Abdu’l-Báqir
Abdu’l-Fattah ‘Abdu’l-Fattáḥ “Servant of the Conqueror” (not Faṭṭáḥ)
Abdu’l-Ghaffar ‘Abdu’l-Ghaffár (MF)
Abdu’l-Ghani ‘Abdu’l-Ghaní
Abdu’l-Ghani Baydun ‘Abdu’l-Ghaní Bayḍún
Abdu’l-Hadi ‘Abdu’l-Hádí
Abdu’l-Hamid ‘Abdu’l-Ḥamíd ‘Abdu’l-Ḥamíd Khán (1842–1918), Sulṭán of the Ottoman Empire. Nephew and successor of ‘Abdu’l-‘Azíz (both responsible for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s 40 year imprisonment). Known as the “Great Assassin”.
Abdu’l-Haqq ‘Abdu’l-Ḥaqq
Abdu’l-Husayn ‘Abdu’l-Ḥusayn
Abdu’l-Husayn-i-Avarih ‘Abdu’l-Ḥusayn-i-Ávárih
Abdu’l-Husayn-i-Shushtari ‘Abdu’l-Ḥusayn-i-Shushtarí
Abdu’l-Jalil ‘Abdu’l-Jalíl
Abdu’l-Javad ‘Abdu’l-Javád
Abdu’l-Karim ‘Abdu’l-Karím
Abdu’l-Karim-i-Iravani ‘Abdu’l-Karím-i-Íravání
Abdu’l-Karim-i-Qazvini ‘Abdu’l-Karím-i-Qazvíní
Abdu’l-Karim-i-Tihrani ‘Abdu’l-Karím-i-Ṭihrání
Abdu’l-Khaliq ‘Abdu’l-Kháliq “Servant of the Creator”
Abdu’l-Khaliq-i-Isfahani ‘Abdu’l-Kháliq-i-Iṣfahání he cut his throat when Ṭáhirih put aside her veil at the conference of Badasht
Abdu’l-Khaliq-i-Yazdi ‘Abdu’l-Kháliq-i-Yazdí
Abdu’l-Majid ‘Abdu’l-Majíd Sulṭán of the Ottoman Empire (1823–1861)
Abdu’l-Majid-i-Nishaburi ‘Abdu’l-Majíd-i-Níshábúrí
Abdu’l-Majid-i-Shirazi ‘Abdu’l-Majíd-i-Shírází
Abdu’l-Malik ‘Abdu’l-Malik Fifth Umayyad Caliph
Abdu’l-Muhammad ‘Abdu’l-Muḥammad
Abdu’l-Muttalib ‘Abdu’l-Muṭṭalib
Abdu’l-Qadir ‘Abdu’l-Qádir BKG 124
Abdu’l-Vahhab-i-Qazvini ‘Abdu’l-Vahháb-i-Qazvíní
Abdu’l-Vahhab-i-Sha’rani ‘Abdu’l-Vahháb-i-Sha‘rání
Abdu’l-Vahhab-i-Shirazi ‘Abdu’l-Vahháb-i-Shírází Pers. Mírzá ‘Abdu’l-Vahhab-i-Shírází, martyred in Ṭihrán
Abdu’l-Vahhab-i-Turshizi ‘Abdu’l-Vahháb-i-Turshízí
Abdu’l-Vasi’ ‘Abdu’l-Vási‘
Abdu’llah ibn Abd al-Muttalib ‘Abdu’lláh ibn Abd al-Muṭṭalib father of the Prophet Muḥammad (b. 546)
Abdu’llah ibn Ubayy ‘Abdu’lláh ibn Ubayy ibn Salúl a powerful Medinite chief and a bitter opponent of Muḥammad, whose hopes of sovereignty were defeated when the Medinites asked Muḥammad to rule over them. He was the leader of the Hypocrites (munáfiqún) who secretly resisted Muḥammad at Medina.
Abdu’llah Khan-i-Turkaman ‘Abdu’lláh Khán-i-Turkamán a commander of forces attacking at Shaykh Ṭabarsí (he was killed during the conflict)
Abdu’llah Pasha ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá his house in ‘Akká is now a Bahá’í centre. Grid co-ordinates 32.923799, 35.068098
Abdu’llah Yusuf ‘Ali ‘Abdu’lláh Yúsuf ‘Alí (1872-1952) Indian barrister and translator of the Qur’án: The Meaning of the Holy Qur’án.
Abdu’llah-i-Ghawgha’ ‘Abdu’lláh-i-Ghawghá’
Abdu’llah-i-Qazvini ‘Abdu’lláh-i-Qazvíní
Abdu’r-Rahim-i-Qannad ‘Abdu’r-Raḥím-i-Qannád
Abdu’r-Rahim-i-Yazdi ‘Abdu’r-Raḥím-i-Yazdí (MF)
Abdu’r-Rahman Afandi Alusi ‘Abdu’r-Raḥmán Afandí Álúsí
Abdu’r-Rahman-i-Karkuti ‘Abdu’r-Raḥmán-i-Kárkútí
Abdu’r-Rasul-i-Qumi ‘Abdu’r-Rasúl-i-Qumí
Abdu’r-Razzaq ‘Abdu’r-Razzáq
Abdu’s-Sahib ‘Abdu’ṣ-Ṣáḥib
Abdu’s-Salam ‘Abdu’s-Salám
Abdu’s-Salih ‘Abdu’ṣ-Ṣáliḥ the Gardener of the Riḍván Garden, ‘Akká
Abdu’s-Samad ‘Abdu’ṣ-Ṣamad (Sammad)
Abdu’s-Samad-i-Hamadani ‘Abdu’ṣ-Ṣamad-i-Hamadání
Abdu’sh-Shams, ‘Abd Shams ‘Abdu’sh-Shams or ‘Abd Shams ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manáf was the oldest son of ‘Abd Manáf al-Mughírah ibn Quṣayy (great-great-grandfather of Muḥammad through his son Háshim) and grandson of Quṣayy ibn Kiláb.
Abduhu (‘Abduh) ‘Abduhu (from aná ‘abdu-hu) (I am) his servant or slave. Muḥammad ‘Abduh (1849–1905) an Egyptian Islamic jurist, religious scholar and liberal reformer, a key founding figure of Islamic Modernism, sometimes called Neo-Mu’tazilism after the medieval Islamic school of theology based on rationalism, Mu’tazila. He broke the rigidity of the Muslim ritual, dogma and family ties. He was a Freemason and had a close relationship with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and the Bahá’í Faith. See Salafíya
Abdus, ‘Ubdus ‘Abdús, ‘Ubdús ‘abdús = ‘abd aws (gift) alláh (ú from w).This is a theophoric name (from Greek: “bearing or carrying a god”) where the final sound(s) (the apocopate) are omitted.‘Abdús ibn Abí ‘Uthmán
Abgusht, Ab-Gusht (Abi-Gusht) Ábgúsht, Áb-Gúsht Pers. (“abgoosht”, “abi-Gosht”) gravy, broth, stew
Abha Abhá more splendid, more brilliant. “Most Glorious”. al-Abhá (El-Abha) “The Most Glorious”. Abhá Beauty—Jamál-i-Abhá—a title of Bahá’u’lláh. Abhá Kingdom—The Most Glorious Kingdom (also Abhá Paradise). See Alláh-u-Abhá and Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá
Abhal, Ubhul, Abhala Abhal, Pers. Ubhul, fem. Abhala(h) savin (Juniperus sabina; botanical) or Persian the seed of the mountain cypress, or juniper; juniper berries; mountain cypress
Abhar Abhar Ar. more brilliant, more magnificent
Abhar Abhar Pers. a water-mill; a vein in the back, the jugular vein; the back of a bow. Abhar, now a city (36.146396, 49.222503), is on the road between Zanján and Qazvín. Ḥájí Mírzá Muḥammad-Taqíy-i-Abharí is known as Ibn-i-Abhar, Hand of the Cause of God.
Abi-Ghafray-i-Ta’i Abí-Ghafráy-i-Ṭá’í Pers. (see Ṭayy’). See SDC 48.
Abi-Quhafih Abí-Quḥáfih The Dawn-Breakers liv
Abid, Abidun, ‘Ubbad, ‘Abada ‘Ábid, pl. ‘Ábidún, ‘Ubbád, ‘Abada an adorer, or servant of God; worshipper—used in conjunction with Zayn.
Abir ‘Ábir, pl. ‘Ábirún passing; crossing, traversing, etc.; fleeting (smile); transient, transitory, ephemeral; bygone, past, elapsed (time);—pl. passerby. ‘ábir ṭaríq wanderer, wayfarer. See Áwárih
Abiward, Abivard Abíward, Abívard Pers. now Dargaz, Raḍawí Khurásán Province, Írán
Abiy Abíy disdainful, scornful; proud, lofty, lofty-minded
Abjad Abjad “alphabet”. The word consists of the first four (in original order) consonants (alíf, bá’, jím and dál) of the Arabic alphabet. Abjab is a writing system, e.g. Arabic, in which only consonants are represented. Abjab is also used as a term for the Arabic numeral system, where each consonant has an abjad numerical value.
Abraha al-Ashram ‘Abraha(h) al-‘Ashram (“Abraha al-Ashram”) an Abyssinian prince, who built a Christian church in Ṣaná‘ to rival the Ka‘ba at Mecca. According to traditional Arab belief, he made an unsuccessful attack with his forces of elephants to destroy the Ka‘ba CE 570 (known as the year of the elephant and date of the birth of Muḥammad).
Absat Absaṭ simpler; wider, more extensive
Abtah, Abatih Abṭaḥ, pl. Abaṭiḥ flat, level;—pl. basin-shaped valley, wide bed of a wádí. al-Abṭaḥ is a wide valley that extends between Makkah and Miná. Muḥammad stopped here on His Ḥijjatu’l-Wadá‘ (Farewell Ḥajj) in AH 10.
Abtar Abtar curtailed, docked, clipped, trimmed; imperfect, defective, incomplete; without offspring. See root batara.
Abu ‘Abdu’llah ash-Shi’i Abú ‘Abdu’lláh ash-Shí‘í Abú ‘Abd Alláh al-Ḥusayn ibn Aḥmad ibn Zakaríya ash-Shí‘í (died 911) was a Da‘í (missionary) for the Isma‘ilis in Yemen and North Africa
Abu ‘Ali Abú ‘Alí
Abu ‘Amir al-Ashari Abú ‘Ámir al-Asharí father of Ḥanẓala
Abu ‘Imran Musa ibn Maymun Abú ‘Imrán Músá ibn Maymún Maimonides (originally Moshe ben Maimon)
Abu al-‘Ala’ (Abul A’la) Abú al-‘Alá’ (أبو العلاء) “father of glory” (“Abul A‘lá”)
Abu ad-Dawahi Abú ad-Dawáhí “Father of Iniquities”, Abú Bakr. See Dáhiya.
Abu al-Fida’, Abu’l-Fida’ Abú al-Fidá’, Pers. Abu’l-Fidá’ Abú al-Fidá’ Ismá‘íl ibn ‘Alí ibn Maḥmud al-Malik al-Mu’ayyad ’Imád ad-Dín (1273–1331), better known in English as Abulfeda, was a Kurdish historian, geographer and local governor of Hama. He was a prince of the Ayyubid dynasty and the author of The memoirs of a Syrian prince: Abu’l-Fidáʼ, Sulṭán of Ḥamáh. The moon crater, Abulfeda, is named after him.
Abu Dharr al-Ghifari al-Kinani Abú Dharr al-Ghifárí al-Kinání (“Abouzar”, “Abudhar”, “Abu-Dhar Ghefan”) (also known as Jundab bin Junádah bin Sufyán al-Ghifárí) (590–653) illiterate shepherd (of the Banú Ghifár,a Jewish tribe) who became a companion (4th or 5th) of Muḥammad and a companion of Imám ‘Alí
Abu Jahl Abú Jahl “father of ignorance”. Amr ibn Hishám ibn al-Mughíra, a leader of the polytheistic Quraysh tribe’s Banú Makhzúm clan. Abú-Jahl was the uncle of Muḥammad and his greatest enemy. He was known as Abu’l-Ḥikam (the father of wisdoms); but for his envy and opposition, Muḥammad named him, Abú-Jahl for his stringent opposition to Muḥammad. See ‘Ikrima.
Abu Nuwas Abú Nuwáṣ (usually given as “Nuwás”) nickname (“father of the forelocks”) of al-Ḥasan ibn Hání (Háni’) al-Ḥakamí (756–814), was a classical Arabic poet.  See náṣiya and háni’.
Abu Sinan (Abu-Sinan, Abou Senan) Abú Sínán (Abú-Sínán) “Father of the teeth”. a Druze village (Hebrew Abu Snan) about 7.5 km east of Bahjí and 4 km west the Druze village of Yarká (Yirká)
Abu-‘Umar-‘Uthman Abú-‘Umar-‘Uthmán
Abu-Bakr Abú-Bakr first Muslim caliph, Abú Bakr ‘Abdalláh bin Abí Quḥáfah, called aṣ-Ṣiddíq by Muḥammad.
Abu-Bakri’s-Siddiq Abú-Bakri’ṣ-Ṣiddíq The Dawn-Breakers liv
Abu-Hanifa, Abu-Hanifih Abú-Ḥanífa (or Ḥanífih) an-Nu‘mán famous Persian theologian and jurist
Abu-Ja’far-i-Tusi Abú-Ja‘far-i-Ṭúsí follower of Imám Ṣádiq who handed down his traditions
Abu-Jahl Abú-Jahl (Abudjahl) (“father of ignorance”) Abu’l-Ḥakam ‘Amr Ibn Hishám
Abu-Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi Abú-Naṣr Muḥammad al-Fárábí (Alpharabius in the West) Persian philosopher and writer (c. 872–between 14 December 950 and 12 January 951)
Abu-Rahim Abú-Raḥím
Abu-Sufyan Abú-Sufyán Ṣakhr ibn Ḥarb, more commonly known as Abú Sufyán (580–640), was the leader of the Quraysh of Mecca, the most powerful tribe of pre-Islamic Arabia. He was a staunch opponent of Muḥammad, until later accepting Islám and becoming a warrior later in his life during the early Muslim conquests.
Abu-Talib Abú-Ṭálib Abú-Ṭálib, Mullá. Sons ‘Alí Ashraf and Áqá Bálá
Abu-Talib-i-Sang-Sari Abú-Ṭálib-i-Sang-Sarí Siyyid Abú-Ṭálib-i-Sang-Sarí (The Dawn-Breakers, p. 426
Abu-Talib-i-Shahmirzadi Abú-Ṭálib-i-Shahmírzádí
Abu-Turab Abú-Turáb
Abu-Turab-i-Qazvini Abú-Turáb-i-Qazvíní
Abu’d-Dawahi Abu’d-Dawáhí Father of Misfortunes
Abu’l-Bashar Abu’l-Bashar “the father of man”—one of the titles given by Muslims to Adam
Abu’l-Fadl (Gulpaygani, Gulpayigani) Abu’l-Faḍl Mírzá Muḥammad Gulpáygání (also Gulpáyigání) (1844–1914) (pseudonym Abu’l-Faḍl—“Father or progenitor of Virtue”) was the foremost Baháʼí scholar who helped spread the Baháʼí Faith in Egypt, Turkmenistan, and the United States. He is one of the few Apostles of Baháʼu’lláh who never met Baháʼu’lláh. ʻAbdu’l-Bahá addressed him as Abu’l-Faḍá’il (“Progenitor of all Virtues” or “Father of all Excellences”).
Abu’l-Fath-i-Shahristani Abu’l-Fatḥ-i-Shahristání
Abu’l-Fida Abu’l-Fidá’
Abu’l-Futuh Abu’l-Futúḥ (“the Father of Victories”) name given to Enoch Olinga by Shoghi Effendi
Abu’l-Hasan-i-Ardikani Abu’l-Ḥasan-i-Ardikání, Mullá Hájí Amín, Amín-i-Iláhí (“Trustee of God”) (Trustee of Ḥuqúqu’lláh)
Abu’l-Hasan-i-Bazzaz Abu’l-Ḥasan-i-Bazzáz
Abu’l-Hikam Abu’l-Ḥikam “the Father of Wisdoms”. See Ḥikma
Abu’l-Huda Abu’l-Hudá, Shaykh
Abu’l-Qasim-i-Hamadani Abu’l-Qásim-i-Hamadání
Abu’l-Qasim-i-Kashi Abu’l-Qásim-i-Káshí a learned Bábí from Káshán (Abu’l Káẓim)
Abu’l-Qasim-i-Khurasani Abu’l-Qásim-i-Khurásání
Abu’l-Qasim-i-Mazkani Abu’l-Qásim-i-Mazkání
Abu’l-Qasim-i-Qa’im-Maqam Abu’l-Qásim-i-Qá’im-Maqám
Abu’l-Qasim-i-Shirazi Abu’l-Qásim-i-Shírází
Abu’l-Qasim-ibn-i-Haji-Zayna Abu’l-Qásim-ibn-i-Ḥájí-Zayná
Abu’sh-Shurur Abu’sh-Shurúr “the father of iniquities or wickedness” (EGB, Balyuzi)
Abuqir, Abu Qir Abúqír, Abú Qír is a town on the coast 18 NE of Alexandria, Egypt
Abwa al-Abwá’ village 34 km NE of Rábigh (a town on the Red Sea coast)
Abwab al-Arba’ah, Abwab-i-Arba’ih al-Abwáb al-Arba‘a[h] (Pers. Abwáb-i-Arba‘ih or Abváb-i-Arba‘ih) “the Four Gates” for the Twelfth Imám. See Arba‘ and an-Nuwwáb al-‘Arba’a[h].
Abyan Abyan clearer, more distinct, more obvious. Root bána, bayán
Ad ‘Ád Traditionally, a fourth generation descendant of Noah; an ancient Arabian tribe
Ad’iyah wa Munajat Ad‘iyah (Ad‘iyyih) wa Munáját “Prayers and Supplications” by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Ada, ‘Adat, ‘Awa’id, ‘Adatan ‘Áda(t), pl. ‘Ádát, ‘Awá’id habit, wont, custom, usage, practice; ‘Ádatan usually, customarily, ordinarily, habitually;—pl. ‘Awá’id taxes, duties; charges, fees, rates
Ada’ ‘Adá’ enmity, hostility, antagonism, animosity; aggression
Adab Adab, pl. Ádáb culture, refinement; good breeding, good manners, social graces, decorum, decency, propriety, seemliness; humanity, humaneness; the humanities; belles-lettres
Adall Aḍall more or most astray; more or most tending to lead astray
Adalla Aḍalla “to leave in error or lead astray”
Adam Ádam Adam, father of mankind. Abjad value is 45.
Adarisa Adárisa(h) the Idrisids (al-Adárisah) were an Arab Muslim dynasty of Morocco (788–974), founded by Idrís I. The Idrisids are considered the founders of the first Moroccan state.
Adasi ‘Adasí lenticular
Adasiya, Adasiyyih ‘Adasíya[h], Pers. ‘Adasiyyih now a town (32.666810, 35.623901) in Jordan 17 km SE of Tiberias. This is the resting place of a half brother of Bahá’u’lláh, and one of three villages (he purchased land in 1901) where ‘Abdu’l-Bahá grew corn and wheat during World War I. See as-Samrá and an-Nuqayb.
Addas ‘Addás (‘adás, lentil(s)) was a young Christian slave boy (originally from Nineveh, an ancient Assyrian city) who lived in Ṭá’if during the time of Muḥammad. He is believed to be the first person from the western province of Ṭá’if to convert to Islam.
Adhab-i-Qabr ‘Adháb-i-Qabr chastisement in the grave
Adham, Dahma’, Duhm Adham, fem. Dahmá’, pl. Duhm black, deep-black. Note Adham (ادهم, d-h-m) has the consonants d and h, not dh.
Adhan Ádhán (variation Adhán) announcing, giving notice; the signal for summoning to prayers, by the mu’adhdhin (mu’azzin) or crier, from the minarets or towers of the mosques; listening to. “I bear witness that Muḥammad is the Messenger of Alláh.” At the request of the Báb, Mullá Ṣádiq-i-Muqaddas added after the ádhán: “I bear witness that He whose name is ‘Alíy-Qabl-i-Muḥammad [‘Alí preceding Muḥammad, the Báb] is the servant of the Baqíyyatu’lláh [the “Remnant of God”, Bahá’u’lláh].”
Adhan, Adha Aḍḥan, Aḍḥá[h] (collective; nomen unitatis Aḍḥáh) slaughter animal, blood sacrifice, immolation. ‘Íd al-Aḍḥá “Festival of Sacrifice”.
Adhar (Azar), Adhur (Azur) Ádhar, Ádhur Pers. fire; and the 9th Persian solar month and the ninth day of every month
Adhar-bad-gan Ádhar-bád-gán Pers. a fire-temple. Also Ádhar-báyigán or the province of Ádharbayján (Ázarbayján).
Adharbayjan, Adhirbayjan Ádharbayján, (Ázarbayján) Pers. “land of fire” or “land of fire guardians”, Azerbaijan or Azerbayjan, country and a province in NW Írán. Also Ádhirbayján, Ázarbayján, Ázarbaygán.
Adharbayjani, Adhirbayjani Ádharbayjání, (Ázarbayjání) Pers. official language in Ádharbayján
Adhari, Adhariyan Ádharí, pl. Ádhariyán Pers. native of Ádharbayján (Ázarí, pl. Ázariyán)
Adi ‘Ádí customary, usual, common, ordinary, normal, regular; undistinguished, run-of-the-mill; ordinary, regular (e.g., meeting, as opposed to extraordinary, special, emergency); simple, plain, ordinary (man); old, ancient, antique
Adib Ádib host
Adib, Adiba, Udaba’ Adíb, fem. Adíba, pl. Udabá’ cultured, refined, educated; well-bred, well-mannered, civil, urbane; a man of culture and refined tastes; man of letters, writer, author (superlative form of ‘Aduba’ [to learn])
Adibu’l-‘Ulama’ Adíbu’l-‘Ulamá’ littérateur or literary man of the ‘Ulamá’. Title given to Mírzá Muḥammad Ḥasan, known as Adíb, Hand of the Cause of God.
Adil (‘Adilih), ‘Adila, ‘Adawl ‘Ádil, fem. ‘Ádila, pl. ‘Adawl just, fair, equitable; upright, honest, straightforward, righteous. Persian fem. also ‘Ádilih
Adil Abad (Adel Abad, ‘Adilabad) ‘Ádil Ábád (‘Ádilábád) Zindán ‘Ádil Ábád (or Shiraz Central Prison) in Shíráz (29.576725, 52.506803)
Adirna, Adirnih, Adarnah Adirna[h], Pers. Adirnih, T. Adarnah Hadrianopolis (Greek), Adrianople (English), now known as Edirne. Same numerical value (ادرنة, 1+4+200+50+5=260), as Sirr (60+200, “Mystery”). See Adrianople and Arḍ-i-Sirr.
Adiya, ‘Adiyat, ‘Awadin ‘Ádiya, pl. ‘Ádiyát, ‘Awádin wrong, offense, misdeed, outrage; adversity, misfortune, reverse; obstacle, impediment, obstruction;—pl. vicissitudes. Root ‘adá’
Adja’ Adjá‘ father of Qarád SDC 49
Adl, ‘Udul ‘Adl, pl. ‘Udúl straightness, straightforwardness; justice, impartiality; fairness, equitableness, probity, honesty, uprightness; equitable composition, just compromise;—(pl.) just, equitable, fair, upright, honest; person of good reputation, person with an honourable record (Islamic Law); juristic adjunct assigned to a cadi (Maghrib)
Adliya ‘Adlíya justice, administration of justice, jurisprudence
Adna, Dunya, Adanin, Adnun Adná, fem. Dunyá pl. m. Adánin, Adnún, fem. Dunan) nearer, closer; situated lower down, nether; lower, inferior; lowlier; smaller, of less significance; more appropriate, better suited, more suitable. Femine: world; earth; this world (as opposed to al-úlá (“pre-existence”) and al-ákhira (“afterlife”)); life in this world, worldly existence; worldly. temporal things or possessions; earthly things or concerns. See Awwal and Ákhira entries.
Adrianople Adrianople now Edirne. See Adirna.
Adu’dh-Dhikr ‘Adu’dh-Dhikr Ar. Servant of the Remembrance. A designation of the Báb.
Adud (‘Azud), A’dad ‘Aḍud, pl. A’ḍád help, aid, assistance, support, backing; helper, aide, assistant, supporter, backer. (pl.) upper arm; strength, power, vigour, force
Adudu’d-Dawlih ‘Aḍudu’d-Dawlih (CE 978–983)
Aduw, A’da’, ‘Idan, ‘Udan, ‘Udah, A’adin ‘Aduw, pl. A‘dá’, ‘Idan, ‘Udan, ‘Udáh (pl. also A‘ádin; fem. ‘Adúwa, “‘Aduwa”) enemy
Afaf, ‘Iffa ‘Afáf = ‘Iffa[h or t] abstinence, continence, virtuousness, virtue, chastity, decency; purity; modesty; integrity, probity, honesty, uprightness, righteousness. ‘Iffat, a daughter of Badí‘u’lláh. See ‘Affa
Afandi (Efendi, Effendi) Afandí, pl. Afandíyá from Turkish efendi (pronounced effendi), title of nobility meaning a lord, master or gentleman (after the name, when referring to non-Europeans wearing Western clothes and the tarboosh). It designates a higher rank than Big.
Afaqi Áfáqí coming from a distant country or region. See ufq
Afdal, Fudla, Afdalun, Afadil, Fudlayat Afḍal, fem. Fuḍlá (pl. m. Afḍalún, Afáḍil, fem. Fuḍlayát) better, best; more excellent, preferable, etc.
Aff, ‘Affa ‘Aff, fem. ‘Affa[h or t] chaste, modest, virtuous, pure; decent; honest, upright, righteous
Affa (‘Iffa, ‘Afaf) ‘Affa (‘Iffa[h or t] = ‘Afáfa) to refrain, abstain (from something forbidden or indecent); to be abstinent, continent, virtuous, chaste, modest, decent, pure. Derivative: ‘iffa[h or t] abstinence, continence, virtuousness, virtue, chastity, decency; purity; modesty; integrity, probity, honesty, uprightness, righteousness. See ‘Afáf and ‘Iffatíya.
Affan ‘Affán Pers. name of the father of the caliph ‘Usmán (Othmán or ‘Uthmán)
Afghan Afghán, pl. Afághina[h or t] people living in the mountains between the mountains between Kandahár and the river Indus; lamentation, groaning, cries for help; alas!
Afghani Afghání of Afghán (adjective and noun)
Afghanistan Afghánistán Afghanistan
Afif, Afifa, A’fa’, A’iffa ‘Afíf, fem. ‘Afífa(h), pl. A‘fá’, A‘iffa chaste, modest, virtuous, pure; decent; honest, upright, righteous. ‘Afíf is a city 343 km east of Medina. Pers. also ‘Afífih
Afifi ‘Afífí of or from ‘Afíf. Muḥammad al-‘Afífí, Persian Consul in ‘Akká in 1880s. He owned the gardens (Ḥumaymih or ‘Afífí) near ‘Ayn Fawwár and the village of an-Nahr.
Afirin (Afarin), Afrin Áfirín, Áfrín Pers. praise, glory, applause, encomium, benediction, blessing; blessed; well done! bravo! name of the first of the five intercalary days of the Persian year; (in compounds) creating
Afjah (Afjeh), Afchah (Afcheh) Afjah, Afchah (also Afjih, Afchih) Pers. village (35.859750, 51.689849; 36 km NE Ṭihrán) in Lavasanat District (Bakhsh Lavásánát), Shemiranat County (Sháristán Shimíránát), Teheran Province. It is 7.25 km NE of the town of Lavásán and 47.5 km SW of Takúr. Bahá’u’lláh was the guest of the Grand Vizir, Ja‘far-Qulí Khán, in his summer residence in the village, when the assassination attempt was made on the Sháh near his Níyávarán summer palace.
Aflatun Afláṭún Plato, from the Greek form of the name
Afnan-i-Kabir Afnán-i-Kabír
Afra Afrá Pers. bravo! well done! praise applause. Village SW of Qá’im Shahr and just to the east of the Shrine of Shaykh Ṭabarsí. The village masjid (36.436642, 52.815196) is 0.9 km to the east. The village was owned by Naẓar Khán.
Afranj Afranj Pers. Elegance, dignity, grace; magnificence, grandeur, power; maguitude; a throne; a crown; provisions, necessaries. The Franks, French; the crusaders; all Europeans. Khán-i-Afranj in ‘Akká.
Afrasiyab (“Afrasyab”) Afrásiyáb Pers. name of an ancient king celebrated in Persian poetry, sovereign of Túrán, and a Scythian or Turk by birth; one who moves leisurely on the road; a travelling companion
Afriqa, Ifriqiya, Afriqiya Afríqá fem. and Ifríqiyá (now usually pronounced Afríqiyá fem.) Africa
Afrukhta (Afrokhta, Afrukhtih) Afrúkhta(h) Pers. inflamed, lighted; shining, radiant; polished, furbished
Afruz (Afroz) Afrúz Pers. burning; illuminating, dazzling, animating. Feminine name.
Afsah, Fusha Afṣaḥ, fem. Fuṣḥá of purer language; more eloquent
Afsana (Afsanih, Afsaneh) Áfsána, Afsána Pers. fem. name. A charm, incantation; a fiction, tale, fable, romance, parable; a narrative, a story of past events; public, notorious, noted.
Afshar Afshár Pers. a largely nomadic Turkic tribe mostly found in Írán; (in compounds) speaking idly; fixing, inserting; pressing, squeezing out (water); a weaver’s foot treadle; an assistant, associate, companion, partner
Afshin Afshín Pers. name of a person known for his liberality
Aftab-parast Áftáb-Parast Pers. a worshipper of the sun; sun-flower; a chameleon (or iguana); a water-lily; in India, any blue flower
Aftab, Aftabam Áftáb Pers. masc. name, sunlight or sunshine; the sun; a day; wine; the soul. Áftábam (Áftáb+am) I am the sun. See Khurshíd
Aftabah (Aftabih) Áftábah Pers. a ewer, water-pot, or kettle
Aftah, Mufattah Afṭaḥ and Mufaṭṭaḥ broad-headed, broad-nosed
Afus Afús village 156 km WNW of Iṣfahán
Afuw ‘Afúw one who forgives much. al-‘Afúw, attribute of God, The Pardoner, The Effacer, The Forgiver
Afw ‘Afw, Pers. also ‘Afú, ‘Ufú effacement, obliteration, elimination; pardon, forgiveness; waiver of punishment (Islamic Law); amnesty (for); boon, kindness, favour; surplus
Afyah, Fayha Afyaḥ, fem. Fayḥá’ fragrant, redolent, aromatic, sweet-smelling; wide, vast, spacious, extensive. al-Fayḥá’ (another name for Tripoli), because of the smell of the orange pollen from vast orange orchards that were in the area. al-Fayḥá’ is a nickname of Damascus.
Agah Ágáh Pers. aware, wary; intelligent, knowing, acquainted with; prudent; vigilant, attentive; notice, news, indication, information
Agahu’llah Ágáhu’lláh Ágáhu’lláh Tízfahm, executed May 1982
Agar, Ar Agar, Ar Pers. if; although
Agarih (Agareh, Agira, Agreh) Agarih Pers. a tiny village (36.1595203, 53.832541) 26 klm SW of Chashmah-i-‘Alí, in Semnan Province
Agha, Aghawat, Aghayan Ágh;á, pl. Aghawát, Pers. Ágháyán lord, master, sir; eunuch serving at royal court, harem chamberlain. Ághá Muḥammad Khán-i Qájár (14 March 1742–1797), castrated as a 6 year old, chieftain of the Quyúnlú branch of the Qájár tribe, as the founder of the Qájár dynasty of Írán (r. 1789–1797). Similar to áqá.
AH AH Anno Hejirae (Latin, “in the year of the Hijira”, used in the West)—precedes the date. H or Hijra in the Islamic calendar.
Ahad, Ihda Aḥad, fem. Iḥdá, pl. Áḥád one; somebody, someone, anybody, anyone (especially in negative sentences and questions). al-Aḥad (“the only one”), an attribute of God.
Ahadiya (Ahadiyya) Aḥadíya(h or t) unity, oneness (also absolute unity), singularity; concord, alliance
Ahamid (Ahamed) Aḥamid powerful, authoritative or influential. A variant used in the Indian region for Aḥmad.
Ahang Áhang aḥám Pers. concord, symphony, harmony, modulation, melody, pitch, tune; design, institution, purpose, intention; canon, regulation; rule, custom, manner of proceeding; a row, a series; the side (of a cistern); the curve or arch of a cupola or dome; a tether, stable, stall; haste, expedition; behold!
Ahangar Áhangar Pers. blacksmith, a dealer in iron
Ahd, ‘Uhud ‘Ahd, pl. ‘Uhúd knowledge; acquaintance, contact (with); the well-known, familiar nature (of something); close observance, strict adherence (to), keeping, fulfilment (of a promise); delegation, assignment, committing (of something to someone), vesting (in someone of something), commissioning, charging, entrusting (of someone with something); commission; making a will or testament;—pl. commitment, obligation, liability; responsibility; pledge, vow; promise; oath; contract, compact, covenant, pact, treaty, agreement; time, epoch, era. Meaning in Bahá’í Writings (see Kitáb-i-‘Ahd) is usually “covenant”. Muḥammad is described as having an “unwritten Covenant” since He was unable to write it. ibn al-‘Ahd Bahá’u’lláh, “The Child of the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh” is the Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and the Bahá’í Administrative Order (God Passes By, p. 243)
Ahda Ahdá better guided; more correct, more proper, better. Qur’án 28:49: Qur’án gives ahdá, “clearer” guidance; not afṣáḥ, “eloquent” language—this is the criterion for judging the inimitability (i‘jáz) of the Qur’án: “its ability to guide humanity to the truth, to Allah and to salvation, its ability to inspire people with devotion and to constrain people to act in ways that are moral and righteous.” Islam and the Bahá’í Faith, p. 230.
Ahdiya, Ahdiyih (Ahdieh) ‘Ahdiya[h or t], “Pers.” ‘Ahdiyih the one who keeps his covenant or word, a faithful one. Hushang Ahdieh.
Ahi Áhí Pers. a fawn
Ahkam Aḥkam wiser, stronger, strongest; very firm; more, most, or very stable; most able to decide
Ahl al-Kisa’ Ahl al-Kisa’ people of the cloak: Muḥammad; his daughter, Fáṭima; his cousin and son-in-law ‘Alí; and his two grandsons Ḥassan and Ḥusayn.
Ahl al-Kitab, Ahlu’l-Kitab Ahl al-Kitáb, Ahlu’l-Kitáb “people of the Book”. Used by members of some Christian denominations to refer to themselves; used in Judaism to refer to the Jewish people; and an Islamic term that refers to Jews, Christians, Sabians and Zoroastrians.
Ahl at-Tariq Ahl aṭ-Ṭaríq “people of the path” or “people of true religion” (Islamic)
Ahl-i-Baha Ahl-i-Bahá “people of Bahá”
Ahl-i-Bayan Ahl-i-Bayán “people of the Bayán”
Ahl-i-Haqq Ahl-i-Ḥaqq “people of the truth”
Ahl, Ahlun, Ahalin, Ahali Ahl, pl. Ahlún, Ahálin, Ahálí relatives, folks, family; kin, kinfolk; wife; (with following genitive) people, members, followers, adherents, possessors, etc.; inhabitants; deserving, worthy (of something); fit, suited, qualified (for);—pl. the natives, the native population;—pl. ahálí inhabitants, citizens, commons; persons, individuals, members; family-folk; consorts, spouses, wives; domestics, dependants, followers
Ahla Aḥlá spouses, wives; domestics, dependants, followers
Ahli Ahli (the) people, or (of the) people
Ahmad al-Ahsa’i, Shaykh Aḥmad al-Aḥsá’í, Shaykh Aḥmad b. Zayn ad-Dín b. Ibráhím al-‘Aḥsá’í known as Shaykh Aḥmad al-Aḥsá’í (1753–1826). Born in the village of al-Mutayrifí (25.478801, 49.557241), and died in Hadíyah (25.533908, 38.749569), Saudi Arabia, about 140 km NW of Medina. He is buried in the cemetery of al-Baqí‘ (24.46713, 39.616360) in Medina. The first of the “twin resplendent lights” (Bábayn, two gates) who taught their followers that the coming of the Promised One of Islám (the Báb) was at hand and prepared them for His advent. Founder of the 19th-century Shí‘í Shaykhism (ash-Shaykhiya[h]), whose followers are known as Shaykhis (Shaykhiyún). For successor, see Siyyid Káẓim Rashtí.
Ahli Ahlí domestic, family (adjective); native, resident; indigenous; home, national
Ahmad, Ahamid (Ahamed) Aḥmad, pl. Aḥamíd more laudable, more commendable, more praised [comparative form of ‘ḥamida’ (to praise)]—a title of Muḥammad
Ahmad Big Tawfiq Aḥmad Big Tawfíq
Ahmad Sohrab Ahmad Sohrab Mírzá Aḥmad-i-Iṣfahání (1893–1958). Later adopted the name Ahmad Sohrab. Was declared a Covenant-breaker by Shoghi Effendi in 1939.
Ahmad-i-‘Allaf Aḥmad-i-‘Alláf
Ahmad-i-Azghandi Aḥmad-i-Azghandí
Ahmad-i-Bahrayni Aḥmad-i-Baḥrayní
Ahmad-i-Ibdal Aḥmad-i-Ibdál
Ahmad-i-Ibdal-i-Maraghi’i Aḥmad-i-Ibdál-i-Marághi’í
Ahmad-i-Kashani Aḥmad-i-Káshání
Ahmad-i-Katib Aḥmad-i-Kátib
Ahmad-i-Khurasani Aḥmad-i-Khurásání
Ahmad-i-Kirmani Aḥmad-i-Kirmání
Ahmad-i-Mu’allim Aḥmad-i-Mu‘allim
Ahmad-i-Nukhud-Biriz Aḥmad-i-Nukhud-Biríz
Ahmad-i-Payvandi Aḥmad-i-Payvandí
Ahmad-i-Qazvini Aḥmad-i-Qazvíní
Ahmad-i-Ruhi Aḥmad-i-Rúḥí
Ahmad-i-Saffar Aḥmad-i-Ṣaffár
Ahmad-i-Yazdi Aḥmad-i-Yazdí
Ahmad-ibn-i-Abi-Talib-i-Tabarsi Aḥmad-ibn-i-Abí-Ṭálib-i-Ṭabarsí
Ahmadiy, Ahmadi Aḥmadíy, Aḥmadí belonging to Aḥmad; a Muslim; name of a gold coin
Ahmadiya Aḥmadíya[h], Pers. Aḥmadiyya[h] followers of Aḥmad (alternative name for Muḥammad). al-Jamá‘ah al-Islámíyah al-Aḥmadíyah (the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community), founded by Mírzá Ghulám Aḥmad in Qádiyán, Punjab, India. Aḥmadíya Shaykh Maḥmúd al-Masjid in Haifa (32.804954, 34.969869).
Ahmar, Hamra, Humr Aḥmar, fem. Ḥamrá’, pl. Ḥumr red, red-coloured, ruddy; rosy, pink. Alhambra (Spanish), the Citadel of Granada, (“the Red Palace”; al-Ḥamrá’, lit. “the red one”). Baḥru’l-Aḥmar, the Red Sea.1

1A system of color symbolism representing the cardinal directions, believed to be used by the Achaemenids (or First Persian Empire) (550–330  BC), had black for north (e.g. North or Black Sea), red for south (e.g. South or Red Sea), white for west (e.g. White or Mediterranean Sea), and green or light blue for east.
Ahrari Aḥrárí Ḍíyá’u’lláh Aḥrárí executed 1982. Aḥrár is pl. of Ḥurr
Ahsa’i Aḥsá’í of or from al-Aḥsá’. See Ḥisá’ and Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Aḥsá’í.
Ahsan, Ahasin Aḥsan, pl. Aḥásin better; nicer, lovelier, more beautiful; more excellent, more splendid, more admirable
Ahsanu’l-Qisas Aḥsanu’l-Qiṣaṣ The Best of Stories: a name for the Surih of Joseph.—Tafsír-i-Aḥsanu’l-Qiṣaṣ : the Báb’s commentary on the Súrih of Joseph, the Qayyúmu’l-Asmá’, called the Qur’án of the Bábís. Translated into Persian by Ṭáhirih.
Ahu Áhú Pers. a vice, fault, defect, stain, spot, villainy; flight, escape; an exclamation, cry for help; an asthma ; a deer, roe, gazelle ; any object of pursuit or chase; a beautiful eye; a mistress
Ahwa, Hawwa’ (Hauwa’) Aḥwá, fem. Ḥawwá’ black, dusky (in the lips); fem. Eve, the mother of mankind. Abjad value of Eve is 16.
Ahwar, Hawra (Haura), Hur, Huran Aḥwár, fem. Ḥawrá’, pl. Ḥúr, Pers. Ḥúrán having eyes with a marked contrast of white and black, (also, said of the eye:) intensely white and deep-black.—pl. Ḥúr (also used as singular in Pers.) interpreted as virgins or a “virgin of Paradise”. See ḥúríya and ḥúrí.
Aja’ibu’l-Makhluqat ‘Ajá’ibu’l-Makhlúqat “The marvels of creation” by Qazwíní
Ajab, A’jab ‘Ajab, pl. A‘jáb astonishment, amazement;—(pl.) wonder, marvel
Ajal Ajal, pl. Ájál appointed time (term), date, deadline; instant of death; respite, delay. In the Qur’án often refers to the term of nation(s).
Ajal, ‘Ajala ‘Ajal, fem. ‘Ajala[h or t] hurry, haste; precipitance, precipitation, ‘Ajal Alláhu Farajahu (“May God hasten his [Qá’im’s] glad advent”).
Ajam ‘Ajam (collective) mute in the sense of mumbling or to speak indistinctly, hence barbarians, non-Arabs (modern), Persians. Opposite of ‘Aran. Also (collective; noun denoting an individual) stone kernel, pit, pip, seed (of fruit)
Ajami, A’jam ‘Ajamí, pl. A‘jám barbarian, non-Arab; Persian (adj. and n.)
Ajda’ Ajda‘ mutilated (by having the nose, or the like cut off). SDC p. 49.
Ajiba, ‘Aja’ib ‘Ajíba, pl. ‘Ajá’ib wondrous thing, unheard of thing, prodigy, marvel, miracle, wonder;—pl. remarkable things, curiosities, oddities
Ajja, Ajij Ajja, Ajíj to burn, blaze, flame (fire). e.g. Má’ ujáj bitter, salty water.
Ajudan Ájúdán Pers. aide-de-camp, adjutant
Ajudan-Bashi Ájúdán-Báshí Pers. chief adjutant
Ajuz, ‘Ajz, A’jaz ‘Ajuz, ‘Ajz, pl. A‘jáz backside, rump, posteriors. Also stem, stump, trunk (of palm tree) Qur’án 54:20 & 69:7
Ajwibatu’l-Masá’il, Ajwibatu’l-Masa’il Ajwibat al-Masá’il “Answers to some questions”, book by Shaykh Aḥmad. Pers. Ajwibatu’l-Masá’il (Ajvibatu’l-Masa’il). See Jawáb
Ajz ‘Ajz weakness, incapacity, disability, failure, impotence (for, to do something); deficit
Akasha (‘Akash, Akkash) ‘Akásha[h or t] awkwardness, clumsiness
Akbar-ibn-i-‘Abid Akbar-ibn-i-‘Ábid
Akbar, Akbarun, Akabir, Kubra, Kubrayat Akbar, pl. Akbarún, Akábir greater, bigger, larger; older; senior-ranking [comparative form of ‘kabura’ (to elevate)]. Note: akbar, اكبر, consists of four consonants: ر ب ك ا (right to left in Arabic, or Alif, Káf, Bá’ and Rá’ in English)—the first letter is an Alif, but shown as a short vowel.Fem. Kubrá, pl. Kubrayát.
Akh, Ikhwa, Ikhwan Akh, pl. Ikhwa, Ikhwán brother; fellow man, neighbour; friend;—pl. ikhwán specifically, brethren or members of an order; al-ikhwán religious brotherhood of the Wahabi sect, militant in character, established by Ibn Sa‘úd in 1910
Akhar Ákhar another, different, second
Akhbari. Akhbariyun Akhbárí, pl. Akhbaríyún news. The Akhbaris are a group of Imámí jurists who only accept the traditions ascribed to the Prophet and the Imáms. The school was founded by Mullá Muḥammad-Amír of Astarábád. This is in contrast with the mujtahids or the Uṣúlí (they constitute the vast majority of the Twelvers), who maintain that the mujtahid has the right, as the deputy of the Hidden Imám, to deduce principles from the Qur’án as well as the traditions, and to use qiyás or ‘analogy’ to make an authoritative statement. See Khabar, pl. Akhbár.
Akhdar (Akhzar), Khadra’, Khudr Akhḍar (f.), Khaḍrá’, pl. Khuḍr green. al-Khaḍrá’ “the Verdant” (epithet of Tunis); the sky. Persian forms are similar and the ḍ is replaced by a ẓ. Khaḍrá’—final Hamza is left out in some books.
Akhir, Uthra, Awakhir Akhír, irregular fem. Uthrá, pl. Awákhir ast; latest; rearmost; the second of two. irregular fem. al-ukhrá, the invisible world, the afterlife, the hereafter.
Akhir, Akhira, Akhirun, Akhirat, Awakhir Ákhir, pl. Ákhirún, Awákhir (fem. Ákhira[h or t], pl. Ákhirát) last, ultimate, utmost, extreme; end, close, conclusion; foot, bottom (of a paper). fem. al-ákhira[h or t] the invisible world, the afterlife, the hereafter. See akhúr, dunyá and awwal.
Akhlat Ákhlaṭ Turkish (also Ahlat; Armenian Khlat) is a historic town and district on the west side of Lake Van.
Akhtar-Khawari (Akhtar-Khavari) Akhtar-Kháwarí
Akhtar, Akhtaran Akhtar, pl. Akhtarán Pers. a star; horoscope, predominant star at anyone’s nativity; an omen, augury; an ensign, standard; name of an angel. Name of a newspaper
Akhtaran Taban Akhtarán-i-Tábán Pers. “brilliant stars”. Book by Furúgh Arbáb.
Akhu’th-Thamarah Akhu’th-Thamarah “the Brother of the Fruit”. Báb: “Akhu’th-Thamarah, 238”—The fruit is Mírzá Yaḥyá and 238 equals Ḥusayn-‘Alí (Bahá’u’lláh)
Akhur Akhúr, Pers. also Ákhur a stall, a[n animal] stable or barn for horses; the collar-bone. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá substituted ákhur for ákhir on a number of occasions when referring to the ‘ulamá’: “They have held to this [animal] stable but they have not seen the ultimate of things.” Diary of Juliet Thompson, p. 102. See Ákhir.
Akhwand, Akhund, Akhwanda-ha Akhwánd, Akhúnd, pl. Akhwánda-há Pers. (also “Ákhúnd” and Akhond) tutor, master, preacher (low ranking Muslim priest or mullah). See ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí
Akif, Akifan ‘Ákif, pl. ‘Ákifán Pers. assiduous, diligent; constantly staying in the mosque and employed in devotion
Akka, ‘Akk ‘Akka (‘Akk) to be sultry, muggy (day), sweltering
Akka, ‘Akka’ ‘Akka(h), ‘Akká’ and ‘Akká ‘Ako (Hebrew, more commonly spelt Akko) or Acre (seaport in Israel). ‘Akká is the Arabic form used by Bahá’ís. Houses in ‘Akká used by the Bahá’ís: Malik, Khavvám and Rábi’ih, ‘Údí Khammár and ‘Abbúd. Bahá’u’lláh’s family left in 1877 for Mazra‘ih.
Akram, Akarim Akram, pl. Akárim nobler more distinguished; more precious, more valuable; most honourable; very high-minded, very noble-hearted, most generous
Akthar Akthar more; oftener, more frequently; more numerous; longer; most; major portion, greater part, majority
Al Ál family, relatives, kinsfolk, clan; companions, partisans, people; mirage, fatamorgana. This is not the Arabic definite article al-. Ál-mán (“our kin”) used by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as a play on the word alámán (a German) in Persian.
Al- al- the definite article in Arabic, often translated as “the” in English. The letter “l” is replaced by a sun letter if the following word starts with one of the 14 sun letters—refer to the Arabic letters and abjad values section.
Al-i-Muhammad Ál-i-Muḥammad children (or family) of Muḥammad
Ala ‘Alá (preposition) on, upon, on top of, above, over (place, rank); at, on, by; in, in the state of, in the manner of, in possession of; to, toward, for; in addition to; to the debit of, to the disadvantage of; against, in spite of, despite; on the basis of, on the strength of, by virtue of, due to, upon; by, through; according to, in accordance with, pursuant to; to (one’s taste, one’s mind, one’s liking, etc.); during
Ala ‘Alá’ high rank, high standing, nobility; loftiness
Ala, Uluw ‘Alá, ‘Ulúw to be high, elevated, rise high, loom, tower up; to rise, ascend; to ring out (voice); etc.
Ala’ Álá’ Pers. benefits, favours, kindnesses
Ala’i ‘Alá’í (علائی) from the root ‘Alá, high, elevated. Shu‘á‘u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Hand of the Cause of God.
Ala’u’d-Dawlih ‘Alá’u’d-Dawlih, Yúsuf
Alam Alam, pl. Álám pain, ache, suffering, agony
Alam al-Hayawan ‘Álam al-Ḥayawán the animal kingdom
Alam al-Ma’adin ‘Álam al-Ma‘ádin the mineral kingdom
Alam an-Nabat ‘Álam an-Nabát the vegetable kingdom
Alam-i-Dharr ‘Álam-i-Dharr “realm of subtle entities” is an allusion to the Covenant between God and Adam mentioned in Qur’án 7:172
Alam, A’lam (I’lam) ‘Alam, pl. A‘lám sign, token, mark, badge, distinguishing mark, characteristic; road sign, signpost, guidepost; flag, banner, standard, ensign, streamer, pennants; mountain (Qur’án 55:24); a distinguished, outstanding man; an eminent personality, an authority, a star, a luminary
Alam, Alamun, Awalim ‘Álam, pl. ‘Álamún, ‘Awálim world; universe, cosmos;—pl. ‘Álamún—inhabitants of the world, specifically human beings. al-‘álamán the two worlds = Europe and America. See Baḥrání
Alama, Alamat, Ala’im ‘Aláma[h or t], pl. ‘Alámát, ‘Alá’im mark, sign, token; badge, emblem; distinguishing mark, characteristic. Used for the signs of the promised Resurrection.
Alamat ‘Alámát al-Waqf “signs for stops” are symbols used to indicate Qur’anic punctuation. Some are listed here. (م) mím: mandatory stop. (ج) jím: optional stop. (لا) lám alif: do not stop here. س)) sín: take a soft/short pause without taking a breath. (قلي): you can stop or move on, but stopping is preferred. (صلي): you can stop or continue, but continuing is preferred. () ta‘ánuq al-waqf: you can stop at one, but not both. the “perfect stop”, or various symbols, e.g. ֍ : the end of a verse
Alamat al-Faraj ‘Alámát al-Faraj “Signs of deliverance” will occur, according to Shaykh Aḥmad Aḥsá’í, in the year 68 (ḥín) or AH 1268 (ended 15 October 1852)/CE 1952, and he alluded to “after a while” (ba‘da ḥín) in Qur’án 38:88. This is about the time Bahá’u’lláh (sometime in October 1852) has a vision of the Maiden, who announces to Him that He is the Manifestation of God for this Age. The Báb repeatedly gave the year nine as the date of the appearance of “Him Whom God shall make manifest”. The Declaration of the Báb occurred in AH 1260, and the year nine (AH 1269) started 16 October 1952.
Alami ‘Álami worldly, secular, world (adj.); international; world-wide, world-famous, enjoying world-wide renown
Alamu’l-Amr ‘Álamu’l-Amr (lower) world of creation
Alamu’l-Haqq ‘Álamu’l-Ḥaqq (upper) eternally inaccessible world of God that is exalted beyond the grasp of the minds of men
Alamu’l-Huda ‘Alamu’l-Hudá “distinguished guide”
Alamu’l-Khalq ‘Álamu’l-Khalq (intermediate) world of the revelation of the divine command
Alamut Alamút eagle-nest. Name of a region in Írán on the western edge of the Alborz (Elburz) range and a ruined fortress (55 km NE of Qazvín and 110 km NW of Ṭihrán.
Alaniya ‘Aláníya openness, overtness, publicness, publicity (as opposed to secrecy)
Alaq, ‘Alaqun, ‘Alaqat ‘Alaq(at), ‘Alaqun, pl. ‘Alaqát medicinal leech; leech; (coagulated) blood, blood clot. Note: the tá’ marbúṭa here is represented by ‘at’.
Alast (Alastu) Alast (Alastu) “Am I not?” Cycle of alast is a reference to a pre historic Covenant between God and man. According to Qur’án 7:172, God called all the men in his presence before their creation and asked them alastu bi-rabbikum?  “Am I not your Lord?” and all the men confirmed that by saying “yes, yes, thou art our Lord”. This demonstrates the total and inherent essential dependence of man to the continuous grace of God. So alast and the cycle of alast is a reference to this Covenant.
Alawi, ‘Alawiya, ‘Alawiyan ‘Alawí, fem. ‘Alawíya[h or t] pl. ‘alawiyán upper; heavenly, celestial; prince, lord (a descendant of ‘Alí ibn Abí Ṭálib). ‘Alawíya[h] is a follower of Imám ‘Alí; English Alawis or Alawites; official name of the Nusayris (Nuṣayríyah), an Islamic sect inhabiting the coastal district of Latakia in NW Syria, founded by Ibn Nusayr. Pers. also ‘Alawiyih.
Alayhi (‘Alaihi) ‘Alayhi upon, against, with him (or it);—‘alayhi’s-salám, Peace be upon him! (formula of reverence added after the name of any prophet). Abbreviation in English pbuh.
Alayka (‘Alaika), ‘Alayki, ‘Alaykum ‘Alayka, fem. ‘Alayki, pl. ‘Alaykum (fem. pl. ‘Alaykunna) (‘Alayka = ‘Alá + káf) above, on, or to thee, on you. In some places ‘Alayka is shortened to ‘Alayk. See salám.
Alaʼ ad-Din, ʻAlaʼ ud-Din, ‘Ala’u’d-Din ʻAláʼ ad-Dín, ʻAláʼ ud-Dín, ‘Alá’u’d-Dín (علاء الدين) Aladdin (form dependent on whether nominative, genitive or accusative) is a male given name “nobility of faith” or “nobility of creed/religion”. Sometimes written ‘Alá’u-d-dín or ‘Alá ad-Dunyá wa ad-Dín Abu’l Muẓaffar Tekish (Tekiş? ibn Il-Arslán, Sháh of the Khwarezmian Empire (r. 1172–1200). His son, ‘Alá ad-Dín Muḥammad II (full name: ‘Alá ad-Dunyá wa ad-Dín Abu’l-Fatḥ Muḥammad Sanjar ibn Tekish), Sháh of the Khwarezmian Empire (r. 1200–1220). He is perhaps best known for inciting the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia, which resulted in the utter destruction of his empire.
Alburz Alburz, Alborz the principal mountain range in northern Írán
Alf, Uluf Alf, pl. Ulúf, Áláf thousand; millennium
Alfi ‘Id Alfí: Alfí ‘Íd millennial celebration, millenary
Alfiya (Alfiyya) Alfíya(h), Pers. Alfíyyih millennium. al-Alfíya short title of al-Khuláṣa al-Alfíya (“Millennium Summary”), famous 1,000 line poem on the principles of Arabic grammar by Ibn Málik, Abú ‘Abd Alláh Jamál ad-Dín Muḥammad (c. 1204–1274), was an Arab grammarian born in Jaén, Spain, worked in Damascus.
Ali ‘Alí high, eminent. al-‘Alí, the divine name for the All-Knowing.
Ali an-Naqi, Ali-Naqi ‘Alí an-Naqí, ‘Alí-Naqí ‘Alí ibn Muḥammad ibn ‘Alí, commonly known as ‘Alí al-Hádí and ‘Alí an-Naqí, 10th Imám
Ali Baba ‘Alí Bábá Mullá ‘Alí Bábá of Tákur. ‘Alí Bábá wa al-Arbá‘ún Luṣúṣ (“‘Alí Bábá and the forty thieves”). Name in English has become Alibaba.
Ali Big Yuz-Bashi ‘Alí Big Yúz-Báshí
Ali ibn Abi Talib ‘Alí ibn Abí Ṭálib Imám ‘Alí (the first) (601–661), son of ‘Abú Ṭálib ibn ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib, was a cousin and son-in-law of Muḥammad, who ruled as the fourth caliph from 656 to 661. He is one of the central figures in Shí‘a Islám and is regarded as the rightful immediate successor to Muḥammad as an Imám by Shí‘a Muslims
Ali ibn Muhammad ‘Alí ibn Muḥammad
Ali ibn Musa’r-Rida ‘Alí ibn Músá’r-Riḍá
Ali Pasha ‘Álí Páshá Muḥammad Amín ‘Álí Páshá or in Turkish, Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha (1815–1871), five times he was appointed the Grand Vizier (or Prime Minister) of the Ottoman Empire by two Sultans.
Ali-‘Askar-i-Tabrizi ‘Alí-‘Askar-i-Tabrízí Merchant from Tabríz
Ali-Abad (Aliabad, Aliyabad) ‘Alí-Ábád a village 35 km SW of Ṭihrán. A very small village (35.1318499, 50.9764761) in the Central District of Qom County, Qom Province. A very common name.
Ali-Ahmad ‘Alí-Aḥmad
Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání
Ali-Akbar-i-Mazgani ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Mázgání (MF)
Ali-Akbar-i-Najjar ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Najjár (MF)
Ali-Akbar-i-Quchani ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Qúchání
Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí known as Ḥájí Ákhúnd, a Hand of the Cause of God (1842–1910)
Ali-Asghar ‘Alí-Aṣghar (MF)
Ali-Baba ‘Alí-Bábá
Ali-Hamzih ‘Alí-Ḥamzih
Ali-ibn-i-Abi-Talib ‘Alí-ibn-i-Abí-Ṭálib
Ali-ibn-i-Muhammad ‘Alí-ibn-i-Muḥammad
Ali-ibn-i-Musa’r-Rida ‘Alí-ibn-i-Músá’r-Riḍá
Ali-Jan ‘Alí-Ján
Ali-Khan ‘Alí-Khán
Ali-Mardan ‘Alí-Mardán
Ali-Mirzay-i-Shirazi ‘Alí-Mírzáy-i-Shírází
Ali-Muhammad ‘Alí-Muḥammad
Ali-Murad (‘Alimurad) ‘Alí-Murád (Sometimes shortened to ‘Alímurád)
Ali-Qabl-i-Muhammad ‘Alí-Qabl-i-Muḥammad
Ali-Quli Khan (Ali-Kuli Khan) ‘Alí-Qulí Khán better known as Ali-Kuli Khan (c. 1879-1966), married Florence Breed (parents of Marzieh Gail). He was born in Káshán. Persian diplomat (given the title Nabíl al-Dawla by the Qájár government in 1914) and a Bahá’í translator.
Ali-Rida ‘Alí-Riḍá
Ali-Shawkat ‘Alí-Shawkat (GPB 241)
Ali, ‘Aliya ‘Álí, fem. ‘Áliya high, sublime, eminent, excellent, grand; the upper part; above
Alif Alif the vertically aligned or “upright” first consonant (, á) with an abjad value of 1. The basic shape of the alif has two forms depending on its position in a word. The alif is one of three letters: alif ا, wáw و, and yá’ ي, which might be either a consonant or a vowel letter. The Báb is often identified as the “upright Alif”, a vertical line that is unwavering and straight, and thus the symbol of the true Path of God, the supreme Standard of truth, the straight line of justice and moderation. In writing the alif serves as a prop for vowel-signs (small vowel diacritics above or below): اَ a; اِ i; اُ u; اُو ú, o, au; and ای í, e, ai. Since an alif cannot occur at the end of a word, an alif maqṣúra, written as ى, and pronounced as á (e.g., ىمر ramá) is used, and the ى takes markings such as ḥamza like a regular alif. The ىٰ is called an alif qá’ima, alif khanjaríyah, or dagger alif. The alif at the end of the word is called الألف اللينة (al-alif al-layna[t]), which can be translated as “the soft or flexible alif” because it can be written as either a و or a ي.
Alil, A’illa’ ‘Alíl, pl. A‘illa’ sick, ill, ailing; sick person, patient; soft, gentle, mild, pleasant. meaning with place names: “lower”
Alim, ‘Ulama ‘Alím, pl. ‘Ulamá’ (Pers. ‘Ulamá) knowing; cognizant, informed; learned, erudite; al-‘Alím the omniscient (one of the attributes of God)
Alim, Alima, Ulama ‘Álim, fem. ‘Álima, pl. ‘Ulamá’ (adj. or noun) “scholar”, knowing; familiar, acquainted (with), cognizant (of); expert, connoisseur, professional;—pl. “learned ones”, learned, erudite; scholars (of Islamic law), savants, scientists, doctors, theologians. The ‘ulamá’ are Muslim scholars recognized as having specialist knowledge of Islamic sacred law and theology. The ‘ulamá’ are collectively known in Persian society as the Jámi‘a-i Rúḥáníyat (the spiritual concourse). Bahá’í Writings use ‘Ulamá.
Alima (‘Ilm) ‘Alima (‘Ilm) to know; teach; tell, notify; to learn, study; to inquire, ask
Alin ‘Álin high, tall, elevated; loud, strong (voice); higher (as opposed to elementary); lofty, exalted, sublime, high-ranking, of high standing; excellent, first-class, first-rate, outstanding, of top quality (commodity)
Alipur or Chah-i-Ahmad Vatn Dust ‘Alípúr or Cháh-i-Aḥmad Vaṭn Dús village in Yunesi Rural District, Yunesi District, Bajestan County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Írán
Aliy-i-Baraqani ‘Alíy-i-Baraqání
Aliy-i-Barfurushi ‘Alíy-i-Bárfurúshí Muḥammad-‘Alíy-i-Bárfurúshí (1820–1849) was entitled Quddús by Bahá’u’lláh at Badasht and this was later confirmed by the Báb.
Aliy-i-Bastami ‘Alíy-i-Basṭámí Mullá ‘Alíy-i-Basṭámí, a Letter of the Living
Aliy-i-Kani ‘Alíy-i-Kání
Aliy-i-Kirmanshahi ‘Alíy-i-Kirmánsháhí
Aliy-i-Las-Furush ‘Alíy-i-Lás-Furúsh
Aliy-i-Miri ‘Alíy-i-Mírí
Aliy-i-Mudhahhib ‘Alíy-i-Mudhahhib
Aliy-i-Qazvini ‘Alíy-i-Qazvíní
Aliy-i-Sabzivari ‘Alíy-i-Sabzivárí
Aliy-i-Salmani ‘Alíy-i-Salmání
Aliy-i-Sardar ‘Alíy-i-Sardár
Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghih’i ‘Alíy-i-Sayyáḥ-i-Maraghih’í
Aliy-i-Tabib-i-Zanjani ‘Alíy-i-Ṭabíb-i-Zanjání
Aliy-i-Tafrishi ‘Alíy-i-Tafríshí
Aliy-i-Turshizi ‘Alíy-i-Turshízí Mullá Shaykh ‘Alíy-i-Turshízí, surnamed ‘Aẓím
Aliy-i-Zanjani ‘Alíy-i-Zanjání
Aliy-i-Zargar ‘Alíy-i-Zargar
Aliy-i-Zunuzi ‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí
Aliy, ‘Aliya, ‘Ilya ‘Alíy, fem. ‘Alíya(h), pl. ‘Ilya(h) (“‘Aliyy”, “‘Alí”) high, tall, elevated, exalted, sublime, lofty, august, excellent. Pers. fem. also ‘Alíyyih.
Aliyabadi (‘Aliabadi) ‘Alíyábádí Pers. a surname. Derived from ‘Alíyábád (built or populated by ‘Alí). Mírzá Zakíy ‘Alíyábádí founded the Mírzá Zakíy Khán Seminary (36.548471, 52.682296) near Ḥaẓír Furúshán Square (“Mat sellers square”, 36.549107, 52.682804), Bárfurúsh.
Aliyu’llah ‘Alíyu’lláh ‘Alí is chosen by, or from God
Aliyu’llahi ‘Alíyu’lláhí a sect in western Írán that combines elements of Shí‘a Islám with older religions. Used as a general term for several denominations that venerate or deify Imám ‘Alí, like the Kaysáníya, the ‘Alawiyán, the Ahlu’l-Ḥaqq and Nuṣayríya.
Aliyu’l-‘Ala, ‘Aliyyu’l-‘Ala ‘Alíyu’l-‘Alá, ‘Aliyyu’l-‘Alá the exalted of the exalted
Alizad (‘Ali-Zad) ‘Alizada (‘Alizadeh) ‘Alízád, ‘Alí Zád (‘Alízáda, ‘Alí Záda) descendent of ‘Alí. Asadu’lláh ‘Alízád and Maqṣúd ‘Alízádah
Alladhi, Allati, Alladhina Alladhí, fem. Allatí (relative pronoun) he who, that which; who, which, that. Plurals: m. alladhína, fem. allátí, allawátí (“allawati”), allá’í (“alla’i”)
Allaf ‘Alláf seller of provender (dry food such as hay and oats for livestock)
Allah Alláh (originally al-Iláh) God: The God, by way of eminence (being a contraction of the compound of the definite article ال (al, The) and الهٰ (iláh, a God). See iláh.
Allah-Vardi, Allah-Virdi Alláh-Vardí, Alláh-Virdí
Allah-Yar Alláh-Yár Ḥájj Alláh-Yár. A small village 100 km west of Kirmánsháh. 34.249047, 45.986214
Allahu ‘Azam, Allah-u-‘Azam Alláhu ‘Aẓam, Pers. Alláh-u-‘Aẓam God is Great
Allahu A’zam, Allah-u-A’zam Alláhu A‘ẓam, Pers. Alláh-u-A‘ẓam (greeting response to Alláh-u-Akbar—men) God is the Most Mighty
Allahu Abha, Allah-u-Abha Alláhu Abhá, Pers. Alláh-u-Abhá (greeting response to Alláh-u-Ajmal (“God the Most Beauteous”)—women) “God is Most Glorious, God is All-Glorious”. A form of the Greatest Name. Its repetition 95 times each day is ordained by the Báb and adopted by Bahá’u’lláh. Lilláh (95) = Letters of the Living (18) × 5 + Báb (5). Bahá, or any of its derivatives such as Abhá, Yá Bahá’u’lláh, or Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá, are all referred to as the Greatest name. Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá (O Glory of Glories or O Glory of the All-Glorious) is an invocation used in the calligraphy designed by Mishkín-Qalam.
Allahu Ajmal, Allah-u-Ajmal Alláhu Ajmal, Pers. Alláh-u-Ajmal (greeting response to Alláh-u-Abhá—women) God is the Most Beautiful.
Allahu Akbar, Allah-u-Akbar Alláhu Akbar, Pers. Alláh-u-Akbar greeting by a man to a man. God is the Most Great or God is the Greatest. See Alláh-u-A‘ẓam above
Allahu Anwar, Allah-u-Anwar Alláhu Anwár, Pers. Alláh-u-Anwár God is Most Luminous
Allahu Aqdam, Allah-u-Aqdam Alláhu Aqdam, Pers. Alláh-u-Aqdam God is the Most Ancient
Allahu Athar, Allah-u-Athar Alláhu Aṭhar, Pers. Alláh-u-Aṭhar God the Most Pure
Allahu Azhar, Allah-u-Azhar Alláhu Aẓhar, Pers. Alláh-u-Aẓhar God is Most Manifest
Allahumma Alláhumma “O God!”, “O Thou My God”. Possible derivation from Hebrew elohim (pl. of eloah).
Allam ‘Allám knowing thoroughly
Allama ‘Alláma[h or t] most erudite, very learned (of the ‘ulamá); learned in every branch of the Islamic sciences
Allamiy-i-Hilli ‘Allámiy-i-Ḥillí “the very erudite Doctor”, a title of the famed Shí‘ih theologian, Jamálu’d-Dín Ḥasan ibn-i-Yúsuf ibn-i-‘Alí of Hilla (CE 1250–1325) (MF p. 169)
Allamiy-i-Nuri ‘Allámiy-i-Núrí
Alliyu’llahi ‘Allíyu‘lláhí a sect
Almaniya Almániyá Germany
Alqa ‘Alqa (e.g.) beating; bastinado; a thrashing, spanking. See falaqa.
Alus Álús Pers. amorous or angry side-glance
Alusi Álúsí (Alossy) Ibn-i-Álúsí, Muftí of Baghdád
Alvah-i-Laylatu’l-Quds Alváḥ-i-Laylatu’l-Quds Tablets of the Holy Night by Bahá’u’lláh
Alvah-i-Salatin Alváḥ-i-Saláṭín Tablets to the Sultans
Alvah-i-Tablighi-i-Amrika Alváḥ-i-Tablíghí-i-Amríká Pers. collection of Tablets by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá to America, translated as Tablets of the Divine Plan. Amríká also given as Imríká
Alvah-i-Vasaya Alváḥ-i-Vaṣáyá Tablets of Commandments by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Am Am Pers. (first person of búdan, to be), I am, and as such, like the English “am”; the suffixed form of the pronoun of the first person, signifying “my” after a noun
Ama ‘Amá’ Ar. heavy clouds. [Pers. deviation, aberration, loss of the way; contention, litigation; a cloud, high, dense, rainy, thin; a black or white cloud; a cloud which has shed rain; blindness.] See root word ‘amiya. Hence, ‘Amá’ can be translated as blindness, secrecy, obscurity, etc.; though it also has the sense of “cloud”, possibly “heavy and thick clouds (which hide and obscure) or (the opposite!) light diaphanous clouds.1

Ama, Ima, Amawat Ama, pl. Imá’, Amawát bondmaid, slave girl
Amad, Amadam Ámad Pers. he came; arrival. Dar Ámadam (“I have arisen”)
Amada ‘Amada to baptize, christen
Amadan az fawq Ámadan az fawq Pers. “come from on high” or “come down from on high”. Expression used by Bahá’ís meaning sent by Shoghi Effendi, etc.
Amadan Ámadan Pers. to come, to arrive; to exist, to be found; to become
Amal, A’mal ‘Amal, pl. A‘mál doing, acting, action, activity; work, labour; course of action, way of acting, practice; achievement, accomplishment; activity (for), work (in the service of something); making, production, manufacture, fabrication; performance, execution; make, workmanship; practical work, practice;—pl. act, action; operation (military); work, job, chore, labour; deed, feat, achievement, exploit; occupation, business; trade, craft, handicraft; vicegerency, province, district; administrative district
Aman Amán Ar. Security, safety; peace; shelter, protection; clemency, quarter (mil.); safeguarding, assurance of protection; indemnity, immunity from punishment
Aman’u’llah Amán’u’lláh the protection of God. Fí amánu’lláh (Be under God’s protection) is an expression used by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
Amana, Amanat Amána(h or t), Amánát reliability, trustworthiness; loyalty, faithfulness, fidelity, fealty; integrity, honesty; confidence, trust, good faith; deposition in trust; trusteeship;—pl. something deposited in trust, a deposit, trust, charge, anything given in trust; security, safety, protection; safe-guard, safe-conduct. Ḥusayn Amánat (1942–) is an Iranian-Canadian architect and brother of academic ‘Abbás Amánat. He is the architect of the Burj-i-Shahyád (“Shah’s Memorial Tower”, renamed Burj-i-Ázádí, “Freedom Tower”) in Ṭihrán, three Bahá’í Arc buildings in Haifa, the Samoan House of Worship and the Shrine of ʻAbdu’l-Bahá.
Amara, Amarat, Ama’ir Amára(h or t), pl. Amárát, Amá’ir sign, token, indication, symptom, mark, characteristic
Amara, Amr, Awamir, Umur Amara, Amr, pl. Awámir, Umúr to order, command, bid, instruct (someone to do something), commission, charge, entrust (someone with something or to do something);—pl. Awámir order, command, instruction (to do something); ordinance, decree; power, authority; (grammar) imperative;—pl. Umúr matter, affair, concern, business. Hence, can be defined as “divine order” and “acts of obedience and pious deeds that are ordained” by God.
Amasiya Amásiyá (Amasya) city in Türkiye, 84 km SW of Samsun
Amatu’l-A’la Amatu’l-A‘lá (“the Handmaid of the Most High”) Title given to Dr Susan Moody by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Amatu’l-Baha Amatu’l-Bahá Hand of the Cause of God, Amatu’l-Bahá Rúḥíyyih Khánum Rabbani (née Mary Sutherland Maxwell) (1910–2000). [“It was Amatu’l-Bahá’s preference that Rabbani not be” transcripted. Letter from her Literary Executors, 9 Jan. 2007 to M.W.T.] Her names mean “The Handmaiden of the Glory”, “Spiritual” and “Lady” respectively.
Amatu’l-Haqq Amatu’l-Ḥaqq “Maidservant of Truth (or God)”. Title given by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá to Núríyyih, the first wife of Varqá.
Amatu’llah Amatu’lláh (The Handmaiden of God)
Amid, ‘Umada ‘Amíd, pl. ‘Umadá’ support; head, chief; dean (of a faculty); principal, headmaster, director (of a secondary school); doyen, dean (as, of a diplomatic corps; high commissioner
Amil az-Zakah, ‘Ummal az-Zakah ‘Ámil az-Zakáh, pl. ‘Ummál az-Zakáh to give alms or almsgiver (incorrect: ‘ummál-i-dhakát in PDC p. 92). Pers. ‘Ámil-i-Zakáh, pl. ‘Ummál-i-Zakáh.
Amil, Awamil, Ummal ‘Ámil, pl. ‘Awámil, ‘Ummál active; effective;—(pl. ‘awámil) factor, constituent, element, (causative) agent, motive power; word governing another in syntactical regimen, regent (grammar);—(pl. ‘ummál) maker, producer, manufacturer; doer, perpetrator, author; worker, workman, working man, labourer; wage earner, employee; governor.
Amili ‘Ámilí an agent
Amin-i-Halabi Amín-i-Ḥalabí, Shaykh [Amín Ḥalabí]
Amin-i-Ilahi Amín-i-Iláhí Trusted of God. See Ardakání
Amin, Amina Ámin, fem. Ámina(h) peaceful. Áminah bint Wahb, mother of Muḥammad; died AD 577 in the village of al-Abwá’.
Amin, Umana Amín, pl. Umaná’ reliable, trustworthy, loyal, faithful, upright, honest; safe, secure; authorized representative or agent; trustee; guarantor (of); chief, head; superintendent, curator, custodian, guardian, keeper; chamberlain; master of a guild. Superlative form of amuna or amána (to be faithful, reliable, trustworthy). Turkish Emin.
Amini Amíní Persian name. Office of amín; trust, guardianship, custody; security; commission, deputation; secure, safe.
Aminu’d-Dawlah Amínu’d-Dawlah Trusted of the state
Aminu’l-‘Ulama’ Amínu’l-‘Ulamá’ trustworthy scholars
Aminu’l-Bayan Amínu’l-Bayán “Trusted of the Bayán”
Aminu’llah Amínu’lláh “Trust of God”
Aminu’s-Sultan Amínu’s-Sulṭán (MF)
Amir, ‘Amira ‘Ámir, fem. ‘Ámira(t) inhabited; peopled, populated, populous; full, filled, filled up; jammed, crowded, filled to capacity (with); amply provided, splendidly furnished; civilized; cultivated (land); flourishing, thriving, prosperous
Amir Ámir commander; lord, master; orderer, purchaser, customer, client
Amir al-Mu’minin Amír al-Mu’minín Commander of the Faithful, Caliph. Sunnis believe the first to hold the title was ‘Umar ibn al-Khaṭṭáb, and Shí‘i believe the title applies exclusively to ‘Imám ‘Alí.
Amir Rud (Amirud) Amír Rúd Pers. a village (36.633470, 51.567460) on the Caspian Sea coast, Mazandaran Province. It is named after the river to its east.
Amir Tuman Amír Túmán military commander of 10,000 men
Amir-Divan Amír-Díván position of authority. al-Amírí ad-Díván is the sovereign body and administrative office of an Amír
Amir-i-Kabir Amír-i-Kabír Great Prince
Amir-Nizam Amír-Niẓám Grand Vizir or General of the Army
Amir-Tuman Amír-Túmán
Amir-Zada (Amir-Zadih) Amír-Záda or Amírzáda Pers. someone of noble birth or family; a king’s son, a prince. See Mírzá
Amir, Umara, Amirat Amír, pl. Umará’, pl. fem. Amírát commander, governor, lord; prince, emir; title of princes of a ruling house; tribal chief
Amira’l-Mu’minin Amíra’l-Mu’minín Commander of the Faithful
Amiru’l-Kuttab Amíru’l-Kuttáb Prince of Calligraphers
Amiru’sh-Shu’ara’ Amíru’sh-Shu‘ará’ (The Emir of Poets) (sing. shá‘ir)
Amiya, ‘Aman ‘Amiya (‘Aman) to be or become blind, lose one’s eyesight; to be blind (to something); to be obscure (to someone); form II to blind, render blind (someone); to blindfold (someone); to obscure, render cryptic, enigmatic or mysterious, mystify (something); form IV to blind, render blind (someone); to blindfold (someone); to make (someone) blind (to a fact); form V to be or become blind, lose one’s eyesight; form VI to shut one’s eyes (on something), pretend not to see (something); to be blind (to). That is, ‘to become blind, to be obscure’
Amm ‘Ámm public; universal, prevalent; general; common
Amm, ‘Ammu, ‘Umum, A’mam ‘Amm, pl. ‘Umúm, A‘mám father’s brother, paternal uncle; ibn al-‘amm cousin on the father’s side; bint al-‘amm female cousin on the father’s side. ‘Ammú (in colloquial Arabic), a paternal uncle, can be used out of respect for any older man, also used as a name.
Amma, ‘Ammatan, ‘Awamm ‘Ámma(h), pl. ‘Awámm (noun) generality; commonalty; the masses, the people;—‘ámmatan (adverb) in general; generally; commonly, altogether, in the aggregate, collectively;—pl. al-‘Awámm the common people, the populace; the laity (Christian). cf. Kháṣṣa.
Amman ‘Ammán Ancient Philadelphia, capital city of Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Ammar Ammár constantly urging, always demanding (to do something); inciting, instigating
Amna’ Amna‘ harder to get at, more forbidding; offering greater resistance
Amr ‘Amr preserving; living long; visiting; faith, religion. ‘Amr ibn al-‘Áṣ as-Sahmí (c. 573–664) was the Arab commander who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt and served as its governor in 640–646 and 658–664. Also an Arab commander for the conquest of Syria. He conquered most of Palestine and appointed governor. He led the Arabs to decisive victories over the Byzantines in 634 and 636.
Amr al-Baha’i Amr al-Bahá’í (Amr-i-Bahá’í) “the Glorious Cause”, “the Bahá’í Cause”, the Bahá’í Faith
Amr Allah, Amru’llah Amr Alláh, Amru’lláh “command of God”, “House of God’s command” or “cause of God”
Amr va Khalq Amr va Khalq Revelation and creation, compilation by Fáḍil Mázandarání
Amr-i-Abda’ Amr-i-Abda‘ (the Most Wondrous New Cause)
Amr-i-Badi’ Amr-i-Badí‘ (the Wondrous New Cause)
Amr, ‘Amru (‘Amro) ‘Amr, ‘Amrú (pronounced ‘Amr) he final و being employed solely to distinguish this word from ‘umar, Omar. A proper name. See Ḥadíth-i-Jábir and ‘Amr (‘Amú) bin ‘Abdiwudd.
Amr, ‘Amru Amr; pl. Awámir, Umúr order, command, cause; (in grammar) imperative; affair, business, transaction; event, occurrence, fact, circumstance; matter, case, thing, particular; point, question.—pl. (Awámir) order, command, instruction (to do something); ordinance, decree; power, authority; (grammar) imperative;—pl. (Umúr) matter, affair, concern, business.
Amra ‘Amra(h) headgear (e.g., turban); (e.g.) repair, repair work
Amran ‘Amrán a small city in western central Yemen
Amrani ‘Amrání Muḥammad Muḥammad Ṣa‘íd al-Baqqálí al-‘Amrání, Bahá’í arrested in Morocco, 1962
Amrika Amríká America
Amru’llah Amru’llah “God’s command”. Name given to a house (41.679178, 26.556450) occupied by Bahá’u’lláh on the northern side of the Sulṭán Salím Mosque in Erdine.
Amu (Amuya) Ámú (Ámúya) Pers. a tumour, swelling, inflation; Ámú Daryú modern name of the ancient Oxus River
Amu, ‘Ammu ‘Amú, ‘Ammú Pers. paternal uncle. Mullá Ḥasan ‘Amú. See ‘amm.
Amud, A’mida, Umud ‘Amúd, pl. A‘mida, ‘Umud flagpole, shaft (of a standard); pale, post, prop, shore, pier, buttress; lamppost; (telephone, telegraph) pole; column, pillar, pilaster; stem (of a glass); (pl.) column (of a newspaper)
Amud, Awamid (Avamid) ‘Ámúd, pl. ‘Awámíd (Pers. dictionary, column) Arabic dictionary = ‘Amúd, steering column, steering mechanism (of an automobile)
Amul (Amol) Ámul companion. A town (36.466423, 52.354574) in Mázindarán province, on the Haraz River, near the Caspian Sea.
An ‘An (preposition) off, away from; from (designating the source); out of (a feeling); about, on (a topic); according to, as attested or declared by, from what ... says, on the authority of; on the basis of, on the strength of; for, in defence of; as a substitute for
Anahita Anáhítá Old Pers. immaculate, undefiled. Venus, Aphrodite (Greek) and Venus Erucina (Roman). See modern form Náhíd
Anam Anám mankind, mortals; creatures; jinn; demons. al-anám mankind, the human race.
Anas Anas joy, friendliness, delight. Anas ibn Málik ibn Naḍr al-Khazrají al-Ansárí (c. 612-c. 712) was a well-known ṣaḥábí (companion) of Muḥammad.
Anaya, ‘Inaya, ‘Inayat ‘Anáya[t], ‘Ináya[t], pl. ‘Ináyát (“Enayat”) meaning, signifying, intending (somewhat by one’s words); bestowing pains upon; happening, occurring; agreeing with one (food); guarding, preserving; solicitude, anxiety, care; assistance, aid, favour; a gift, present, bounty. See ‘Ináyatu’lláh.
Anbar Anbár Pers. full to the brim, replete; a pond, a reservoir
Anbar, ‘Anabir ‘Anbar, pl. ‘Anábir ambergris;—pl. sperm whale
Anbar, Nibr, Anabir Anbár, Nibr, pl. Anábir, Anábír barn, shed, granary, storeroom, storehouse, warehouse. Anbar-i-Sháhí (“Royal Storehouse”, 35.678809, 51.420662—it is south of the Golestan Palace and north of the Síyáh-Chál). Its name later became synonymous with a ḥubús (dungeon) and then a zindán (jail) (i.e. the Anbar Prison).
Anbijaniya Anbijániya may be a plain, thick sheet or blanket, or a garment from the Syrian town of Manbij. In a ḥadíth, Muḥammad is said to have found a patterned khamíṣa (“khamisa”) distracting Him from His prayers and asked for a plain anbijániya (or a manbijániya garment).
and, ‘ind, ‘und, ‘anda, ‘inda ‘and, ‘ind, ‘und a side, part, quarter;—‘anda, ‘inda (adverb of time and place), near, nigh, with, before, about, in, according to. min ‘inda’lláh, “on God’s part”. min 'indaná, “from us” or “on our part”.
Andalib, ‘Anadil ‘Andalíb, pl. ‘Anádil Pers. a nightingale. See Láhíjání.
Andar Andar Pers. in, into, within; added to the words
Andarman (Enderman, Endermane) Ándarmán small village 10 km south of the centre of Ṭihrán and 3 km NW of the Sháh ‘Abdu’l-‘Aẓim Shrine (in Shahr-i-Ray)
Andarun Andarún Pers. within; the inside; the heart, bowels; intrinsic, interior, internal. Village 190 km ESE Ahváz, Írán
Andaruni Andarúní interior; inner women’s apartments. See bírúní
Andarz Andarz Pers. a testament, last will. It is most often applied to remarks made by a prominent person to his son, his courtiers, “people of the world,” etc., and commonly indicates a spiritual testament. As a literary designation, it denotes the type of literature which contains advice and injunctions for proper behavior, whether in matters of state, everyday life, or religion.
Andirmani (Andarmani) Ándirmání probably Ándarmání, of or from Ándarmán. See Ándarmán.
Andulus al-Andalus Spain
Anfusihim Anfusihim themselves
Angiz Ángiz Pers. raised, elevated; (in compounds) exciting, raising. village 84 km SW Ardabíl, and 95 km east of Tabríz, Írán
Angur Angúr Pers. a grape, a raisin; granulations in a healing sore [angoor]
Anis, Anisa Anís, fem. Anísa[h or t] close, intimate; close friend; friendly, kind, affable, civil, polite, courteous. Close Companion, Anís, is the title of Mírzá Muḥammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, the companion of the Báb in martyrdom, and Ḥájí Muḥammad-Ismá‘íl (referred to as Anís in Súriy-i-Ra’ís).
Anisa Anísá ‘Abdu’l-Bahá: By the gathering together under the shade of the symbolic “Tree of Anísá [Pers. شجره انيسا, shajarah anísá] is meant the Tabernacle of the Lord of Grace, the divine Lote-Tree, the Tree of Life, "the Olive [the blessed tree] that belongeth neither to the East nor to the West, whose oil would well nigh shine out even though fire touched it not”. (Qur’án 24:35) Shoghi Effendi said at times it refers to the Temple of the Manifestation. See The Hidden Words, Persian 19.
Anjuman (Anjoman) Anjuman Pers. a company, assembly, society, banquet, congregation, synagogue, congress, any place where people meet and converse; a multitude
Ankabut, Anakib ‘Ankabút, pl. ‘Anákib spider
Anqa’ (‘Anka) ‘Anqá’ a legendary bird, griffon
Anqura Ánqura[h or t] Greek Ánkyra (“anchor”); Ánqurah or Ankara, capital of Türkiye
Ans ‘Ans bending (a stick); a strong she-camel with a long tail; an eagle.
Ansari, Ansariyyah Anṣárí, pl. Anṣaríyyah related to Anṣár, the Helpers. Those who rallied around Muḥammad after His flight from Mecca to Medina. Anṣaríyyah is believed to be a mistranscription of Nuṣayríyyah. Abú al-Qásim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbás az-Zahráwí al-Anṣárí (936–1013), popularly known as az-Zahrawi, Latinized as Abulcasis, was an Arab Andalusian physician, surgeon and chemist. Considered to be the greatest surgeon of the Middle Ages. See Náṣir (helper) and ‘Alawí.
Ansi ‘Ansí al-‘Ansí is an ancient and prolific tribe originating in the Ḥaḍramawt region of Yemen. After the final breach of the Ma’rib Dam about CE 570, its members spread across the Arabian Peninsula. al-Aswad ibn-Ka‘b ibn-‘Awf al-‘Ansí, better known as Abhala bin Ka‘b. Also known as Dhú’l-Ḥimári’l-Aswad. He was a leader of the al-Ansí tribe and was the second false prophet—he declared when Muḥammad became ill after his final pilgrimage to Mecca.
Antun (Anton, Antoun) Antún Latin Anthony
Anud ‘Anúd (“anoud”, not ánúd) contumacious (stubbornly or wilfully disobedient to authority), refractory, wayward; a cloud big with rain
Anushirwan (Anushirvan, Nushirvan) Anúshírwán (Núshírván) “immortal soul” or “eternal spirit”. Sásáníyán king of Persia known for his just rule (CE 531–578). The Prophet Muḥammad was born in Arabia at the time of his reign (c. 570–1) (SDC p. 68). Persians sometimes use Anúshírván or even Núshírván. There are instances of Núshíraván, Núshíruván and Nawshíraván (MF 20).
Anwari (Avari) Anwárí (Anvárí) Name of a famous Persian poet, who died AH 586/CE 1190. See núr
Anyabuli Anyábulí now Inebolu. A Black Sea port 225 km WNW of Samsun, Türkiye.
Anzali Anzalí Pers. Bandar-i-Anzalí (37.466949, 49.469869), Port of Enzeli, SW end of Caspian Sea, Írán. See nuzl.
Aq, Ak Áq Turkish white
Aqa Baba (Aqa-Baba, Aga Baba) Áqá Bábá (Áqá-Bábá) small villages in Qazvín Province: “Aka-Baba” 21 km south Qazvín and “Aga-Baba” (Ágha Bábá) 22 km SNW Qazvín
Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí born in Khurásán, but was the son of Ḥájí ‘Abdu’l-Majíd-i-Níshápúrí. Bahá’u’lláh sent Áqá Buzurg to Írán with a messenge for Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh. Áqá Buzurg was then martyred. He was given the titles Badí‘ (Wonderful) and Fakhru’sh-Shuhadá’ (Pride of Martyrs)
Aqa Fatu’llah Áqá Fatu’lláh (Fatollah)
Aqa Jan Kashani Áqá Ján Kashání Mírzá Áqá Ján Kashání (1837–1901), the first person to believe in Bahá’u’lláh as “Him Whom God shall make manifest”. Bahá’u’lláh chose him to become His amanuensis (despite his limited education) and gave him the title of Khádim (“Servant”) and later Khádimu’lláh (“Servant of God”). Áqá Ján served as Bahá’u’lláh’s amanuensis for nearly 40 years, but was dismissed shortly before Bahá’u’lláh died in 1892. During Bahá’u’lláh’s retirement to the mountains of Kurdistan, Mírzá Áqá Ján worked for Mírzá Yaḥyá and even went on a secret mission to assassinate Násiri’d-Dín Sháh. He became a Covenant-Breaker about 1897.
Aqa Jan-i-Kaj-Kulah Áqá Ján-i-Kaj-Kuláh Áqá Ján was a native of Salmás in Ádharbáyján. Originally an officer in the Persian army, he defected to the Ottomans and joined the Ottoman army as an artillery officer. He retired as a Colonel in 1866. He became an accomplice of Siyyid Muḥammad Iṣfahání and was known as kaj-kuláh (“Skew-cap”). Seven Bahá’ís murdered Siyyid Muḥammad Iṣfahání, Áqá Ján and Mírzá Riḍá-Qulíy-i-Tafrishí in ‘Akká on 22 January 1872.
Aqa Mirza ‘Abdu’-r-Rahim-i-Burujirdi Áqá Mírzá ‘Abdu’-r-Raḥím-i-Burújirdí (Boroodjerdy)
Aqa Najaf-‘Aliy-i-Zanjani Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání
Aqa Siyyid Áqá Siyyid [Asseyid is an abbreviation]
Aqa, Aqayan Áqá, pl. Áqáyán Pers. master, sir, gentleman; when affixed to a name means Mr (a male honorific title—‘the Master’). Sarkár Áqá (Chief Master) or Áqá was a title given by Bahá’u’lláh solely to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
Aqaba ‘Aqaba to follow (someone, something or after someone, after something), succeed (someone, something); to come after, ensue; to continue
Aqaba, ‘Iqab ‘Aqaba[h or t], pl. ‘Iqáb a tendon; mountain pass; the summit of Miná, where Muḥammad was first publicly acknowledged by a number of persons; steep mountain-summits difficult of approach;—pl. declivities or difficult passages of mountains. al-‘Aqaba (ancient name Elath, Ailath; modern name a shortened form of ‘aqabat Aylah, “the mountain-pass of Ayla”), the only coastal city in Jordan at the northern end of the Gulf of ‘Aqaba. Pledge of al-‘Aqaba (al-bay‘a al-‘Aqaba) is the oath of allegiance of people from Yathrib to Muḥammad, prior to his emigration to Yathrib (later Medina). The first pledge (known as Bay‘at an-Nisá’ since there was no pledge of war) in 621 and the second pledge (Bay‘at al-Ḥarb) in 622. The significance of these pledges is that both were important in the preparation for emigration of Muḥammad and Muslims from Mecca to Medina.
Aqasi Áqásí Turkish proper name, e.g. Ḥájí Mírzá Áqásí (Grand Vizier of Persia, the Antichrist of the Bábí Revelation)
Aqay-i-Kalim Áqáy-i-Kalím Mírzá Músá, known as Áqáy-i-Kalím, a faithful brother of Bahá’u’lláh
Aqay-i-Munir Áqáy-i-Munír
Aqay-i-Rikab-Saz Áqáy-i-Rikáb-Sáz
Aqay-i-Tabrizi Áqáy-i-Tabrízí (MF)
Aqdas Aqdas more hallowed, more sacred, holier. The Most holy. A derivative of qadusa, as is Quds.
Aqida, Aqa’id ‘Aqída[h or t], pl. ‘Aqá’id article of faith, tenet, doctrine; dogma; creed, faith, belief; conviction; ideology (modern meaning)
Aqil, ‘Uqala’ ‘Aqil, pl. ‘Uqalá’ intelligent, wise, judicious (persons)
Aql al-Awwal al-‘Aql al-Awwal first intellect
Aql, ‘Uqul ‘Aql, pl. ‘Uqúl intellect, intelligence, reason, insight, mind, rationality and wisdom;—(pl.) sense, sentience, reason, understanding, comprehension, discernment, insight, rationality, mind, intellect, intelligence
Aqli, ‘Aqliyun ‘Aqlí, pl. ‘Aqlíyún reasonable, rational; ratiocinative; mental; intellectual;—pl. rationalist; an intellectual
Aqliya ‘Aqlíya(t) mentality, mental attitude
Aqsa al-Madina Aqṣá al-Madína[h or t] most distant part of a city or the most distant city (in a country or world). e.g. Shíráz and Búshihr. See Qur’án 36:20.
Aqsa, Quswa, Aqasin Aqṣá, fem. Quṣwá, pl. Aqáṣin more distant, remoter, farther (away); al-Masjid al-Aqṣá, “the Farthest Mosque”, built on the claimed site of the Temple of Solomon on the southern end of Fort Antonia or the claimed “Temple Mount” in Jerusalem. See aṣ-Ṣakhrah and Ḥarám
Ara Árá Pers. (in compound, from árástan), embellishing, adorning; ornament (e.g. majlis-árá, gracing the banquet, etc.)
Arab Khayl (Arab Kheyl) ‘Arab Khayl is a village (36.6962440, 52.751382) in Mazandaran Province near the Caspian Sea.
Arab, Urab, A’rub, Urban, ‘Arabha ‘Arab (collective), pl. ‘Urúb, A‘rub Arabs; true Arabs, Arabs of the desert, Bedouins. Other plurals: ‘Urbán, A‘ráb. The Arabian Peninsula or simply Arabia: Shibhu’l-Jazírati’l-‘Arabiyyah, “Arabian Peninsula” or Jazíratu’l-‘Arab, “Island of the Arabs”. Pers. pl. also ‘Arabhá.
Arabi, ‘Arabiya ‘Arabí, fem. ‘Arabíya[h or t] Arab, Arabic, Arabian; truly Arabic; an Arab. al-‘Arabíya, the language of the ancient Arabs; classical, or literary, Arabic. ibn ‘Arabí (1165–1240), full name Abú ‘Abd Alláh Muḥammad ibn ‘Alí ibn Muḥammad ibn ‘Arabí al-Ḥátimí aṭ-Ṭá’í, was an Arab Andalusian Muslim scholar, mystic, poet, and philosopher; honorific titles ash-Shaykh al-Akbar (“the Greatest Shaykh”) and Muḥyí ad-Dín (“Renewer of the Faith”). Nuṣúṣ ‘Arabíya (“Arabic text”) consists of rasm, nuqaṭ al-i‘jám (points or dots to distinguish between say ص and ض), and at-tashkíl (supplementary diacritics to indicate vocalization, including the al-ḥarakát (to indicate short vowels, long consonants, and some other vocalizations)).
Arabistan ‘Arabistán the land of Arabia
Arabiyah al-Fusḥa al-‘Arabíyah al-Fuṣḥá “the most eloquent Arabic”. It is the standardised literary form of Arabic used from the 7th century and throughout the Middle Ages, most notably in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts such as poetry, elevated prose and oratory, and is also the liturgical language of Islám. Modern Standard Arabic is based on classical Arabic.
Arad, A’rad ‘Araḍ, pl. A‘ráḍ accident (philosophy); contingent, non-essential characteristic; something non-essential, a contingent, something accidental; symptom, manifestation of disease
Arafa (‘Arfa), Arafih ‘Arafa[h or t], Pers. ‘Arafih wind; diligent inquiry. Yawm ‘Arafah (Day of Arafah) is day 9 of the month Dhu’l-Ḥijjah, and is the second day of the Ḥajj—it celebrates the revelation of Qur’án 5:3 to Muḥammad just before sunset while on Jabal ‘Arafát for His farewell sermon (Khuṭbatu’l-Wadá‘). He gathered the Muslims and recited the revelation after sunset, the day then considered to be 10 Dhu’l-Ḥijjah AH 10 (the Islamic Friday and Sunday 8 March 632)—hence part of the confusion over the date, see Yawm. See ‘Arafát.
Arafa, Ma’rifa, ‘Irfan ‘Arafa, Ma‘rifa(h or t), ‘Irfán to know (someone, something); to recognize, perceive (someone, something); to be cognizant, be aware (of something), be acquainted (with something), to discover, experience, find out (something)
Arafat ‘Arafát 70 m high granite hill (Jabal ‘Arafát (Mount ‘Arafát 21.354841, 39.984009)—also known as Jabal ar-Raḥmah (the Mount of Mercy), 18.5 km ESE of central Mecca) and adjacent plain. See ‘Arafa(h).
Araja, ‘Uruj ‘Araja, ‘Urúj to ascend, mount, rise
Arak Arák capital of Markazi Province, Írán (formerly Sulṭánábád)
Aram (Eram) Árám Pers. calm, rest, tranquillity, peace, quiet, repose, cessation, inaction; power, obedience, subjection. Can be translated as paradise.
Aramram ‘Aramram strong, violent, vehement
Aran va Bidgul Árán va Bídgul a city that grew from an amalgamation of two villages (Árán and Bídgul, 34.060281, 51.478633), 9 km NE of Kashan
Ararat Ararat European name of the Ararat peaks (Greater and Lesser: Ağrı Dağı, 5,137 m; Küçük Ağrı dağı, 3,896 m) in Türkiye. Prior to the 6th century, the traditional Armenian name was Masis, derived from the name of King Amasya. Genesis 8:4 refers to Noah’s ark resting “upon the mountains of Ararat”—the mountainous region of Armenia (Urartu) was known to the ancient Greeks as Ararat. See al-Júdí.
Aras Aras name of a river near Tiflís, the Araxes of the ancients. See Ra’s
Arastan Árástan Pers. to adorn, decorate, embellish; to set in order
Arastu Arastú Pers. a swallow; swallow-wort
Araysh al-‘Aráysh Larache, harbour town, Morocco
Arba’a, Arba’, Arba’un (Arba’in) Arba‘a[h or t], fem. Arba‘, pl. Arbá‘ún four;—pl. forty. Pers. also Arba‘ih. “Arba‘in” error of the genitive form (arba‘ín) in The Kitáb-i-Íqán, p. 242 (see Shaykh Bahá’í, author of al-Arba‘ún Ḥadíth).
Arba’ata ‘Ashara, Arba’a ‘Asharata Arba‘ata(h) ‘Ashara, f. Arba‘a ‘Asharata(h) fourteen
Arbil Arbíl (Erbil, Irbil) city 80 km ESE of Mosul, ‘Iráq
Ard al-Muqaddasa al-Arḍ al-Muqaddasa the Holy Land, Palestine. Shoghi Effendi stated it became the Most Holy Land (al-Arḍ al-Aqdas) after the arrival of Bahá’u’lláh.
Ard wa Sama’ Arḍ wa Samá’ earth and heaven. ‘Earth’ is the earth of knowledge and understanding, the earth of new insight, etc. ‘Heaven’ is the heaven of new teachings and religion. By the shattering of the heaven (sky) on the day of resurrection, is meant that the heaven of the old religion is removed and a new one is raised through the Advent of a new Manifestation and the earth of recognition of God is decorated with Faith.
Ard-i-A’la Arḍ-i-A‘lá “the Exalted Spot”, name given to the Shrine of the Báb and to the fort of Khájih (Khwája), Zanján, by the Báb (Zanján upheaval 13 May 1859–c. 2 January 1851.
Ard-i-Jannat Arḍ-i-Jannat the Land of Paradise, Mílán
Ard-i-Sirr Arḍ-i-Sirr Pers. the Land of Mystery, Adrianople. See Adirna.
Ardabil Ardabíl or Ardibíl city 175 km east of Tabriz, in the province of Ádhirbáyján, near the Caspian Sea
Arif, ‘Arifin ‘Árif, pl. ‘Árifín acquainted, conversant, familiar (with); connoisseur, expert; wise man, mystic, saint, gnostic;—pl. mystics, saints, gnostics
Ardabili Ardabílí of or from Ardabíl.
1. Ṣafí ad-dín Isḥáq Ardabílí (1252/1253–1334) was a poet, mystic, teacher and Ṣúfí master. He reformed the Záhidíya (Zahediyeh) and renamed it the Safaviyya, which he led from 1301 to 1334. He was the eponymous ancestor of the Safawiyan (Safavid dynasty), which ruled Írán from 1501 to 1736.
2. Son, and successor, Ṣadr ad-Dín Músá ibn Ṣafí ad-Dín Isḥaq Ardabílí (1305–1391), also known as Ṣadr ad-Dín aṣ-Ṣafaví or Ṣadr ad-Dín al-Khánagáh. He was the first to use the title Ṣadr al-Ardibílí.
3. Mírzá Muḥammad Ṣáliḥ ibn Músá ibn Ṣafí ad-Dín Isḥaq Ardabílí (d. 1704), grandson, second Ṣadr al-Ardibílí.
4. Mírzá Muḥammad Ibráhím (etc.; d. 1738), the third Ṣadr al-Ardibílí. ...
8. Mírzá Muḥammad Ḥasan (1789–1848), the seventh Ṣadr al-Ardibílí. He served as a spiritual guide and a political advisor for Muḥammad Sháh Qájár.
Ardakan Ardakán or Ardikán city 55 km NW of Yazd
Ard, Arz, Aradin, Aradun, Arazi Arḍ fem., pl. Aráḍín, Aráḍún earth; land, country, region, area; terrain, ground, soil. Pers. arẓ, pl. aráẓí
Ardakani (Ardikani) Ardakání of or from Ardakán. Ḥájí Abu’l-Ḥasan-i-Ardikání (1831–1928), also known as Amín-i-Iláhí.
Ardashir, Ardishir (Ardeshir) Ardashír, Ardishír Pers. “great lion”. Name of Persian rulers (Ardishír and Ardashír are derived from Middle Persian Artakhishatr, which was derived from the Greek Artaxerxes) and a small village 85 km NE of Tabríz in East Azerbaijan Province, Írán (38.750145, 46.746858).
Ardibili Ardibíl city on west side of Caspian Sea, Írán
Ardikan (Ardakan) Ardikán city 55 km NW of Yazd
Ardistan Ardistán Province in Írán
Ardshir Ardshír Pers. intrepid, courageous
Arf ‘Arf fragrance, perfume, scent, aroma
Arg (Ark) Arg Pers. the inner fortress or citadel of a walled city. Ark is a modern colloquialism for a small citadel.
Arghun Arghún an organ; a wild horse
Ari Árí Pers. yes, very well, indeed, truly; no
Arid, Irad ‘Aríḍ, pl. ‘Iráḍ broad, wide; extensive, vast
Arida, ‘Ara’id ‘Aríḍa, pl. ‘Ará’iḍ petition, application, memorial
Arif, ‘Arifun, ‘Arifin ‘Árif, pl. ‘Árifún, ‘Árifín knowing, perceiving; acquainted, conversant, familiar (with); scientific; wise, skilful, intelligent, sagacious; connoisseur, expert; well known, notorious; patient; a holy man, a saint, the highest grade to which a mystic can attain
Arif, ‘Urafa’ ‘Aríf, pl. ‘Urafá’ knowing (something), cognizant, aware (of something); expert, authority, specialist; teaching assistant, monitor (an older pupil assisting the teacher of a Qur’anic school)
Arish, ‘Urush, ‘Ara’ish ‘Arísh, pl. ‘Urush, ‘Ará’ish arbor, bower; hut made of twigs; booth, shack, shanty; trellis (for grapevines); shaft, carriage pole. al-‘Arísh, city on the northern coast of the Sinai Peninsula.
Aristu, Arasta, Arastu Arisṭú, Pers. Arasṭá, Arasṭú Aristotle (“the best purpose”). Dr Arisṭú Khán, brother of Dr Luṭfu’lláh Ḥakím,
Arjmand (Arjumand) Arjmand Pers. rare, excellent, worthy of great price, valuable, exquisite, beloved, dear, brave, generous, noble, distinguished; wise
Archiya, ‘Arshiyya (Arshiyyih) ‘Arshíya[h or t], Pers. ‘Arshiyya[h or t] follower of Mullá Ṣadrá, DB, p. 207. See ‘Arsh and Sadrá’íya.
Arjumand, Arjmand, Arzaman Arjumand, Arjmand, Arzamán Pers. town, formerly Arzamán, in and the capital of Arjumand District, in Fírúzkúh County, Ṭihrán Province, Írán. Also written “Arjomand”.
Arjumandi Arjumandí of, from Arjumand
Arman Ármán Pers. desire; a sigh; grief, sorrow; remorse
Arqam Arqam (a serpent) speckled with black and white (of a very dangerous species); name of an Arabian tribe
Arrab, ‘Arraba ‘Arráb, fem. ‘Arrába[h or t] godfather/godmother, sponsor
Arsh, ‘Arshiya, Urush, A’rash ‘Arsh, fem. ‘Arsha[h or t] (pl. ‘Urúsh, A‘rásh) a throne, chair of state; the throne of God (‘Arsh Alláh, the Shrine of the Báb or more generally, the Bahá’í World Centre); the empyrean (heaven); a palace, citadel; roof of a house; a canopy; a tent; a prop, buttress, stay, support; a leader or chief of the people
Arshi, ‘Arshiyan ‘Arshí, pl. ‘Arshiyán from the throne (of God) or divine “presence”, heavenly; pl. angels who carry the throne of God, bearers of the celestial throne
Arshin Árshín Russian cubit (арши́н)
Arshiyyih ‘Arshíyyih followers of Mullá Ṣadrá, DB, p. 207. See ‘Arsh
Arslan Árslán, Arslán Pers. from Turkish. A lion; surname adopted by several kings of Persia. Alp Arslán (honorific in Turkish meaning “Heroic Lion”, given because of his military prowess and fighting skills; full name Ḍiyá’ ad-Dunyá wa ad-Dín ‘Aḍud ad-Dawlah Abú Shujá‘ Muḥammad Alp Árslán ibn Dáwud (1029–1072), real name Muḥammad bin Dáwud Chaghri (Turkic Çağrı), was the second Sulṭán of the Seljuk Empire and great-grandson of Saljúq (Seljuk), the eponymous founder of the dynasty.
Arus, ‘Urus, ‘Ara’is, ‘Arusan ‘Arús, pl. ‘Urus bridegroom; f. (pl. ‘ará’is) bride; doll; al-‘arúsán bride and groom, the newlyweds
Aryamihr (Aryamehr) Áryámihr “Light of the Aryans”
As ‘Áṣ ‘Amr ibn al-‘Áṣ as-Sahmí (c. 585–664) was the Arab commander who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt and served as its governor in 640–646 and 658–664. He conquered most of Palestine, to which he was appointed governor, and led the Arabs to decisive victories over the Byzantines in 634 and 636. He was a contemporary of Muḥammad and one of the Ṣaḥába.
As’ilah wa Ajwiba As’ilah wa Ajwiba Questions and Answers
Asab, A’sab ‘Aṣab, pl. A‘ṣáb nerve; sinew
Asabi ‘Aṣabí sinewy, nerved, nervy; nervous, neural, nerve-, neuro-, neur- (in compounds); nervous, high-strung
Asadabad (Asad-Abad) Asadábád city (34.781937, 48.122466) in Hamadan Province, 130 km by road from Kirmánsháh.
Asad, Usud, Usd Asad, pl. Usud, Usd, Usúd, Ásád lion; Leo (astron.)
Asadu’llah Asadu’lláh Lion of God. Compound proper name
Asadu’llah-i-Isfahani Asadu’lláh-i-Iṣfahání Mírzá Asadu’lláh-i-Iṣfahání (c. 1826–1930) the emissary who took the remains of the Báb from Írán to the Holy Land. He married a sister of Munírih Khánum (Ḍiyá’ Khánum). Daughter Faraḥángíz Khánum (see Faraḥángíz entry) and son Dr Amínu’lláh (sometimes Amín, or Ameen Ullah Fareed) Faríd (1882–1953), known in Persian as Mírzá Amínu’lláh Asadu’lláh). Mírzá Asadu’lláh-i-Iṣfahání was sent (1900–1902) to consolidate the American community and to address the effects of Kheiralla’s disaffection. Shortly after (1914?), Mírzá Asadu’lláh and his son were expelled from the Faith.
Asadu’llah-i-Mazandarani Asadu’lláh-i-Mázandarání Mírzá Asadu’lláh Fáḍil Mázandarání (c. 1880–1957) was a prominent Iranian Bahá’í scholar in Írán
Asadu’llah-i-Sabbagh Asadu’lláh-i-Ṣabbágh (GPB 297)
Asadu’llah-i-zadah Asadu’lláh-i-Zádih, Ḥusayn Ḥusayn Asadu’lláh-i-zádah
Asadyari Asadyárí, ‘Abdu’l-‘Alí
Asaf ad-Dawla, Asafu’d-Dawla Áṣaf ad-Dawla, Áṣafu’d-Dawla (1748–1797) was the Nawab wazir of Oudh (Awudh, r. 1775–1797)
Asala, Asalatan Aṣála(t) firmness, steadfastness, strength of character; nobility of descent, purity of origin (originality); aṣálatan immediately, directly, personally
Asalat-i-Naw’ Aṣálat-i-Naw‘ originality of species
Asara, ‘Asr ‘Aṣara (‘Aṣr) to press (out), squeeze (out) (something, e.g., grapes, olives, etc.); to wring (something, especially wet clothes); to compress (something). See ‘Aṣr listing for other Forms.
Asaran Ásárán Pers. small village (35.854657, 53.293100) in Semnan Province
Asas, Usus, Asasiyyun Asás, pl. Usus, Asásiyyún foundation (hence also principle), fundament, groundwork, ground, basis, pedestal; keynote;—pl. Asásiyyún people of principle. The term “assassin” likely has roots in ḥashsháshín (ḥashísh (hashish) smokers or users), a mispronunciation of the original Asásiyyún, but not a mispronunciation of Asásiyyín. The term assassin originally referred to the methods of political control exercised by the Asásiyún, and it can be seen how it became “assassin” in several languages to describe similar activities anywhere. The Asásiyún were medieval Nizárí (an-Nizáriyyún) Ismailis (Ismá‘íliyyún).
Asasi, Asasiyat, Asasiyyin Asásí, pl. Asásíyát, Asásiyyín fundamental, basic; elementary; essential; principal, chief, main
Asaturiyan Marcard Ásátúriyán Márcárd (Dr Marcard Assadorian)
Asbah, Asbahi Aṣbaḥ Pers. of a handsome face; a tearing lion; red-coloured; name of a king of Yemen
Asbahi Aṣbaḥí (Pers. of Ar. influence) referring to King Aṣbaḥ of Yemen
Asbaq Asbaq earlier, antecedent; preceding, previous, prior; former, ex-; foremost, more or most excellent; surpassing; previous; past times
Asdaq Aṣdaq truer, sincerer. ibn-i-Aṣdaq (Mírzá ‘Alí-Muḥammad, 1850–1928). Designated by Bahá’u’lláh as Shahíd ibn-i-Shahíh (Martyr, son of the Martyr). Son of Mullá Ṣádiq-i-Khurásání (formerly known as Muqaddas)—both named a Hand of the Cause of God.
Asdaqi Aṣdaqí
Asdiqa’ al-Iman Aṣdiqá’ al-Ímán friends of the faith
Asfal, Sufla (Sofla), Asafil Asfal, fem. Suflá, pl. Asáfil lower; lowest; lower or lowest part, bottom
Asfiya’, ‘Asfiyyih Aṣfiyá’, Pers. Aṣfiyyih Druse village of ‘Isfiya, east side Mt Carmel. See Ṣafíy
Asghar, Sughra, Asaghir Aṣghar, fem. Ṣughra, pl. m. Aṣághir smaller, younger [Comparative form of ṣaghíra (to belittle)]. Ṣughra is the name of a half-sister of Bahá’u’lláh and mother of ‘Alí Akbar Furútan.
Asgharzada (Asgharzadeh, Asghar zadih) Aṣgharzáda, Aṣghar Záda, Aṣgharzádih Pers. surname, e.g. Ḍíyá’u’lláh Aṣgharzádih
Ash -ash Pers. (added to a noun ending in soft ه he, i.e. not sounded), his, her
Ash Ásh Pers. meat, victuals, viands, soup, broth, gruel, pottage; drinking, a drinker
Ash-i-kashk Ásh-i-kashk (MF p. 68) barley soup with whey
Ash’ar Ash‘ar hairy, hirsute, long-haired, shaggy
Ash’ari Ash‘arí Abú al-Ḥasan ‘Alí ibn Ismá‘íl ibn Isḥáq al-Ash‘arí (c. 874—936)
Ash’ariyya, ‘Asha’ira al-‘Ash‘aríyya(h) or al-‘Ashá‘ira(h) Ash‘arism or Ash‘ari theology—a foremost theological school of Sunni Islam founded by Abú al-Ḥasan ‘Alí ibn Ismá‘íl ibn Isḥáq al-Ash‘arí (873–4 to 935–6). Followers: Ash‘arites. See Sha‘r and Kayfa.
Ash’ath Ash‘ath Pers. one whose hair is dishevelled and soiled with dust
Ashab al-Aykah Aṣḥáb al-Aykah “Companions of the Wood”, a name given to the Midianites, since they used to worship a large tree.
Ashab al-Kahf Aṣḥáb al-Kahf “Companions of the cave”, a Christian and Islamic tradition (Qur’án 18:9–26) that tells the story of the ‘Seven Sleepers’ (unknown number of youths according to Qur’án 18:22) who hide in a cave near a city around CE 250 to escape religious persecution and to emerge 300 years later. Identified as a cave 1 km east of Ephesus by Christians, and as a south facing (Qur’án 18:17) cave 7 km SE of Amman (31.898860, 35.973800) by Muslims. See ṣáḥib.
Ashab, Sahba’, Suhb Aṣhab, f. Ṣahbá’, pl. Ṣuhb reddish; wine
Ashar Ashar liveliness, high spirits, exuberance; wildness; insolence, impertinence
Ashr, Ashra, Ashar, ‘Asharha, ‘Asarat ‘Ashr, ‘Ashra[h or t] (fem. ‘Ashar, ‘Ashara[h or t], pl. ‘Asharát) ten; al-‘Ashara the first ten days of Muḥarram;—pl. decimal numbers, some tens, tens (of); decades
Ashchi Áshchí cook, maker of broth.  Áqá Ḥusayn-i-Áshchí.  See Ásh
Ashhadu Ashhadu I bear witness, I testify, I declare. See Sháhid.
Ashhal, Shahla Ashhal, fem. Shahlá having bluish-black eyes.  (Pers. with Ar. influence) Shahlá, a black eye inclined to red, and having a sly, deceitful, sinister look; a dark-grey-eyed woman
Ashiq, ‘Ashiqa ‘Ashiq, fem. ‘Ashiqa[h or t to love passionately (someone, something), be passionately in love (with someone, with something)
Ashiq, Ushshaq, Awashiq (Avashiq) ‘Áshiq, pl. ‘Ushsháq, ‘Awáshiq lover; fancier, fan;—pl. knucklebone; (game of) knucklebones. Fem. ‘Áshiqa[h or t]. ‘Aváshiq is a village in the Diyálá Valley east of Baghdád.
Ashjari Ashjárí ‘Azízu’lláh Ashjárí
Ashmunin, Ushmunin, Ushmunayn Ashmúnín (Ushmúnayn) al-Ashmúnín (Ashmunein, derived from a Coptic form of the original Egyptian) is a town on the west bank of the Nile River 255 km south of Cairo. The town surrounds the remains of the major ancient city of Hermopolis Magna (“City of Hermes”).
Ashraf, Sharfa’ Ashraf, fem. Sharfá’ more or most noble; eminent; a person of noble birth, nobleman; gentleman. City in Írán, see Bihshahr. ‘Alí Ashraf Garden—a large garden on the west side of the Riḍván Garden (SE east of ‘Akká), with the Firdaws (Paradise) Garden to its north. Original owner Mullá Abú-Ṭálib. ‘Alí-Ashraf, his son, later donated it to the Faith. Áqá Siyyid Ashraf-i-Zanjání (mother: Umm-i-Ashraf).
Ashrafi Ashrafí Pers. a gold coin. Sháh Ashraf Hútak (c. 1700–c. 1730; r. 1725–1729) issued gold coins that were named after him.
Ashtiyan (Ashtian) Áshtiyán Pers. capital city of Áshtiyán County, Markazí Province, Írán. 81 km WSW of Qum.
Ashu (Asho) Ashu Pers. heavenly Ashu Zarathushtra
Ashura ‘Áshúrá’, ‘Ashúrá’, Pers. also ‘Áshúrá name of a voluntary fast day on the tenth day of the Muslim month Muḥarram—Shí‘ih Muslims observe the first 10 days of the month as a period of mourning for the Imáms, ending with the Yawm ‘Áshúrá’ (on the 10th day), the commemoration of the martyrdom of the Imám Ḥusayn at Karbilá
Ashyab, Shaiba, Shib Ashyab, fem. Shaibá, pl. Shíb Ar. white, grey (hair); white-haired, grey-haired (person); old, aged; old man.
Asi, Asiyih Ásí, fem. Ásíyih Pers. Melancholy, solicitous, sorrowful; a physician, surgeon. Ásíyih is the name of Pharaoh’s daughter who rescued Moses. See Navváb, title given to Bahá’u’lláh’s wife (Ásíyih Khánum)
Asif, ‘Asifa, ‘Awasif ‘Áṣif, fem. ‘Áṣifa[h or t], pl. ‘Awáṣi violent wind, gale, tempest, storm, hurricane
Asifu’d-Dawla, Asifu’d-Dawlih ‘Áṣifu’d-Dawla (Pers. ‘Áṣifu’d-Dawlih) “Storm of the State” or “Storm of the Dynasty”
Asir, Aseer ‘Asír difficult, hard, harsh, rough; ‘Asír is a mountainous province in SW Arabia, between the Hejaz and Yemen, capital city is Abhá.
Asiya Ásiyá Asia
Asiyah (Asiyih, Asiya) Ásiyah (آسیه) (Ar.), Ásíya (Pers.) Ásiya, Pharaoh’s wife who educated Moses.
Ásíyih Khánum (1820–1886, née Ásíyih Yalrúdí) was the wife of Bahá’u’lláh and the mother of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. She is also know also known by her titles of Navváb, the Most Exalted Leaf, Búyúk Khánum or Ḥaḍrat-i-Khánum.
Askar, Asakir ‘Askar, pl. ‘Asákir army, host, troops
Askari ‘Askarí, pl. ‘Askariyún, ‘Asákir military, army-(in compounds);—(pl. al-‘askariyún) the military;—(pl. ‘asákir) soldier; private (military); policeman;—pl. enlisted men, ranks. ‘Alí al-Hádí (the tenth Imám) had the title al-‘Askarí (military) due to the town (Sámarrá) he had to live in was a military camp). The hidden Imám Mahdí (twelfth), Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-‘Askarí (disappeared CE 874).
Asl-i-Qullu’l-Khayr Aṣl-i-Qullu’l-Khayr “Words of Wisdom”, Tablet by Bahá’u’lláh, published in Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, pp. 153–7.
Asl, Usul, Asliyan Aṣl, pl. Uṣúl, Pers. Aṣliyán root; trunk (of a tree); origin, source; cause, reason; descent, lineage, stock (especially one of a noble character); foundation, fundament, basis; the origins!;—pl. principles, fundamentals, rudiments, elements (e.g., of a science):—Pers. nobles, gentlemen.
Aslam Aslam (adj. of salím) safer; freer; sounder; healthier (“most peaceful”)
Aslas Aslas more tractable, more pliable, more obedient; more flexible, smoother, more fluent. See salis
Asli, Usuli Aṣlí, pl. Uṣúlí original, primary, primal, initial; genuine, authentic, pure; basic, fundamental, principal, chief, main:—pl. in accordance with the rules, conforming to prevailing principles; traditional, usual; legist.
Asl-i-Kullu’l-Khayr Aṣl-i-Kullu’l-Khayr lit. source of all good. “Words of Wisdom” Tablet by Bahá’u’lláh, published in Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, pp. 153–7.
Asliya, Usuliya Aṣlíya[h or t], pl. Uṣúlíya[h or t] originality; genuineness; nobleness;—pl. fundamentalism (“usulism”). al-Uṣúlíya, the school of jurisprudence that emphasizes the study of uṣúl al-fiqh. In the 19th century, it is almost synonymous with the mujtahids.
Asma’ Allah al-Husna Asmá’ Alláh al-Ḥusná the Most Beautiful Names of God (usually 99, drawn mostly from descriptions of God in the Qur’án)
Asma’u’l-Husna Asmá’u’l-Ḥusná Most Beauteous Names (of God). According to a ḥadíth, Muḥammad said, “Verily there are 99 names of God, and whoever recites them shall enter Paradise.” The traditions also maintain that the “Almighty has a hundredth name, the ‘Most Great Name’, and that whoever calls on God by this Name shall obtain all his desires. Bahá’u’lláh revealed that the Greatest Name (Ism-i-A‘ẓam) is Bahá’.
Asman Ásmán Pers. heaven, the celestial orb; the ceiling of a house; name of the angel of death
Asmar, Samra’, Sumr, Samrawat Asmar, f. Samrá’, pl. Sumr brown; tawny;—pl. Samráwát brown-skinned women
Asqalan, Ashkelon, Ashqelon, Ascalon ‘Asqalán, Heb. Ashkelon a coastal city of Israel, 50 km south of Tel Aviv and 147 km SSW of ‘Akká. See ESW, p. 178.
Asr, ‘Asar, ‘Usur ‘Aṣr, ‘Aṣar, pl. ‘Uṣúr (fem.) afternoon; afternoon prayer (Islamic Law
Asr, A’sur, ‘Usur, A’sar ‘Aṣr, pl. A‘ṣur, ‘Uṣúr, A‘ṣár (act of) pressing (out), squeezing (out); (act of) wringing (out);—pl. age, era, time; period; epoch; afternoon
Asrar-i-Shihadat-i-Imam Asrár-i-Shihádat-i-Imám mysteries of the martyrdom of the Imám. Dar Asrár-i-Shihádat-i-Imám Ḥusayn by Siyyid Káẓim.
Asraru’l-Athar Asráru’l-Áthár The mysteries of the Writings by Fáḍil Mázanarání.
Ast Ast Pers.is (from búdan, to be); he willeth, he seeketh
Ast Ást Pers. praise, commendation
Astaghfiru’llah Astaghfiru’lláh (“I ask pardon of God”), God forgive me! God forbid! (modern colloquialism) not at all; on the contrary. A common response of those considering themselves deeply learned after meeting ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and recognizing themselves as profoundly ignorant.
Astan, Astana (Astane) Ástán, Ástána Pers. the place where shoes are removed; a threshold; lying supine; a king’s court, royal palace; the Ottoman Porte; the tomb of a prophet or saint. Village (36.278167, 54.083907) near Chashma ‘Alí and NW of Dámghán, in Semnan Province.
Astani Ástání Yadu’lláh Ástání
Astar Astar Pers. a mule; a bone; a seed, a kernel
Astarabad (Gurgan, Gurgin or Gorgan) Astarábád (Istarábád) Pers. (astar+ábád, “city of mules”) (“Istarabad”) city (36.842300, 54.433518) near the south eastern corner of the Caspian Sea. Renamed Gúrgán (Gorgán) in 1937.
Astarabadi Astarábádí Mullá Muḥammad Amín bin Muḥammad Sharíf al-Akhbárí Astarábádí was an Iranian theologian and founder or proponent of the conservative (Akhbárí) strand in Twelver Shí‘a Islamic belief, those who favour aḥádíth over fatáwá. He opposed the uṣúlí tendency within the Twelver Shí‘a tradition.
Aswad, Sawda (Sauda), Sud, Sudan Aswad, fem. Sawdá, pl. Súd black; dark-coloured;—pl. súdán a black, Negro
Ata az-Zakata Atá az-Zakáta to give alms
Ata, Ityan, Aty, Ma’ta Atá (Ityán, Aty, Ma’tá(h)) to come, arrive
Ata’, ‘Atiya (‘Ata’iyih), A’tiya, ‘Ata’yat ‘Aṭá’, fem. ‘Aṭíya[h or t] pl. a‘tiya, ‘aṭá’yát, fem. ‘aṭáyá. Gift, present;—pl. ‘Aṭá’yát offer, tender. Pers. fem. ‘aṭa’íyih, “‘aṭa’íyyih”, “ataieh”. ‘Alí Akbar Furútan married ‘Aṭá’íyyih ‘Azíz-Khurásání in 1931.
Ata’u’llah ‘Aṭá’u’lláh Gift of God
Ataba, ‘Atab, A’tab ‘Ataba(h), pl. ‘Atab, A‘táb doorstep, threshold; (door) lintel; also al-‘Ataba(h) al-‘ulyá step, stair; ‘Utbah masc. name
Ataba, ‘Atab, A’tab, ‘Atabat ‘Ataba[h or t], pl. ‘Atab, A‘tab, ‘Atabát a gate, a port; the threshold; the lintel of a door; the round of a ladder, a step; a royal court; anything adverse or disagreeable. Also ‘Ataba[h or t] ‘ulyá, step or stair. Plural: steps, thresholds. “‘Atabát”, the Shi’ite holy shrines in ‘Iráq and the cities where they are located: the tombs of the first six Imams; and the cities of Karbalá’, Najaf, Káẓimayn, and Sámarrá. See al-‘Atabát al-‘Álíyát.
Atabak Atábak Pers. (from atá, a father, and bak, a lord), the lord father (a title given to the governors of Shíráz); a guardian, preceptor, teacher; the prime minister, or vizír; honorary title of an ámir
Atabak-i-A’zam (Atabik-i-A’zam) Atábak-i-A‘ẓam Title of Mírzá ‘Alí-Asghar Khán
Atabat al-‘Ali, Atabat-i-Aliyat al-‘Atabát al-‘Álíyát (Pers. ‘Atabát-i-‘Álíyát) (lit. Supreme Shrines). Bahá’í Shrines of the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh. Applied by Shí‘a Muslims to the cities of Karbalá’, Najaf, Káẓimayn and Sámarrá. Also known as al-‘Atabát al-Muqaddasa (“holy doorsteps”).
Ataturk Atatürk Turkish (Ata + türk, father of the turks) honorific surname given to Muṣṭafá Kemál Páshá
Athar Aṭhar Pers. more or most pure
Athar Athar, pl. Áthár track, trace, vestige; sign, mark; touch; impression, effect, action, influence (on); tradition (relating the deeds and utterances of Muḥammad and his Companions); work (of art, especially of literature); ancient monument;—pl. also: antiquities; remnants, vestiges; (religious) relics
Athar-i Qalam-i A’la Athar-i-Qalam-i-A‘la “Traces of the Most High Pen”. Collected Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh in Arabic and Persian
Athari Atharí, Áthárí archaeologic(al); archaeologist; old, ancient, antique
Athim, Athama, Uthama’ Áthim, pl. Athama, Athím, Uthamá’ sinful, criminal, wicked, evil; sinner
Athir Athír marking; marked, chosen, selected;—(from Greek αίθήρ) sky, ether; fire as an element. Pers. the sphere of fire; the sun; tears
Athiriy Athíriy ethereal
Atifi ‘Áṭifí sentimental; emotional; emotive, feeling; tender, affectionate, loving
Atiq ‘Atíq old, ancient, antique; matured, mellowed, aged (wine); of ancient tradition, long-standing; antiquated, outmoded, obsolete; free, emancipated (slave); noble
Atir, ‘Atira ‘Aṭir, fem. ‘Aṭira[t] sweet-smelling, fragrant, aromatic; perfumed, scented
Atish Átish Pers. fire; light, splendour; rage; levity, fickleness; valour, value, dignity; dearness, scarceness; (metaphorically) the Devil; a courageous man, bold, brave; a lover; fire of Jove; desire, appetite, greed; digestive heat; sulphur. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá said Marzieh Gale had átish and namak.  Arches of the years, p. 87.
Atish-Parast (Atishparast, Atishparastan) Átish-Parast, pl. Átish-Parastán fire-worshippers
Atiya, ‘Ataya ‘Aṭíya(h or t), pl. ‘Aṭáyá Pers. also ‘Atíyya(h) gift, present
Atlit (Athlit) ‘Atlít Hebrew. Atlit is a coastal town 14 km south of Haifa. It was a Crusader outpost until 1291. The ruins of the Crusader Château Pèlerin or Atlit Castle (1218–1291) are 1.5 km to the north on a small peninsula.
Atqan Atqan more perfect, more thorough
Attar, ‘Attara ‘Aṭṭár, fem. ‘Aṭṭára[h or t] 1. perfumer, perfume vendor; druggist; 2. sweet-smelling, fragrant, aromatic. From the form II root عطّر. Abú Ḥamíd bin Abú Bakr Ibráhím (c. 1145–c. 1221), better known by his pen-names Faríd ud-Dín and ‘Aṭṭár (apothecary), was a 12th-century Persian poet, theoretician of Sufism, and hagiographer from Níshápur who had an immense and lasting influence on Persian poetry and Sufism. Manṭiq-uṭ-Ṭayr (“The Conference of the Birds”) and Iláhí-Náma (“The Book of Divine”) are among his most famous works.
Attari ‘Aṭṭárí of or relating to a druggist; the business of a perfumer or druggist
Atyab, Atyaban, Atayib Aṭyab, dual Aṭyabán, pl. Aṭáyib better, best, more or most sweet, fragrant, delicate, pleasant, delightful;—(dual) the two delights, Ceres (goddess of agriculture) and Venus (goddess of love), or youth and gay spirits;—pl. the best parts (of something); pleasures, comforts, amenities; delicacies, dainties. See ṭúbá
Aw (Au) Aw or (with following subjunctive) unless, except that
Awara (Awarah, Avarih, Avareh) Áwára (Áwárih, Ávárih) Pers. (آوراه) (“Awárih”) an account-book; computation; certainty, assuredness; lost, annihilated; ruined; scattered; destitute of name or character; an exile, outcast, vagabond, vagrant, wanderer, straggler, immigrant; iron filings; oppression, injustice; bane, ruin, desolation. For Arabic, see Ṭaríq. See also Áyatí.
Awasta (Avesta) Awastá Pers. the sacred books of Zoroaster.
Awf (Auf) ‘Awf flying round anything (as birds round a watering-place or carcase); state, condition; work, business; a guest; good fortune, happiness; one who takes care of his family
Awih (Avih, Aveh, Awah) Áwih villages in the provinces of Fárs, Markazí and Qazvín (26 km SSE Sávih (Sáveh) and 45 km NW of Qum).
Awin Áwín Áwín Zindán (Evin Prison, Ṭihrán)
Awj (“Auj”), Awji Awj noun. highest point, acme, pinnacle; culmination, climax; apogee (astron.); peak (fig.; of power. of fame). Adj. Awjí
Awn (‘Aun), A’wan ‘Awn, pl. A‘wán being middle-aged (a woman); helping, assisting; aid, assistance, succour, help; an aider, helper, defender, protector; an ally; a servant;—‘awni iláhí, Divine aid. Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Mu‘ín ibn ‘Awn (1767–1858), was Sharíf and Imára (Emir) of Mecca from 1827–1836, 1840–1851 and 1856–1858. The Báb was in Mecca on Friday 20 December 1844 (Islamic Friday 10 Dhu’l-Ḥijjah AH 1260), hence Ḥajj-i-Akbar, fulfilling a ḥadíth for the appearance of the Qá’im, in this case, a Friday in both calendars!
Awrang (Aurang) Awrang Pers. a throne; wisdom, understanding; beauty, gracefulness; life; a manufacturing village; fraud, deceit; mirth; a worm which eats into wood; a line whereon things are hung to dry; glory, honour; a man’s name; (metaphorically) heaven. A low mountain near the village of Tákur, in the province of Núr, Persia, the summer residence of Bahá’u’lláh.
Awraq-i-Nariyyih Awráq-i-Náríyyih Pers. form “the Infernal Letters” See waraq (paper) and nárí
Aws (Aus) Aws giving in exchange or return, requiting, repaying; a gift; name of an Arab tribe (Banú Aws)
Awsa’ (Ausa’) Awsa‘ wider, larger, roomier, more spacious
Awsat (“Ausat”), Awasit, Wusta, Wusat Awsaṭ, pl. Awsaṭ middle, central; the middle finger
Awtad Awtád pegs or tent stakes. See Watad/Autád
Awwal, Ula, Awwalun, Awa’il Awwal, f. Úlá, pl. m. Awwalún, Awá’il first; foremost, most important, principal, chief, main; first part, beginning; (with definite article also) earlier, previous, former. al-úlá “pre-existence”—ad-dunyá (earthly life) and al-ákhira (afterlife), pl. also Awwalín
Awwam ‘Awwám good swimmer. az-Zubayr ibn al-‘Awwám ibn Khuwaylid (594–656), was one of the companions of Muḥammad and Khadíjah’s nephew.
Ay Ay that is (to say), i.e.; namely, to wit
Aya (Ayih), Ay, Ayat Áya(h or t), collective Áy, pl. Áyát sign, token, mark; miracle; wonder, marvel, prodigy; model, exemplar, paragon, masterpiece. Commonly used to refer to each of the 6,236 verses in the Qur’án (6,348 áyát if all the Bismi’lláh [no plural] verses are included). Muslims regard each áya of the Qur’án as a sign from Alláh. (The Bahá’í Proofs).
Aya Sufiya (Sofiya) Ayá Ṣúfiyá (Ayá Ṣófiyá) Greek αγία σοφία, agia sofiya, “Holy wisdom”. English Hagia Sophia. Turkish based on the Greek sound: Ayasofya or Aya Sofya). Ar. from Greek Ayá Ṣúfiyá, but translated as al-Ḥikmat al-Muqadasa. The first St. Sophia (360–404) was a Christian cathedral built by Constantine the Great. It was largely destroyed during riots in 404. A second church (415–532) was destroyed by fire. in 532 Construction of the present structure was started that same year by Justinian I. Converted to become one of the most famous Muslim mosques (1453–1935), a museum (1935–2020), and now a mosque again.
Ayati Áyatí Mírzá ‘Abdu’l-Ḥusayn Áyatí Taftí (1871–1953), titled Ra’ís al-Muballighín (“chief of missionaries”) and Ávárih (wanderer) by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, was a prominent Iranian Bahá’í. Author of al-Kawákib ad-Durríya fí Ma’áthir al-Bahá’íya (“The Pearly Stars in the Achievements of the Bahá’í Faith”). After the death of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá he pressed for the election of the UHJ in the hope of becoming a member. When he failed, he withdrew from the Bahá’í Faith and began to publicly denounce it and published Kashfu’l-Ḥiyal (Uncovering of Trickery).
Ayatu’l-Kursi Áyatu’l-Kursí “Verse of the throne”, Qur’án 2:255
Ayatu’llah Áyatu’lláh “sign of God” A senior Shí‘ih religious leader in Írán (title origin 19th century) and a title given to Shoghi Effendi by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in His Will and Testament
Ayatu’llah al-‘Uzma Áyatu’lláh al-‘Uẓmá the greatest sign of God, “Grand Ayatu’llah”, a Marji‘ at-taqlíd (“source to follow”) or Marji‘ ad-Díní (“religious reference”). See a‘ẓam or ‘uẓm.
Ayatu’llah-i-Khurasani Áyatu’lláh-i-Khurásání (MF)
Ayaz Áyáz and Ayáz Pers. name of a favourite of Sulṭán Maḥmúd of Ghaznah; name of one of the Emirs of Sulṭán Ibrahím bin Mas‘úd bin Maḥmúd Ghaznawí.
Aydil-Khani Aydil-Khání
Ayk (Aik), Aykatun Ayk, Ayka(h or t), pl. Aykatún (collective; nomen unitatis ة) thicket, jungle, a forest, copse, grove, thicket, wood (أيكةة).—pl. the dwellers of woods (an epithet for the people of Midian (Midianites) to whom the prophet Shu‘ayb was sent).
Ayman (Aiman) Ayman, fem. Yumná right-hand, right, on the right; lucky
Ayn (‘Ain), ‘Aynan, ‘Uyun, A’yun ‘Ayn fem., ‘Aynán (pl. ‘Uyún, A‘yun, A‘yán) eye; evil eye; spring, source, fountainhead (of water); scout, reconnoiterer; hole; mesh; flower, choice, prime (of something);—(pl. a‘yán) an eminent, important man, used especially in plural: people of distinction, important people, leading personalities, leaders, notables, prominent persons; substances, essences; self, individuality;—chattel, object of material value, (corporeal or personal) property, personality, capital asset (Islamic Law);—ready money, cash; name of the letter ع (18th in Arabic and 21st in Persian alphabets—see hijá’í). A‘yán can also be used to mean archetypes or ideal forms in the Platonic sense. The Bahá’í Faith transcripts an ‘Ayn as a left single quotation mark ⟨‘⟩ [U+2108]. Two internationally accepted forms are a Greek rough breathing mark ⟨ʻ⟩ [U+02BB] and a modifier letter left half ring ⟨ʿ⟩ [U+02BF]—see the Special characters section.
Ayn-‘Ayn (E. E.) ‘Ayn-‘Ayn short form for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá ‘Abbás
Ayni, ‘Aini ‘Ayní Pers. (Ar. influence) of or relating to the eye; genuine, essential, real
Aynu’l-Baqar (Aynu’l-Baghar) ‘Aynu’l-Baqar an ancient spring (“The spring of the cow”) about half-way between the moat around ‘Akká and Tel ‘Akká
Aynu’llah (‘Ainullah) ‘Aynu’lláh Eye of God. Brothers Sulaymán and Raḥmán ‘Aynu’lláhí, guards in the Disciplinary Forces (NAFA).
Aynu’s-Sitt ‘Aynu’s-Sitt “Spring of the woman”—about 200 metres south of ‘Aynu’l-Baqar
Ayyam-i-Ha Ayyám-i-Há “Days of Há” Intercalary days
Ayyam-i-Shidad Ayyám-i-Shidád “Days of stress”—the supreme crisis in Adrianople, engineered by the diabolical Siyyid Muḥammad (GPB 163)
Ayyub (Aiyub) Ayyúb Job (the prophet)
Ayyubiyun al-Ayyúbíyún Ayyubid dynasty, the Ayubites
Az Áz Pers. desire, love, passion, lust; avidity, avarice, covetousness; (at the end of compounds) greedy; name of a city.
Az Az Pers. from; of; for; by; out of; with; belonging to; by means of; in
Az-Bagh-i-Ilahi Az-Bágh-i-Iláhí “From the Garden of Holiness” by Bahá’u’lláh
Azad Ázád Pers. free, independent, liberated, delivered, manumitted, exempted; fault, less; solitary, lonely; a kind of faqír, or devotee; a lily; a cypress; a fresh date; an evergreen; a delicious kind of fish
Azad Bun (Azad Bon) Ázád Bun Pers. a village (36.662395, 52.963961) 29 km NE Babol and 14 km NW of Sárí. Burial place of Ḥaydar, brother of Quddús.
Azadi Ázádí Pers. liberty; freedom from worldly cares; praise, thanksgiving
Azal Azal Pers. eternity (without beginning). cf. abad.
Azali Azalí, pl. Azálál Pers. existing from all eternity, eternal; God; a follower of Mírzá Yaḥyá based on his assumed title of “Ṣubḥ-i-Azal”.
Azaliya Azalíya(t) life everlasting, eternity
Azamat, ‘Azamut ‘Azamat, ‘Azamút, pl. ‘Azamát Pers. magnitude, magnificence, pride, pomp, grandeur; (met.) a grandee.
Azamatu’llah ‘Aẓamatu’lláh Magnificence of God
Azamut ‘Aẓamút Ar. greatness, magnitude, grandeur, dominion
Azan Áẓán or Aẓán (also Adhán) Pers. announcing, giving notice; the signal for summoning to prayers, by the Mu’aẓẓin or crier, from the minarets or towers of the mosques; listening to
Azar Ázar Muslim name for Abraham’s father, or, according to others, his uncle’s, that of his father being Tárikh. See Táraḥ and Tárakh.
Azariqa Azáriqa(h) al-Azáriqah were an extremist branch of al-Khárijíyat, who followed the leadership of Náfi‘ ibn al-Azraq. Adherents participated in armed struggles against the rulers of the Umayyad Caliphate, declared those who avoided this duty infidels, and allowed them to be murdered. The Azraqites did not extend the principle of killing “apostates” to Christians and Jews, since they believed that they did not betray the teachings of the prophets Jesus and Moses.
Azghand Azghand village (35.259502, 58.800555; 130 km SW Mashhad) and rural district
Azhar Aẓhar more distinct, more manifest, clearer
Azhar, Zahra, Zahra’i Azhar, fem. Zahrá shining, luminous, radiant, brilliant; bright. al-Azhar University, Cairo. Zahrá ehite splendid, clear, serene, bright, shining, beautiful, flourishing, blooming. Comparative form zahrá’ “bright”. Fátima bin Muhammad is commonly known as Fáṭimah az-Zahrá’, the “radiant one”. Surname Zahrá’í a radiant one, a dazzling beauty. See Zahra.
Azib ‘Ázib unmarried; distant pasture; a camel which feeds abroad all night; name of a mountain. Bará’ ibn ‘Ázib of the Anṣár was a companion of Muḥammad and narrator of ḥadíth. He fought beside Muḥammad in 15. In 645, during the caliphate of ‘Uthmán, he was made governor of ar-Ray (in Persia). He died in 690.
Azim (Azzaam) ‘Azím applying the mind to, undertaking; determined to accomplish; a powerful enemy
Azim-i-Khu’i ‘Aẓím-i-Khu’í
Azim-i-Tafrishi ‘Aẓím-i-Tafríshí (MF)
Azim, Uzama, Izam, Aza’im ‘Aẓím, pl. ‘Uẓamá, ‘Iẓám, ‘Aẓá’im great, big, large; strong, powerful, mighty; significant, important; grand, grandiose, imposing, stately, magnificent; lofty, exalted, august, sublime, splendid, gorgeous, glorious, superb; huge, vast, prodigious, enormous, tremendous, immense, stupendous; hard, distressing, gruesome, trying, oppressive (see A‘ẓam) Mullá Shaykh ‘Alí of Khurásán was given the name ‘Aẓím by the Báb. The Great One (Superlative form of ‘aẓuma).
Azima, ‘Aza’im ‘Azíma(h or t), pl. ‘Azá’im determination, firm will, firm intention;—pl. resolution (to do something), decision; incantation; spell
Aziz, A’izza’, A’izza ‘Azíz, pl. A‘izzá’, A‘izza[h or t] mighty, powerful, respected, distinguished, notable; strong; noble, esteemed, venerable, august; honorable; rare, scarce, scarcely to be found; difficult, hard (for); precious, costly, valuable; dear, beloved (to), cherished, valued (by); friend; ruler, overlord
Aziz Khan-i-Sardar ‘Azíz Khán-i-Sardár he killed Ṭáhirih
Azizi ‘Azízí (Ar. element) greatness, valuableness
Azizu’llah ‘Azízu’lláh “Dear God”. ‘Azízu’lláh Khán Bahádur (Unfolding Destiny, p. 44)
Azm ‘Azm determination, firm will, firm intention, decision, resolution; energy
Azm, A’zum, ‘Izam ‘Aẓm, pl. A‘ẓum, ‘Iẓám bone
Azraq, Zarqa’, Zurq Azraq, fem. Zarqá’, pl. Zurq blue; blue eyed; heaven, the sky. al-Azraq ash-Shámí, a Damascene blue dye, also name of a Syrian notorious for causing grave suffering to the captive family of Imám Ḥusayn after the tragedy of Karbila.
Azuma, Izam, Azama ‘Aẓuma, ‘Iẓam, ‘Aẓáma to be or become great, big, large, grand, grandiose, magnificent, imposing, powerful, or mighty; etc.
Azurdigan (Azordegan, Azordigan) Ázúrdigán Pers. name
Azza, Izz, Azaza ‘Azza (‘Izz, ‘Izza ‘Azáza) to be or become strong, powerful, respected; etc.
Top -s ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
• Arabic and Persian   →   · Letters, transcription & abjad values, · ‘Ayn & hamza consonants, · Capitalisations, · Elative word forms, · Hybrid words/names, · Numbers, · Plurals (Arabic, Persian) · Underdots, · Underscores, · Vowel Sounds
• Bahá’í   →   · Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh, · Bearers of the throne of God (8), · Hands of the Cause of God, · Letters of the Living, · Principles, · Shrine of the Báb, · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh
• Calendars (days, months)   →   · Badí‘-Bahá’í days, months, years (Days, Months, Years), · Gregorian days, months, · Islamic months, · Persian Solar Months
• Caliphs (first 28 caliphs)   →   · The Rightly-guided, · The Umayyad, · The Abbaside.
• Imams   →   · Twelfth Imám, · Deputies of the 12th Imám
• Twelfth Imám—occultation and return
• Meccan pilgrim meeting points
• Qur’án suras
• Qur’anic “names” of God
• Special characters   →   · Non-printing characters, · Unusual characters,
• Traditional Qur’anic/Ṣúfí concepts
• Microsoft Word
Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
B
Ba name of the second Arabic letter, b. This “lying down” letter (Persian can be transcripted as bih) can be used to represent humility.
Ba’ata (ba’t) Ba‘ata (Ba‘t) to send, send out, dispatch; to forward; to delegate; to emit; to evoke, arouse, call forth, awaken; to stir up, provoke, bring on; to revive, resuscitate; to resurrect (someone from death); to incite, induce, instigate; to cause (something; e.g., astonishment)
Ba’da Ba‘da (preposition) after; in addition to, beside; aside from
Ba’is, Bu’asa’ (Buasa, Buassa) Ba’ís, pl. Bu’asá’ miserable, wretched
Ba’ith, Bawa’ith Bá‘ith, pl. Bawá‘ith incentive, inducement, motive, spur, reason, cause, occasion. Root is ba‘ata, so can also mean to resurrect from death.
Ba’qubah, Baqubah, Baquba, Baqouba Ba‘qúbah city 51 km NNE of Baghdád, on the Diyálá River. Bahá’u’lláh passed here en route to Baghdád.
Ba’th, Bu’uth Ba‘th, pl. Bu‘úth sending out, emission, dispatching, delegation, etc.; resurrection;—pl. delegations, deputations. Yawm al-Ba‘th Day of Resurrection (from the dead)
Ba’tha (Bi’tha), Ba’atat Ba‘tha[h or t], pl. Ba‘athát delegation, deputation, mission; expedition; student exchange; group of exchange students; revival, rebirth, renaissance, rise. The Báb is said to calculate the beginning of the Islamic revelation from the year Ba‘tha (the Call in CE 612) instead of the year of the Hijra (CE 622) when Muḥammad migrated from Mecca to Medina.
Bab-i-Amin Báb-i-Amín Shrine of the Báb door—centre NW side
Bab-i-Ashraf Báb-i-Ashraf Shrine of the Báb door—centre NE side (Tomb ‘Abdu’l-Bahá)
Bab-i-Bala Báb-i-Bálá Shrine of the Báb door—centre SE side
Bab-i-Fadl Báb-i-Faḍl Shrine of the Báb door—northern end NW side
Bab-i-Giachery Báb-i-Giachery Shrine of the Báb door—southern end NW side
Bab-i-Ioas Báb-i-Ioas Shrine of the Báb octagon door—SW side
Bab-i-Karim Báb-i-Karím Shrine of the Báb door—northern end SE side
Bab-i-Makhsus Báb-i-Makhṣúṣ Special or specific gate
Bab-i-Maxwell Báb-i-Maxwell Shrine of the Báb door—centre SW side
Bab-i-Qassabchi Báb-i-Qaṣṣábchí Shrine of the Báb door—southern end, SE side
Bab, Babayn (Babain), Abwab, Abvab Báb, dual Bábayn, pl. Abwáb, Pers. Abváb door; gate; opening, gateway; entrance; chapter, section, column, rubric; group, class, category; field, domain (figurative). Title assumed by Siyyid Mírzá ‘Alí Muḥammad (al-Báb, the Gate; born 1 Muḥarram 1235, 20 October 1819; executed 27 Sha‘bán 1266, 9 July 1850 in the Tabriz barrack square) after the declaration of His Mission in Shíráz two hours and eleven minutes after sunset on 22 May 1844. Father was Mírzá Muḥammad-Riḍá, who died (1828) while he was still an infant. House location in Shíráz, see Baytu’l-Mahdí. He left to go on pilgrimage to Mecca, arriving in time to perform the sacrifice on Friday 10 Dhu’l-Ḥijjah 1260 (Friday 20 December 1844). Before leaving He addressed a Tablet to the Sharíf of Mecca (Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Mu‘ín, see the ‘Awn entry) to proclaim His advent. He arrived in Medina on 1 Muḥarram 1261 (Friday 10 January 1845), His birthday. From Medina He travelled to Jiddah and sailed back to Búshihr. His wife was Khadíjih-Bagum. Writings: Qayyúmu’l-Asmá’, the Persian and Arabic Bayán, Dalá’il-i-Sab‘ih (“Seven Proofs”) and the Kitáb-i-Asmá’. Second wife, Fáṭimih (sister of Mullá Rajab ‘Alí Qahír and Mullá ‘Alí Muḥammad Siráj), married 6 months in Iṣfahán in 1847; Mírzá Yaḥyá married her for a few days (Bahá’u’lláh was in Kurdistán), on the basis that he was the Báb’s “successor”, then passed her to Siyyid Muḥammad. Some designations of the Báb are: Siyyid-i-Dhikr, Ṭal‘at-i-A‘lá, Siyyid-i-Báb, ‘Abdu’dh-Dhikr, Ḥaḍrat-i-A‘lá, Bábu’lláh, Rabb-i-A‘lá, Nuqṭiy-i-Úlá and Nuqṭiy-i-Bayán. (DB 72).
Baba-Iski Bábá-Iskí Babaeski, 50 km SE Adrianople, Türkiye
Baba-zadih (Babazadih) Bábá-Zádih
Baba, Babawat Bábá, pl. Bábawát, Pers. Bábáyán pope; papa, father, daddy
Babak Bábak Pers. (diminutive of báb), a little father; one who educates; faithful, constant, firm, strong; a turquoise stone; name of a king.
Babi, Babiyun Bábí, pl. Bábíyún (Pers. Bábiyyún) a follower of the Báb. Generally, the hybrid plural Bábís is used.
Babiya, Babiyya, Babigari Bábíya[h or t], Bábiyya[h or t] the Bábí place (Pers. Bábígarí). Name given to the house Quddús asked Mullá Ḥusayn to build in Mashhad. al-Bábíya[h or t] or al-Bábiyya, Babism, or more commonly, the Bábí Faith. Also possible is al-Ímán al-Bábí.
Babr, Bubur Babr, pl. Bubúr (babur, babor, babar and baber) tiger
Babri Babrí of Babr. Babrí Masjid—formerly a famous mosque in Ayodhya, India. See Ẓáhir.
Babu’d-Din Bábu’d-Dín “The Gate of Religion”
Babu’l-Bab, Bab-i-Bab Bábu’l-Báb, Pers. Báb-i-Báb “gate of the Gate”, name given to Mullá Muḥammad-Ḥusayn-i-Bushrú’í (also Janáb-i-Bábu’l-Báb)
Babu’llah Bábu’lláh (“The Gate of God”) (a designation of the Báb)
Babu’llahu’l-A’zam Bábu’lláhu’l-A‘ẓam the Most Great Báb
Babul (Babol), Babil Bábul, Babíl Babel, Babylon, renowned for wine and magic; the planet Jupiter; the East. City (36.538588, 52.676906) in Mazandaran Province, formerly known as Bárfurúsh.
Babulsar, Babul Sar, Mashhad-i-Sar Bábulsar, Bábul Sar Pers. also known as Mashhadsar, Mashhad-i-Sar and Meshed-i-Sar; is a city and capital of Babolsar County, Mazandaran Province, Írán. It is located alongside the Caspian Sea north of Bábul. A busy seaport during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Bad Bád Pers. wind, air, breath
Bad’a, Badi’a, Bidaya Bad’a[h or t], Badí’a[h or t] Bidáya[h or t] (Badáya[h or t]) beginning, start
Bada Badá Ar. to appear, show, become evident, clear, plain or manifest, come to light; to be obvious; to seem good, acceptable, proper (to someone). Form III to show, display, evince, manifest, reveal, declare openly
Bada’ Badá’ Pers. coming in the mind; appearing; beginning. Two meanings: 1. Appearance after hiding involving alteration of the Divine Will or the non-fulfilment of the Divine Will. A Shí‘a concept where God may alter the course of human history as is seen to be fit. 2. Origination of a new idea. The Sunní view on Badá’ is that it is not applicable to God. The Báb made significant reinterpretations of the concept of badá’. 1. Change in divine revelation according to the principle of progressive revelation. 2. Acceptance embodies the recognition of God’s absolute power and authority and thus is the highest sign of spiritual maturity. 3. The concept of magnification (takbír), as the symbol of the completion of the four layers of the divine covenant. One’s faith is complete and will not be subject to alteration or negation if one believes in all four supports or pillars of the covenant. See Gate of the heart, pp. 207–11.
Bada’, Bada’a Badá’ and Badá’a Ar. obscenity, ribaldry, foulness (of language); disgust, loathing, aversion, contempt
Bad-Gir (Badgir), Bad-Gir-Ha Bád-Gír (Bádgír), pl. Bád-Gír-Há Pers. an airy house; a funnel perforated in every part for the admission of air. Also wind catcher, wind tower, or wind scoop—a traditional architectural element used to create cross ventilation and passive cooling in buildings.
Badakhshan Badakhshán “Badakh Mountains”. NE Afghánistán province
Badasht Badasht a village (36.421145, 55.052742) 7 km east of Sháhrúd and 8.5 km SE of Basṭám in Semnan Province, venue of the first Bábí conference.
Badawi, Badw Badawí, pl. Badw Bedouin, nomadic; rural (as distinguished from urban); a Bedouin;—pl. desert, nomads, Bedouins
Badawiya, Badawiyat Badawíya, pl. Badawíyát Bedouin woman, Bedouin girl
Badayi’u’l-Athar Badáyi‘u’l-Áthár “initial impressions”, diary of Mírzá Maḥmúd-i-Zarqání. Given English title of “Travels of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá to the West.
Badhinjan, Baydhinjan (Baidinjan) dhinján and Baydhinján (collective; nomen unitatis ة) pl. -át. eggplant, aubergine
Badi’ Badí‘ unique, marvellous, wonderful, astonishing, surprising, wondrous, rare. Name of the calendar introduced by the Báb in the Kitabu’l-Asmáʼ (“Book of Divine Names) and used by the Bahá’ís. See abda‘ and Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí. Mírzá Badí‘ Khurásání delivered Bahá’u’lláh’s Epistle to Náṣir ad-Dín Sháh Qájár (Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán).
Badi’ al-Jamal, Badi’u’l-Jamal Badí‘ al-Jamál, (Pers.) Badí‘u’l-Jamál of astonishing beauty
Badi’ az-Zaman, Badi’u’z-Zaman Badí‘ az-Zamán, (Pers.) Badí‘u’z-Zamán the wonder of the age
Badi’a (Badi’ih), Bada’i Badí‘a[h or t], pl. Badá’i‘ (fem. of Badí‘) an astonishing, amazing thing, a marvel, a wonder; original creation. Pers. also Badí‘ih or Badí‘yyih?
Badi’i Badí‘í rhetorical
Badi’u’l-Hayat Badí‘u’l-Ḥayát “Wondrous Life” A name give by Bahá’u’lláh to Mírzá Ja‘far.
Badi’u’llah Badí‘u’lláh “wonder of God”. Mírzá Badí‘u’lláh, son of Bahá’u’lláh.
Badil, Badila, Budala’ Badíl, fem. Badíla(h), pl. Budalá’ substitute; stand-in, double (theatrical art); a good, just, religious man; (fem.) serving as a replacement or substitute. Budayl (Badíl) ibn Warqá‘ al-Khuzá‘í was a Meccan Companion of the Prophet and one of the shaykhs of the Khuzá‘ah tribe.
Badkubah (Badkubih), Bad-Kubah Bádkúbah, Bád-Kúbah “Wind-pounded city”. See Bákú
Badkubi’i (Badkoubei Bádkúbi’í Pers. (bád + kúb)
Badr, Budur Badr, pl. Budúr full moon. Badr Ḥunayn is a city 80 km SE of Yanbú‘. Site of the famous Battle of Badr, between the Quraysh led polytheists, and the Muslims under the leadership of Muḥammad, in 624.
Badri Badrí of or relating to the full moon; plenilunar; one who had been present at the battle of Badr; a purse full of money
Badshah, Padshah Bádsháh, Pádsháh Pers. an emperor, sovereign, monarch, king. Also Pád-Sháh (“Padeshah”)
Badw Badw desert; nomads, Bedouins
Bagh gh garden
Bagh Bagh Pers. a ditch; name of an idol; a god (enters into composition of names, as bagh-dád—“god-given”)
Bagh-i-Firdaws gh-i-Firdaws “Garden of Paradise”, agricultural land west of the Riḍván Garden, and east of old Akko (‘Akká)
Bagh-i-Jannat gh-i-Jannat “Garden of Paradise”
Bagh-i-Takht gh-i-Takht “Garden of the Throne” or “Garden of the Level”, in north western Shíráz (29.634226, 52.542910). A garden with a spring that once flowed over 7 terraces to a pool.
Bagh-Misha (Bagh-Mishih, Baghmisheh) Bágh-Mísha Pers. “garden of early man”; eastern district of Tabríz (38.075720, 46.384497)
Bagh-Panba (Bagh-Panbih) Bágh-Panba “cotton garden”. Bagh-Panbeh is an old district of Qum (≈ 2 km NE of city centre; 34.647643, 50.891723)
Baghban-Bashi ghbán-Báshí
Baghban, Bagh-Pira ghbán, Bágh-pírá Pers. a gardener; a vine-dresser
Baghcha ghcha Pers. a little garden, a garden
Baghdad Baghdád the original circular city of Baghdád (about 3 km NW of the present city centre) was built on the site of an earlier village by the Abbasid Caliph al-Manṣúr in CE 762–766 as the official residence of the Abbasid court. Its official name in Abbasid times was Madínat as-Salám (“The City of Peace”), Dár as-Salám (“the Abode of Peace”) or Madínatu’lláh (“the City of God”, because peace is an attribute of God). Baghdád may have derived from ancient Persian Bagh (“God”) and Dád (“gift”), i.e. “Gift of God” or “God-given”. Alternatively, also from Persian, Bagh and Dádh (“founded”), hence city “Founded by God”. In Islamic times, the west bank was known as az-Zawrá and the east bank as ar-Rawḥá’.
Baghdadi, Baghdadyun, Baghdida Baghdádí, pl. Baghdádyún, Baghádida native of Baghdád
Bagum (Begum, Bigum) Bagum (Turk) dame. Feminine form of ‘Big’. A title placed after the name.
Baha Baha Pers. far be it!
Baha Bahá Pers. price, value
Baha’ Bahá’ (بَهاء) beauty, magnificence, splendour; brilliancy; glory or light. Title of Bahá’u’lláh. See Abhá. An Islamic Tradition states the Most great Name (Huwu) consists of four names:,
1. “God” (Alláh),
2. “the Blessed” (Tabáraka),
3. “the Exalted” (Ta‘álá, from the same root as ‘Alí),
4. The hidden name of God—identified by the Báb as hidden in Ta‘álá, i.e. ‘Ali, but the ultimate name is Bahá’ [the Greatest Name]. See Gate of the heart, pp. 105–7. Abjad of Bahá’ (B = 2, h = 5, á = 1, hamza (apostrophe) = 1) is = 9, hence the significance of the number 9 in the Bahá’í Faith. Refer to the Bearers of the throne of God (8) section.
Baha’ ad-Din, Baha’u’d-Din Bahá’ ad-Dín, Bahá’u’d-Dín literally “splendour of the faith”. Bahá’u’lláh was known by the locals in the Haifa ‘Akká area as Bahá’u’d-Dín, a name that was less theologically problematic than Bahá’u’lláh.
Baha’i Holy Year Bahá’í Holy Year 1. Centennial of “year nine” AH 1269/CE 1952 (Revelation received by Bahá’u’lláh about two months after imprisonment in Siyàh Chál)—October 1952 to October 1953. 2. Centennial Ascension Bahá’u’lláh, Riḍván 1992 to Riḍván 1993.
Baha’i Khun Baháʼi Khún Pers. the price of blood (which is paid to the relations of a person killed, as an atonement)
Baha’i, Baha’iyun (Baha’iun) Bahá’í, pl. Bahá’iyún (بهائيين) precious, valuable. “Follower of the Glory” (Bahá’ís is a generally used hybrid plural) A follower of Bahá’u’lláh; a person of light, of enlightenment. al-Ímán al-Bahá’í: Bahá’í Faith. “Bahá’íán” (the Bahá’ís) by Siyyid Muḥammad Báqir Najafí.
Baha’iya, Baha’iyya, Baha’igari Bahá’íya[h or t], Bahá’iyya[h or t] (Pers. Bahá’ígarí) (Ar. pl. Bahá’íyyát). Fem. of Bahá’í “Radiant” or “Full of Glory”. Bahá’íyyih Khánum (also known by Persians as the variant Bahíyyih Khánum), the Greatest Holy Leaf, daughter of Bahá’u’lláh. al-Bahá’íya or al-Bahá’iyya, Baha’ism, the doctrine of practice of the Bahá’ís, or more commonly, the Bahá’í Faith. Also possible is al-Ímán al-Bahá’í.
Baha’u’l-Abha Bahá’u’l-Abhá (previously written as Baha-el-Abha) “The Glory of the All-Glorious” “The Glory of the Most Glorious”
Baha’u’llah Bahá’u’lláh (بهاءاله or بهاءالله) (“The Glory of God”) Title of Mírzá Ḥusayn-‘Alí of Núr, founder of the Bahá’í Faith (1233–1309; 1817–1892). Born (2 Muḥarram 1233; 12 November 1817) in Ṭihrán. His parents were Mírzá ʻAbbás-i-Núrí (or Mírzá Buzurg Núrí) and his second wife Khadíjih Khánum. When Bahá’u’lláh, the Supreme Manifestation for this age, first heard of the Báb’s Revelation prior to His own declaration, He instantly acclaimed its truth, and arose to champion and promote its cause. He became known incorrectly as a “follower” and a “disciple” of the Báb. Wives: Ásíyih Khánum, Fáṭimih Khánum and Gawhar Khánum.
Bahadur, Bahaduran Bahádur, pl. Bahádurán Pers. brave, bold, valiant, courageous, magnanimous, warlike, strong, athletic; a soldier, champion, hero, chevalier, knight, horseman; a title of honour conferred by the Great Mogul and other Eastern potentates, bearing some resemblance to the European title of military knighthood. Abú Sa‘íd Baḥádur—should be Bahádur
Bahar Bahár Pers. spring, beginning of summer; a blossom; orange-flower; a Buddhist temple; an idol; the harem of a prince
Bahar, Baharat Bahár, pl. Bahárát spice; a species of odoriferous herb; anything beautiful and splendid; name of a village 14 km NW Hamadán
Bahari Bahárí Pers. belonging to the spring, vernal
Baharistan Baháristán Pers. spring; vernal blossoms; title of a celebrated work of Ṣúfí, Persian poet, native of Jám, Búshihr Province, Írán
Bahariyih, Bahariyyih, Baharieh Baháríya[h or t], Baháriyya Pers. (Bahariyyih, Bahareh), fem., “someone or something that arises in the spring”. Baháriyyih Rúḥání Ma‘ání.
Bahhaj Bahháj delightful, blissful. Form of the word bahija
Bahij Bahij, Bahíj magnificent, splendid, beautiful; happy, joyous; delightful
Bahija Bahija to be glad, he happy (about), he delighted (at)
Bahir Báhir dazzling, brilliant, splendid, sparkling
Bahira Baḥírá known as Sergius the Monk to the Latin West, was a Syriac or Arab Arian, Nestorian or possibly Gnostic Nasorean monk who, according to Islamic tradition, foretold to the adolescent Muḥammad his future as a prophet. His name derives from the Syriac bḥírá, meaning “tested (by God) and approved”.
Bahiri Báhirí Mihdí Báhirí (martyr)
Bahiy Bahíy beautiful, magnificent, splendid; brilliant, radiant, shining
Bahiy al-Abhá, Bahiyu’l-Abhá Bahíy al-Abhá, Bahíyu’l-Abhá most glorious, magnificent and brilliant. “Ere long God will shine from the face of Bahíyu’l-Abhá with the name of Bahá’, on the Day of Absolute, in the plain of ‘Akká.” (Dalá’il al-‘Irfán, p. 156)
Bahiy, Bahiya Bahíy, fem. Bahíya[h], Pers. Bahiyya beautiful, glorious, magnificent, splendid; brilliant, radiant, shining, gorgeous. Bahíyyih Khánum, “Greatest Holy Leaf” (born Fáṭimih Sulṭán, 1846–1932).
Bahja (Bihja, Bihjat, Behjat, Bahajah) Bahja[h or t] splendour, magnificence, beauty, resplendence; joy, delight; being joyful and glad; being beautiful; beauty, elegance, grace, excellence; gladness, cheerfulness, alacrity; exultation; happiness. The area around Bahjí was known as al-Bahja, “Place of Delight”.
Bahjatu’s-Sudur (Bihjatu’s-Sudur) Bahjatu’ṣ-Ṣudúr, Bihjatu’ṣ-Ṣudúr “Delight of hearts” by Ḥájí Mírzá Ḥaydar-‘Alí. See bahja and ṣadr
Bahji, Bahij Bahjí, Bahíj magnificent, splendid, beautiful; happy, joyous; delightful. That part of the plain of ‘Akká where the Shrine and the Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh are located. See Núr ‘Alá Núr, and “Khammár, ‘Údí” for his doorway inscription.
Bahman Bahman Pers. intelligent, acute, adroit; the supreme intelligence; a cloud pouring rain; (also bahmani barf, “snow”) an avalanche of snow. The 11th month of the Persian solar calendar.
Bahnimir (Behnamir) Bahnimír city (36.667845, 52.761898) near southern coast of the Caspian Sea
Bahr, Bihar, Buhar, Abhar, Abhur Baḥr, pl. Biḥár, Buḥúr, Abḥár, Abḥur sea; large river; a noble, or great man (whose magnanimity or knowledge is comparable to the vastness of the sea); meter (poetry). Dual forms: Baḥrán (“Bahran”) (nominative, not used for the modern nation) and Baḥrayn (“Bahrayn, Bahrain”) (genitive and accusative). al-Baḥrán or al-Baḥrayn: “the two seas or rivers”. Qur’án 25:53 “two bodies of flowing water, one sweet and fresh and the other salty and bitter”. Dual form occurs 5× (figuratively?) in the Qur’án, only once in the nominative case, they do not refer to the modern nation (originally known to the Arabs as “Awwal”) but possibly to the oases of al-Qaṭíf and Ḥadjár (modern al-Ḥasá). The Bahrayn nation consists of 50 natural and 33 artificial islands in the western Persian Gulf. See Yamm and Biḥáru’l-Anwár.
Bahram Bahrám Pers. the planet Mars; name of several kings of Persia, and of other kingdoms in the East (corrupted by the Greeks into Varanes); name of several heroes; the twentieth day of every month. The older form is Vahrám (Middle Persian), also spelled Wahrám, literally meaning “smiting of resistance” or “victorious”.
Bahram Shahi, Bahramshahi Bahrám Sháhí, Bahrámsháhí Rúḥu’lláh Bahrámsháhí
Bahrami Bahrámí Pers. bravery, valour; slaughter
Bahran (Bahrain, Bahrein) Baḥrán Bahrain Islands
Bahrani Baḥrání of the Bahrain Islands. Shaykh ‘Abdu’lláh bin Núru’lláh al-Baḥrání al-Iṣfahání (d. CE 1711) compiled 11 vol. collection of traditions and Islamic history known as ‘Awálim or ‘Awálim al-‘Ulúm (‘Awálim al-‘Ulúm wa al-Ma‘árif wa al-aḥwál min al-Áyát wa al-Akhbar wa al-Aqwál, “The worlds of science, knowledge and conditions of verses, news and sayings”). The books are a revised arrangement and consummation of Bihar al-Anwar, the famous collection of Shí‘a traditions compiled by ‘Allámah Majlisí. The books are also known as Ḥadíth al-Ghadír.
Bahru’l-‘Ulum Baḥru’l-‘Ulúm “sea of all knowledge”
Bahru’l-Iram Baḥru’l-Iram Pers. “calm sea” or Sea of paradise”, name of a lake with a large island (the lake has since been reclaimed; 36.530251, 52.676284) on which a palace was built (Bágh-i-Sháh). Bágh Baḥru’l-Iram, an island garden.
Bahth, Buhuth, Abhath Baḥth, pl. Buḥút, Abḥáth search (for), quest (of); examination, study; research; investigation, exploration; discussion; treatise; (pl.) study, scientific report (on)
Bajastan (Bajestan, Bejestan, Bijestan) Bajastán, Bajistán a city (34.517094, 58.184451; 232 km SW of Mashhad) and capital of Bajestan County, Írán.
Bajastani (Bajestani, Bejestani, Bijestani) Bajastání, Bajistání Mullá Ḥasan-i-Bajistání, a Letter of the Living.
Baji Bájí Pers. sister; miss, lady (modern colloquialism)
Baka, Buka, Bukan Baká (Buká’, Bukan) to cry, weep (over); to bemoan, lament, bewail (someone), mourn (for) II and IV to make (someone) cry X to move (someone) to tears, make (someone) cry
Bakhit Bakhít lucky, fortunate
Bakhsh Bakhsh Pers. fate, destiny, portion, share, fortune, lot, part (a land division equal to a district)
Bakhshandagi (Bakhshandegi) Bakhshandagí Pers. liberality; pardon
Bakht Bakht Pers. fortune, prosperity, felicity, happiness; luck (good or bad); a horoscope, nativity, planet, constellation; the nightmare
Bakhtar Bakhtar Pers. the east
Bakhtaran Bakhtarán Pers. name of Kirmánsháh (1987–95)
Bakhtawar (Bakhtavar) Bakhtáwar lucky, fortunate
Bakhtiyari Bakhtíyárí (بختياري) Pers. prosperity, riches. Tribe of western Írán (Bachtiari)
Bakk Bakk bruising, knocking; tearing, rending; crowding
Bakka Bakka (verb) to crowd as in a bazaar
Bakkah, Bakkat Bakka(h or t) believed to be an ancient name of Mecca (the b and m were interchangeable in the Arabic used in that area at the time of Muḥammad), but Muslim scholars say Bakkah refers to the Ka‘ba and the sacred site immediately surrounding it (due to the crowding and congestion of people in the area), while Mecca is the name of the city in which they are both located.
Bakr, Bakra, Abkhur, Bukran Bakr, fem. Bakra[h or t] (pl. Abkur, Bukrán) young camel. Caliph Abú-Bakr.
Bakri, Bakriyun Bakrí, pl. Bakríyún follower of Abú-Bakr (i.e. traditionalist), used by Shi‘as to refer to Sunnis.
Bakshish Bakshísh Per. See Baqshísh
Baku (Bad-kubah, Badkubah) Bákú Baku, capital city of Azerbaijan. The name is derived from the old Persian name for the city Bád-kúbah (or Bádkúbah), meaning “wind-beaten”, thus referring to a place where wind is strong and pounding.
Bakus (Bakos, Bacos, Bacus, Bakkos) Bákús suburb of Alexandria, Egypt.
Bala Bálá upper, up, above, better quality or prestigious. Where there are two nearby villages, it can be used to indicate one is above the other or is of a better quality. See ‘ulyá, and contrast with pá’in and suflá (asfal) (used for lower parts of villages)
Bala, Balih (Bale) Balá (Pers. Balih) yes, yes indeed, certainly, surely
Bala-Khanih Bálá-Khánih Balcony
Bala-Khiyaban Bálá-Khíyábán a neighbourhood (36.293903, 59.612958) in Mashhad
Bala-Rastaq Bálá-Rastáq a village in Írán
Bala-Sari, Balasari, Balasariyun Bálá-Sarí, Bálásarí, pl. Bálásaríyún Pers. “above the head”. A term used by Shaykhis (Shaykhí followers) to distinguish ordinary (later only those hostile to the Shaykhis) Shi’ites (the Bálá-Sarí—those who pray standing at the head of the Imám while facing the Qiblih; i.e. with their backs to the Imám) from members of their own sect—they preferred to call themselves Kashfíya (“those who reveal”) or the Pusht-sarí (“behind the head” [of the Imám]). Persians may use bálásarí-há (balasari-ha).
Bala’ Bala’ to test, to afflict
Bala’ Balá’ trial, tribulation, visitation, affliction, distress, misfortune; scourge, plague; creditable performance, bravery, gallantry, heroic action
Balad, Bilad, Buldan Balad m. and f., pl. Bilád, Buldán country; town, city; place, community, village;—(pl. bilád) regions, habitations; provinces, territories; an inhabited country;—(pl. buldán) cities, countries. bilád al-ḥabash, Ethiopia; bilád. aṣ-ṣín, China; bilád al-hind, India.
Balada (Baladeh) Balada Pers. the first woman, eve. A village (36.200139, 51.807656) 18 km west of Tákur. The family home of the prime minister, Mírzá Áqá Khán.
Baladu’l-Amin Baladu’l-Amín “protected land” or “safe city”, i.e. Makkah
Balagh, Balagha, Balaghat Balágh, fem. Balágha[h], pl. Balághát communication, information, message, report; announcement, proclamation; communiqué; statement; notification (of the police). Balágha eloquence; art, of good style, art of composition; literature.
Balah (Balih, Baleh), Bali (Bale) Balah (Balí) Pers. yes
Balal Balál Pers. moisture, humidity, freshness (of youth or young plants); water
Balat, Balata, Ablita Baláṭ, fem. Baláṭa, pl. Abliṭa(h) pavement, tiled floor; floor tiles; palace;—pl. floor tiles. Tall Baláṭa (Nablus, West Bank) is believed to be the site of Sychar (or Shechem).
Balinus Bálinus Apollonius was also known as Bálinus
Balkh Balkh city (formerly Bámí; 36.758235, 66.898352) and province in Afghánistán. The city is in what was Ancient or Greater Khurásán, a historical eastern region in the Iranian Plateau between Western and Central Asia.
Ballur, Billaur, Bulur Ballúr, Billaur, Bulúr Pers. crystal; beryl
Baluch Balúch Iranian tribe who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pákistán, Írán, and Afghánistán.
Baluchistan Balúchistán SW province of Pakistan
Baluz, Baluza, Baluzat Balúz, Balúza, pl. Balúzát blouse
Balyuz Bályúz said to derive through Turkish (from Balius, Baylus (بالیوز, “balyoz”) and Baliuz) from Venetian Italian balio (or bailo, meaning governor, later ambassador), which is derived from Latin (bájulus, pl. bájulí: porter, carrier; manager, steward, bailiff; administrator)
Balyuzi Bályúzí Ḥasan Muwaqqar Bályúzí (1908–1980).
Bamdad, Bamdadan Bámdád, Bámdádán Pers. early morning
Bana, Bayan Bána (Bayán) to be or become plain, evident, come out,come to light; to be clear (to someone)
Banadak Sadat Banádak Sádát village (31.574338, 54.206706) 40 km south Yazd
Banan Banán finger tips
Banani Banání Hand of the Cause Músá Banání, and wife Samíḥih
Band Amir (Band-e Amir) Band Amír “The ruler’s dam”. National Park in Afghánistán (34.840170, 67.234339) consisting of six intensely blue lakes created by natural travertine dams high in the Hindu Kush. “Bendemir” in Thomas Moore’s “Lalla Rookh”, see Lála-Rukn.
Banda (Bandih), Bandagan Banda, pl. Bandagán Pers. bondsman, servant, slave
Banda Astanash Banda Ástánash “the servant of His Threshold”. Shoghi Effendi’s well-known signature on his correspondence with the East was Bandih ástánash, Shoghi [the servant of His Threshold, Shoghi].
Bandar-i-‘Abbas, Bandar ‘Abbas Bandar-i-‘Abbás, Bandar ‘Abbás Pers. a port city and capital of Hurmúzgán Province on the southern Persian Gulf coast of Írán
Bandar-i-Gaz Bandar-i-Gaz (Bandar-i-Jaz) Pers. port city (36.775484, 53.949476) in Golestan Province, on the Caspian Sea (SE corner). It is the “port of Gaz”, a village (36.738585, 53.972901) 4 km to the SSE.
Bandar, Banadir Bandar, pl. Banádir seaport; commercial centre; district capital (Egyptian)
Bandiy-i-Bab-i-Baha Bandiy-i-Báb-i-Bahá Pers. bondsman at the door of Bahá (Bahá’u’lláh). A designation used by Mishkín-Qalam. See banda
Bandiy-i-Khuda Bandiy-i-Khudá bondsman or slave of God. See banda
Bani-Hashim Baní-Háshim The sons or children of Háshim, great-grandfather of Muḥammad. That is, the people deriving from the quasi-mythical Shem (Sám), son of Noah.
Bank Bánk Pers. bank (money). Bánk Millí Írán (BMI; the “National Bank of Iran”)
Banna Banná’ (Banná) Pers. a builder, mason, architect
Banu Bánú Pers. a princess; a lady; a bride; a flagon of wine; a goblet of rose-water
Banu an-Nadir, Banu’n-Nadir Banú an-Naḍír or Banú’n-Naḍír (Pers. Banú Naḍír) were a Jewish Arab tribe who lived in northern Arabia until the 7th century at the oasis of Medina. The tribe challenged Muḥammad’s leadership of Medina, planned along with allied nomads to attack Muḥammad and were expelled from Medina as a result. The Banú an-Naḍír then planned the battle of the Trench (Ghazwat al-Khandaq) together with the Quraysh. They later participated in the battle of Khaybar.
Baqa’ Baqá’ remaining, staying, lingering, abiding; continuation, continuance, duration; survival, continuation of existence after life; immortality, eternal life; existence; permanence. See Faná’
Banu Tamim Banú Tamím Arabian tribe. Tamím ibn Murr, the ancestor of the tribe, is a direct descendant of Abraham. Hence this large tribe is considered to be an Ishmaelite tribe.
Banu Umayya Banú Umayya was a clan in the Quraysh tribe named after ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manáf’s adopted son Umayya ibn ‘Abd Shams.
Baqar Baqar cattle
Baqara, Baqarat Baqara, pl. Baqarát cow
Baqi Báqí remaining, left; alive; permanent, durable, fixed, firm; immortal, everlasting, eternal; one of the names of God; remainder, rest; balance, arrears; (adverb) for the rest; upon the whole
Baqi’ Baqí‘ a place in which there are a number of trees; Jannat al-Baqí‘ or Baqí‘u’l-Gharqad (because it formerly abounded large boxthorn trees), the cemetery of Medina (demolished in the 19th and 20th centuries). It was the resting place of many of Muḥammad’s relatives and companions. It is SE of the Prophet’s Mosque containing the tomb of Muḥammad.
Baqila’ Báqilá’ a bean (Faba sativa)
Baqillani Báqillání (Ar. influence) a vendor of beans; nickname of a celebrated scholar. Abú Bakr Muḥammad ibn aṭ-Ṭayyib al-Báqillání (c. 940–1013), I‘jáz al-Qur’án (The Inimitability of the Qur’án). See Báqilá’
Baqir Báqir (“One who expands or breaks”) Title of the fifth Shí‘a Imám and an Ethiopian slave who was one of the very early converts to Islám.
Baqir-Abad, Baqirabad (Baghirabad) Báqirábád now Báqirshahr (35.532500, 51.402500) a city in Rayy County, Teheran Province. 18 km south of Ṭihrán. Baqer Abad caravanserai (34.930381, 50.823423) on Teheran-Qom Old Rd.
Baqir-i-Bastami Báqir-i-Basṭámí
Baqir-i-Kafsh-Duz Báqir-i-Kafsh-Dúz
Baqir-i-Kandi Báqir-i-Kandí
Baqir-i-Kashani Báqir-i-Káshání
Baqir-i-Qa’ini Báqir-i-Qá’iní
Baqir-i-Rashti Báqir-i-Rash
Baqir-i-Sabbagh Báqir-i-Ṣabbágh
Baqir-i-Shiraz Báqir-i-Shíráz
Baqir-i-Tabrizi Báqir-i-Tabrízí
Baqiri Báqirí descendant of Imám Muḥammad al-Báqir
Baqiriya (Bakiriya) Báqiríya followers of the fifth Imám
Baqíya as-Sayf Baqíya as-Sayf “remnant of the sword”, a title given to the survivors of the Shaykh Ṭabarsí upheaval.
Baqiya, Baqaya Baqíya(h or t), pl. Baqáyá remainder, rest; remnant, residue
Baqiya, Baqiyat Báqiya(h or t), pl. Báqiyát remaining; remainders;—pl. remainders, balances, arrears
Baqiyatu’llah, Baqiyyatu’llah Baqíyatu’lláh (Pers. Baqiyyatu’lláh) “Remnant of God”. Abjad 183. A title of the Twelfth Imám that is also applied to the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh.
Baqlava Báqlavá a sweetmeat
Baqqal (Bakkal), Baqqalun, Baqqala Baqqál, pl. Baqqálún, Baqqála greengrocer; grocer
Baqshish Baqshísh, pl. Baqáshísh present of money; tip, gratuity, baksheesh
Bar Bar Pers. (preposition) on, upon, onto
Bara’, Bara’a, Bara’at Bará’, fem. Bará’a, pl. Bará’át free, exempt (from); fem. being free; disavowal, withdrawal, repudiation; innocence, guiltlessness; naiveté, guilelessness, artlessness;—pl. license, diploma, patent. See Bismi’lláhi’r-Raḥmáni’r-Raḥím for Súra 9:1.
Barafrukhta (Bar-afrokhta) Barafrúkhta(h) Pers. inflamed, fired, lit up. Dr Ali Mohammed Barafroukhteh, the only member of the 1960 French NSA to reject Mason Remey’s claims. Three others later repented and asked for forgiveness.
Barak Barak Pers. a firm and durable woven cloth used for coats, overcoats, shawls (in Afghánistán) and leggings. Good quality barak is made from mohair, inferior quality from camel hair.
Baraka, Barakat Baraka(t), pl. Barakát blessing, benediction; abundance, prosperity
Baraka’llahu Fikum Báraka’lláhu Fíkum “May God bless you”
Barakatu’llah Barakatu’lláh “God bless you”
Baramaki, Baramika Barmakí, pl. Barámika(t) a hero, a noble, liberal man; of the Persian family of Barmacides (highly celebrated all over the East for their generosity, magnificence, and distinguished patronage of men of genius) founded by Khalid ibn Barmak (705–782). When Balkh, the native town of Barmakids fell to the Arabs, Khalid ibn Barmak and his brothers moved to the garrison town of Baṣra in ‘Iráq, where they converted to Islám. Their ancestor was a Pramukh (pronounced in Arabic as Barmak), a title borne by the high priest in the Buddhist temple of Nawbahár (naw + bahár, new monastery).
Baraqan (Baraghan), Savojbolagh Baraqán village, in Sávajbulágh county, 14 km north of Karaj and 52 km WNW of Ṭihrán
Baraqani (Baraghani) Baraqání from Baraqán (Baraghán). Fáṭima Zarrín Táj Baraqání (Ṭáhirih).
Barazat Barázát Temptation
Barfurush Bárfurúsh a town in Mázindarán, now known as Bábul (Babol)
Bari’ Bári‘ skilled, skilful, proficient, capable, efficient; brilliant, outstanding (work of art)
Bari’ Bári’ the creator, God, the Deity. Hence, al-Bári’
Barid Baríd Pers. a fast or light breed of horse; courier’s horse; hunter; courier, messenger, running footman; a measure of two parasangs or twelve miles
Barik Bárik Pers. thin, slender, minute
Baris, Paris Bárís, Pers. Párís Paris
Barmakiyan, Baramika Barmakíyán, Ar. Barámika(h) Pers. the Barmakids (Ar. al-Barámikah), also spelled Barmecides, were an influential Iranian family from Balkh where they were originally hereditary Buddhist leaders (in the Nawbahár monastery), and subsequently came to great political power under the Abbasid caliphs of Baghdád.
Barq, Buruq Barq, pl. Burúq lightning; flash of lightning; telegraph
Barqi (Barki) Barqí (Barkí) pertaining or relating to lightning; electric; telegraphic, telegraph- (in compounds). Aḥmad bin Muḥammad bin Khálid bin ‘Abd al-Raḥmán al-Barqí (b. ~200/815-816—d. 274/887–888 or 280/893–894) was a renowned Twelver Shí‘a muḥaddith (ḥadíth scholar) and historian of 3rd/9th century.
Barr Barr land (as opposed to sea), terra firma, mainland; open country
Barr, Abrar, Barara Barr and Bárr, pl. Abrár and Barara reverent, dutiful (+ preposition bi—toward), devoted (+ preposition bi—to); pious, godly, upright, righteous; kind
Bartalla (Bartella, “Baratallih”) Barṭalla[h or t] to bribe. A town (36.351768, 43.379366) 21 km east of Mosul, ‘Iráq.
Barzakh, Barazikh Barzakh, pl. Barázikh interval, gap, break, partition, bar, obstruction; isthmus. An interworld, boundary between the mundane and celestial realms. Example: between this life and the next, between Heaven and Hell, the period between two manifestations etc.
Bas Bas Pers. a great number, many, more; very much, greatly; enough, sufficient; often; yes, indeed, certainly, it is so, very true, surely, undoubtedly, unquestionably
Basar (“Bassar”), Absar Baṣar, pl. Abṣár vision, eye-sight; glance, look; insight; sight, discernment, perception. Name (“Baṣṣár”) given by Bahá’u’lláh to blind poet Mírzá Baqir Bihish
Bash sh Ar. senior, chief (in compounds).
Pers. (imperative of búdan) be, stay, remain, wait, be still.
Basha, Bashawat, Pasha shá, (Pers. Páshá), pl. Báshawát Ar. being, existing; English a basha or pasha (corruptions of bádsháh (a king), pádsháh, pádisháh, etc.); governor of a province, counsellor of state, great lord (or boy, prince); also sometimes the grand vazir. Former honorary title given to Turkish officers of high rank. bin-bashí (Turkish binbaşı) rank of major (1,000 men). Pers. pl. Pásháhá. Turkish paşa, pl. paşalar.
Buratha (Baratha) Buráthá Buratha Mosque (Jámi‘ Buráthá or Majid Shaykh Junayd; 33.351195, 44.361215) is between central Baghdád and Kaẓímayn (now a suburb of Baghdád)
Bashar Bashar man, human being; men, mankind; mortals, the human race
Bashi Báshí (in compounds) chief, head or commander of
Bashir wa Nadhir Bashír wa Nadhír Bahá’u’lláh appeared as the “Announcer and Warner”, cf. Qur’án 35:22.
Bashir-i-Ilahi Bashír-i-Iláhí Announcer of God
Bashir, Bushara’ Bashír, pl. Bushará’ bringer of glad tidings (announcer), messenger, herald, harbinger, forerunner, precursor; evangelist (Christian)
Bashiri Bashírí
Bashnih (Beshneh) Bashnih a village (29.362013, 54.834977) 53 km ENE of Nayríz; a town (28.793284, 55.036605) 85 km SE Nayríz. Both are in Fárs Province.
Basir Baṣír (most insightful, discerning, endowed with insight, seeing) Adjective, superlative form of Baṣár (sight).
Basir-i-Hindi Baṣír-i-Hindí Siyyid Baṣír-i-Hindí, the blind Indian Bábí
Basira Baṣíra, pl. Baṣá’ir (keen) insight, penetration, discernment, understanding, (power of) mental perception, mental vision
Basit Básiṭ Pers. one who spreads abroad or stretches out; a name of God, who dispenses riches to whom he will; distant from water (pasture). “open”
Basit Basíṭ, pl. Busaṭá’ simple; plain, uncomplicated; slight, little, modest, inconsiderable, trivial, trifling;—pl. simple souls, ingenuous people
Basita al-Basíṭa[h or t] the earth, the world
Bazargan (Bayazid) Bázargán Pers. a merchant, a trader. An Iranian (since 1913) border city (39.391611, 44.387709) about a 20 km walk from Máh-Kú Qal‘a. An area marked as the village of “Bayazid” on old maps—the “Báyazíd” in DB p. 244? See Báyazíd.
Basmala Basmala, pl. Basmalát “word” meaning to utter the invocation bismi’lláh ar-raḥmání ar-raḥímí “In the name of God, the Benificent, the Merciful”. The “word” is derived from “in the name of” and is the act of uttering the above invocation.
Basra (Basrih) Baṣra[h or t] (Pers. Bahá’í Baṣrih) a single pimple or pustule. Baṣrah “port” in southern ‘Iráq (untranscripted variations: The new al-Fáw Grand Harbour (Míná’ al-Fáw al-Kabír), about 100 km SE of Basrah, on the Persian Gulf is under construction. Basra, Bosrah, Basorah, Balsora)
Basri, Basriyun Baṣrí, pl. Baṣriyún native of al-Baṣrah. Baṣriyún (English Basran, school of) grammarians. See Kúfí
Bast Basṭ Pers. (verbal noun), Stretching out (the hand); distension; diffusiveness; being wide enough for; preferring, exalting
Bast Bast Pers. be bound or connected; a lover, a sweetheart, one in whom the heart is bound up; a turban, wreath for the head; a knot; a hundred; a sanctuary, asylum; a bank, a rampart; a mountain; distribution of water into canals, ditches, or drains
Bastam, Bistam, Bustam Basṭám, Bisṭám or Busṭám city in and capital of the Basṭám District of Sháhrúd County, Semnan Province, Írán. 8 km north of Sháhrúd. Home of Mullá ‘Alí, the fourth Letter of Living.
Bastami, Bistami Basṭámí, Bisṭámí from or of Basṭám. Abú Yazíd Ṭayfúr bin ‘Ísá bin Surúshán al-Bisṭámí (804–874), commonly known in the Iranian world as Báyazíd Bisṭámí, was a Persian Ṣúfí. Known to later Sufis as Sulṭán al-‘Árifín (“the king among those who have Knowledge (of God)”, metaphorically, “the first among the Wise”; or “King of the Gnostics”). Shrine is in central Basṭám.
Bastan Bástán Pers. ancient, preceding, old; the past; the world, fortune; solitary
Batara (Batr) Batara (Batr) to cut off, sever (something); to amputate (something); to mutilate, render fragmentarily (a text) Form VII to be cut off, be severed, be amputated
Batha’, Bitah, Bathawat Baṭḥá’, pl. Biṭáḥ, Baṭḥawát basin-shaped valley; plain, level land, flatland, open country. Baṭḥá’ Quraysh is a southern neighbourhood of Mecca. See Makkah.
Batil, Abatil Báṭil, pl. Abáṭíl nugatory (of no value or importance), vain, futile; false, untrue; absurd, groundless, baseless; worthless; invalid, null, void; deception, lie, falsehood;—pl. vanities, trivialities, trifles, flimflam, idle talk, prattle
Batin, Bawatin Báṭin, pl. Bawáṭin inner, interior, inward, inmost, intrinsic; hidden (concealed), secret. Derived from baṭn. See Ẓáhir. báṭin al-báṭin—inner inward meaning.
Batini Báṭiní internal
Batn, Butun, Abutun Baṭn, pl. Buṭún, Abṭun belly, stomach, abdomen; womb; interior, inside, inner portion; depth
Batt (Butt) Batt settlement, decision
Battah Baṭṭáh village on coast of Libya, 115 km east of Bengazi
Battani Battání Battán is thought to be a street or a part of Ḥarrán. Abú ‘Abdu’lláh Muḥammad ibn Jábir ibn Sinán ar-Raqqí al-Ḥarrání aṣ-Ṣábi’ al-Battání (Latinized as Albategnius, Albategni or Albatenius) (c. 858–929) was an Arab astronomer, astrologer, and mathematician. He is perhaps the greatest and best known astronomer of the medieval Islamic world. He was the author of a set of Astronomical Tables, which in its Latin version provided the groundwork of astronomy in Europe for several centuries.
Battuta, Batuta Baṭṭúṭa[h] Muḥammad ibn Baṭṭúṭa or Ibn Baṭúṭah; 1304–1368 or 1369), was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
Batul Batúl virgin
Batuli Batúlí virginal
Batum Báṭúm now Batumi, Black Sea port city, Georgia
Bawanat (Bavanat) Bawánát Bawánát-i-Fárs, county (whose boundary has changed a number of times) in Fars Province. County capital city of Súriyán (Surian) renamed (2001) Bavánát (30.489738, 53.593380).
Bawil, Bavil Báwíl, Bávíl village 23 km SW of Tabríz. It consists of Bávíl ‘Ulyá or Bávíl Bálá (Upper Bavil), and Bávíl Suflá or Bávíl Pá’ín (Lower Bavil). See Mílán and Uskú
Bawwab, Bawwaba, Bawwabun Bawwáb, pl. Bawwábún a porter, warder, doorkeeper, gatekeeper. Feminine bawwába[h or t], pl. bawwábát: (large) gate, portal. As the Shí‘a Muslims were awaiting the return of the “Hidden Imám”, the Báb’s initial use of the title reflected the gate-hood” (al-bawwába), figurative, of the four consecutive “báb”s (gates or portals) through whom the Hidden Imám communicated with the faithful before going into his “Greater Occultation”. “Babhood” should be replaced by Gate-hood or Door-ship] (-hood or -ship—state of being, quality or condition).
Bay, Baya, Bayat Báy, f. Báya, pl. Báyát formerly, in Tunisia, a title after the names of the members of the Bey’s family. See Beg
Bay’a (Bai’a) Bay‘a(h or t) agreement, arrangement; business deal, commercial transaction, bargain; sale; purchase; homage; inauguration, salutation, or acknowledging the authority of a great man; swearing allegiance; homage, fealty. Bay‘ah originally referred to the striking together of hands between buyer and seller to mark an agreement. Bay‘at is sometimes taken under a written pact given on behalf of the subjects by leading members of the tribe with the understanding that as long as the leader abides by certain requirements towards his people, they are to maintain their allegiance to him. The Pledge of the Tree (bayʻat ash-shajarah), Pledge of Satisfaction or of Riḍwán (bayʻat ar-riḍwán) was a pledge that was sworn to Muḥammad by his Ṣaḥába (companions) prior to the Treaty of Ḥudaybiyyah (AH 6/ CE 628). The pledge, sworn under a tree, was to avenge the rumoured death of ‘Uthmán ibn ‘Affán.
Bayad, Bayadat Bayáḍ, Bayáḍát white, whiteness: whitewash;—pl. barren, desolate, uncultivated land, wasteland; gap, blank space (in a manuscript); blank; leucoma (medicine); linen
Bayan-i-‘Arabi, Arabic Bayan Bayán-i-‘Arabí “Arabic Bayán” by the Báb completed after the Bayán-i-Fársí
Bayan-i-Farsi, Persian Bayan Bayán-i-Fársí “Persian Bayán” (Mother Book of the Bábí Revelation) by the Báb
Bayan, Bayanat Bayán, pl. Bayánát clearness (particularly of the meaning of revelation), plainness, patency, obviousness; statement, declaration, announcement; manifestation; explanation, elucidation, illustration; information, news; (official) report, (official) statement; enumeration, index, list; eloquence. Also exposition or utterance. Title given by the Báb to His Revelation, and, in particular, to His Books. Muslims are puzzled by the chronology given in Qur’án 55:2–4. “Bayán (exposition) [“speech”, 55:4] signifies the Revelation of the Báb, which unveils the hidden truth of the Qur’án. ‘Man’ [55:3] signifies the ‘Perfect Human Being’—the Manifestation of the Names and attributes of God ....” Gate of the heart, p. 262. al-Bayán (نايبل or “ن ا ي ب ل ا”) has an abjad value of 94 (“al” (value 31) consists of an unstressed Alif and Lám). Compare lilláh
Bayani, Bayaniya (Bayanis) Bayání, fem. Bayáníya (pl. bayáníyún, fem. bayáníyát) explanatory, illustrative; rhetorical. A follower of the Báb, but not Bahá’u’lláh. Some also followed Mírzá Yaḥyá (Ṣubḥi-i-Azal).
Bayat Bayát Ar. passing the night; doing anything in the night; a nocturnal invasion; place name, name of a tribe. Pers. grief, anxiety, care.
Bayazid, Bayizid Báyazíd, Báyizíd Pers. (Turkish beyazıt) Bayezid I, also known as Bayezid the Thunderbolt (Yıldırım Beyazıt; c. 1360–1403), was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. Born in Bursa (first capital of the Ottoman Empire), moved court to Edirne in 1393 (second capital), captured by Timur in 1402 in Ankara. See Íldirím. Doğubeyazıt (East Beyazıt, 39.547069, 44.069424), Türkiye, 47 km NW Máh-Kú Qal‘a. Hence, unlikely to be the “Báyazíd” in DB p. 244. See Bázargán.
Bayda (Baida, Baiza), Baydun, Baydat Bayḍa(h), pl. Bayḍún, Bayḍát egg; helmet; main part, substance, essence. Pers. also Baiẓa. ‘Abdu’l-Ghaní Bayḍún owned 14.5 ha of land adjacent to Bahjí, but he and his family fled in 1948 and the land reverted to the state. The land was swapped in 1952 for the land purchased by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá for Dhikru’lláh SE of the Sea of Galilee, near the Jordan River.
Baydi (Baidi, Baizi), Baydawi Bayḍí, Bayḍawí and Bayḍáwí egg-shaped, oviform, oval, ovate. “bayḍ” is often written as “baiḍ”, “beyd”, “bayz”, “beyz” and “baiz”.
Baydun Bayḍún white (a pl. form of abyaḍ). ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá built a palace south of Bahjí (now part of the Atidot Research Institute) that was purchased by ‘Abdu’l-Ghání Bayḍún, he was from a prominent Muslim family of ‘Akká, who were always antagonistic to the Bahá’í Faith.
Bayg (Bag, Big), Bayk Bayg, Bayk Pers. town (35.374245, 59.038781) in Razavi Khorasan Province. Áqá Bálá Bayg from Shíshaván was the Naqqásh-Báshí, chief artist in the court of the crown prince. He made the only portrait of the Báb.
Bayhaq (Baihaq) Bayhaq See Sabzivár. Abú Bakr Aḥmad ibn Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alí ibn Músá al-Khusrawjirdí al-Bayhaqí, also known as Imám al-Bayhaqí was born 994 in Khusrawjird, near Bayhaq. During his lifetime, he became a famous Sunní ḥadíth expert, following the Sháfi‘í school in fiqh and the Ash‘arí school of Islamic Theology.
Bayigani Báyigání Pers. Siyyid Muḥammad-i-Báyigání
Bayn (Bain) Bayn separation, division; interval; difference
Bayram (Bairam) Bayrám Turkish festival. Due to past influence of Ottoman Turkish, many Muslims have adopted the use of the word Bayrám, using the term “Lesser Bayrám” to refer to their own Eid al-Fitr (‘Íd al-Fiṭr) celebrations; “Greater Bayrám” refers to Eid al Adha (‘Íd al-Aḍḥá) (see Aḍḥan).
Bayrut (Bairut) Bayrút Beirut (capital of Lebanon). See Lawḥ-i-Arḍ-i-Bá.
Bayt (Bait), Buyut, Buyutat, Abyat Bayt, pl. Buyút, Buyútát house, building, temple, edifice; fabric, tent (of nomads); room; apartment, flat; (garden) bed; family; case, box, covering, sheath; verse, couplet;—pl. large, respectable houses; respectable families;—(pl. abyát) verses, couplets. Baytu’l-Ḥarám (Baytu’d-Du‘á, Baytu’l-‘Atíq, Baytu’llah) = The temple of Mecca.
Bayt al-Maqdis Bayt al-Maqdis the Holy Land
Bayt-i-A’zam Bayt-i-A‘ẓam “The Most Great House” (House of Bahá’u’lláh in the Kakh quarter of Baghdád,occupied by the family shortly before Bahá’u’lláh returned from Kurdistán) See Madad, house of.
Baytu’l-Funduq (Bayt-i-Fanduq) Baytu’l-Funduq (Bayt-i-Funduq) “hotel house”. A house in the German Templar colony, Haifa, where Bahá’u’lláh stayed, 1883.
Bayt-i-Zahlan Bayt-i-Zahlan German zählen (“to count”)?, hence “Counting house”
Baytu’l-‘Adl Baytu’l-‘Adl Pers. House of Justice
Baytu’l-‘Adl-i-A’zam Baytu’l-‘Adl-i-A‘ẓam Pers. Universal House of Justice. See Universal House of Justice listing.
Baytu’l-Hazan Baytu’l-Ḥazan house of sadness
Baytu’l-Ma’mur Baytu’l-Ma‘múr Frequented Fane. In Islám, the Ka‘bah or its archetype in heaven.
Baytu’l-Mahdi (Beitol Mahdi) Baytu’l-Mahdí Masjid Baytu’l-Mahdí (29.612247, 52.540839) built on the site of the House of the Báb in Shíráz, It is across the main street from the huge Masjid Naw (29.610966, 52.541609).
Baytu’l-Maqdis Baytu’l-Maqdis al-Aqṣá Mosque, Jerusalem
Baytu’l-Muqaddas Baytu’l-Muqaddas “The House of Holiness”—name given to Jerusalem
Baytu’llah Baytu’lláh the House of God—the Ka‘bah in Mecca
Bayyina (Bayyinah), Bayyinat Bayyina (Bayyinah), pl. Bayyinát clear proof, indisputable evidence; evidence (Islamic Law); a document serving as evidence
Baz-Av-u-Bidih-Jami Báz-Áv-u-Bidih-Jámí “Return and grant a chalice” by Bahá’u’lláh
Bazar, Bazarat Bázár, pl. Bázárát bazaar, permanent, enclosed oriental market (Pers. origin, and Middle Persian wázár)
Bazari Bázárí merchant or craftsman of the bazzaar
Bazzaz Bazzáz draper, cloth merchant; the mercer
Bedikian Bedikian Armenian. “Auntie” Victoria Schnabel (1879–1955) married Díkrán (Տիգրան, tigran (pronounced díkrán) “fighting with arrows”) Mardiros (Մարտիրոս, “martyr”) Bedikian (Պետիկյան, petikyan, pronounced bítíkyán) (1866–1945), in 1901.
Beg (Big, Bag), Bey, Begum, Beygum Beg (Big), fem. Begum Turkish from old Turkic Bey (gentleman, chieftain, lord, prince). Variations used: Bayk (Persian), “Beik”, “Beyk”, “Beyg”, “Baig”, etc. Title for a chieftain, and an honourific, traditionally applied to leaders or rulers. A title placed after the names of servants and petty officials. Today, a social title for men, similar to the English “sir” and “mister”. See Báy.
Ben Gurion Sderot Ben Gurion Ben Gurion Ave passes through the German Colony from Haifa Harbour up to the base of the Bahá’í terraces. As part of the restoration of the German Templer Colony 2003 and onwards, the Haifa municipality moved the upper end of Ben Gurion Avenue 1.86 m to bring it into alignment with the terraces’ central stairs.
Bethulia, Bethulie Bethulia, Bethulie Bethulia is a Biblical city (location uncertain), situated on a mountain overlooking the plain of Jezrael, whose deliverance by Judith, when besieged by Holofernes, forms the subject of the Book of Judith. Hebrew בתוליה (a virgin). Similar to Ar. Batúlí (virginal).
bi bi (prep.) in, at, on (place and time); with (indicating connection, association, attendance); with, through, by means of (designating instrumentality or agency, also with pass. = by); for (= at the price of); by (= to the amount of); by (introducing an oath)
bi Pers. be (a privative particle or preposition), without; when prefixed to nouns, implying wanting, or being destitute
bi-Chara, bi-Charawar bí-Chára, bí-Chárawár Pers. without remedy; remediless; hopeless; helpless, destitute, desperate, miserable, reduced to the last extremity, or even “poor”.
bi-Farmayid (Bifarmayid) bi-Farmáyíd Pers. “here you are”, please come and eat, please come and sit, ..., etc.
bi-Qamis al-Babiyya bi-Qamíṣ al-Bábiyya garment of Gatehood
bi-Qamis al-Wilaya bi-Qamíṣ al-Wiláya garment of Sanctity
bi’l-Haqq bi’l-Ḥaqq of a truth
bi’l-Quwa bi’l-Qúwa(t) with power, powerfully, vigorously
bi’llah bi’lláh “by God!”, “with God” or “through God”
Bi’r (Ber), Abar, Bi’ar Bi’r fem., pl. Ábár, Bi’ár well, spring
bi’t-Tasrih bi’t-Taṣríḥ Pers. in detail; expressly, distinctly, explicitly
Biba (Beba, “Babba”) Bibá city (28.922043, 30.980567) in Bibá district, Muḥáfẓat Baní Sawíf (Beni Suef Governorate), 130 km SSW of Cairo, Egypt. See Kawm as-Sa’aydah
Bibi Bíbí Pers. a lady, a matron; wife, mistress of the house
Bibi-Dukhtaran Bíbí-Dukhtarán Shrine of Bíbí Dukhtarán in Shíráz (29.613000, 52.538959) where the Báb’s son, Aḥmad, is buried
Bibinid (Bebeeneed) Bibíníd ببینید Pers. look and see; behold. A favourite word of Shoghi Effendi and Zikrullah Khadem.
Bid’, Bid’a, Abda’, Bida’ Bid‘, fem. Bid‘a[h or t] (pl. Abdá‘, fem. Bida‘) innovator; new, original; unprecedented, novel;—fem. innovation. novelty; heretical doctrine, heresy;—fem. pl. creations (of fashion, of art). ahl al-bida‘ heretics.
Bidil Bídil Pers. heartless, dispirited, out of heart; pusillanimous; love-sick; ignorant; melancholy, dejected, sad, stupid.
Bidil, Abdu’l-Qadir Bídil, Abdu’l-Qádir Mawláná Abu’l-Ma‘ání Mírzá ‘Abdu’l-Qádir Bídil (1642–1720), a famous representative of Dari poetry and Sufism in Afghánistán. He is considered the most difficult and challenging poet of Safavid-Mughal poetry. The pairing of Bídil’s patronymic, Abu’l-Ma‘ání, “The Father of Meanings”, with his devastating nom de plume, Bídil, “The Heartless”, illustrates perfectly the conceptual coupling of Love and Meaning in the sensibilities of the literary self-expression of his audiences.
Bidpay (Pilpay) Bídpáy (Pílpáy) friendship; a famous Indian philosopher and author of the celebrated collection of fables about animals (in reality moral stories about kings, ministers, etc.). Better known by the Arabic version Kalílah wa Dimnah (after the names of two jackals), and the Persian version Anwár-i-Suhaylí (Lights of Canopus)—both derived from the Sanskrit Panchatantra (of Bídpáy) and Hitopadesa stories.
Bigliyirbigi Biglíyirbigí Beylerbey or Beylerbeyi (Ottoman Turkish: “Bey of Beys”, meaning “the Commander of Commanders” or “the Lord of Lords”). Initially designating a commander-in-chief, it eventually came to be held by senior provincial governors. In Ottoman usage it designated the governors-general of some of the largest and most important provinces. Equivalents in Arabic were ámir al-umará, and in Persian, mír-i mírán.
Bih Bih Pers. good, excellent; elegant; better; safe, sound
Biharu’l-Anwar (Bihar al-Anwar) Biḥáru’l-Anwár (Biḥár al-Anwár) Seas of Lights”. A 26 vol. compilation of Shí‘í traditions (aḥádíth) compiled by Shí‘a scholar Muḥammad-Báqir Majlisí. The full title: Biḥár al-‘Anwár al-Jámi‘ah li-Durar ‘Akhbár al-‘A’immah al-Aṭhár (“Oceans of lights, an encyclopedia for pearls of traditions of the pure imams”). See Majlisí.
Bihbahan, Behbahan, Behbehan Bihbahán Pers. city and capital of Behbahan County, Khuzestan Province, Írán. 100 km east of Bandar Máhshahr.
Bihbahani Bihbahání of or from Bihbahán. Áqá Muḥammad Báqir al-Bihbahání (b. 1118/1706–7—d. 1205/1791) known as al-Waḥíd al-Bihbahání, was a twelver Shí‘a scholar in fiqh, uṣúl. He was titled as Waḥíd al-‘Aṣr (The exceptional of the time) by as-Sayyid Muḥammad aṭ-Ṭabáṭabá’í al-Iṣfahání. His son was Sayyid Muḥammad ‘Alí b. Waḥíd Bihbahání (b. 1144/1731–32, d. 1216/1801) known as Áqá Muḥammad ‘Alí Kirmánsháhí. He was an influential Shí‘a jurist, uṣúlí and rijál (biographical evaluation) in twelfth/eighteenth and thirteenth/nineteenth century. His fame was mostly due to his serious broad fight with Sufism at the time of the Qájárs, so that some Sufis called him “Ṣúfí-kush” (Sufi-killer).
Bihi Bihi with, for, from, in, or by him, or it
Bihmard Bihmard Pers. bih + mard
Bihmardi Bihmardí Pers. Faríd Bihmardí. Bih+Mardí
Bihnam Bihnám Pers. bih + nám. Bihnám Páshá’í
Bihnaz (Behnaz) Bihnáz Pers. fem. name
Bihruz Bihrúz Pers. (Behrouz, Behrooz, Behruz Behrus, Bihuroz) Bih+rúz + “good day or lifetime”, success
Bihshahr (Behshahr) Bihshahr Pers. city (36.696676, 53.545713) in Mazindaran, 47 km NE Sárí. Formerly named Ashraf and Ashraf al-Bilád.
Bijan, Bizhan Bíjan or Bízhan Pers. “hero”. One of the main Iranian heroes in the Sháhnámih
Bika (not Baka) Bika A composite comprising the prefix “bi” with the suffix “ka”, which stands for the 2nd person singular masculine pronoun “Thou” or “Thee”. “Bika” can be translated as “upon Thee”, “to Thee”, “on Thee” or “about Thee”, depending on the context. “Baka” in Tablets of Abdul-Baha Abbas should be Bika.
Biktash, Baktash, Bektashi Biktáshí, Baktáshí, Bektáshí Turkish. Dervish order, mainly in Antolia and the Balkans.
Bilad al-Kurd, Kurdistan Bilád al-Kurd, Pers. Kurdistán Kurdistan (English) or the land (bilád) of the Kurds (al-Kurd).  Greater Kurdistan, a roughly defined geo-cultural historical region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and Kurdish culture, languages and national identity have historically been based.
Bilal Bilál Bilál ibn Rabáḥ (580–640) also known as Bilál ibn Riyáḥ and Bilál al-Ḥabashí, a freed Ethiopian slave born in Mecca, he was one of the most trusted and loyal companions of Muḥammad, who appointed him as the first muezzin. He was criticized for his pronunciation because a speech defect caused him to mispronounce the letter "shín" as “sín”.
Billahi’l-‘Aliyyi’l-‘Azim Billáhi’l-‘Alíyyi’l-‘Aẓím “in God, the Exalted, the Mighty” (bi+Alláh)
Bilqis Bilqís queen of “Sheba” in Arabian tradition. She is also known as Queen Makeda in Ethiopian tradition, her capital was in the Azeba district, Tigray Region, Ethiopia (about 13 km SW Adigrat). See Saba’
Bimar Bímár Pers. sick, infirm, afflicted; the eye of a mistress
Bimaristan Bímáristán hospital; lunatic asylum
Bin Bin the son of
Bint Bint daughter of
Binyamin Binyámín Benjamin
Biradar Birádar Pers. brother
Biradar-zadar Birádar-záda Pers. brother’s son, nephew
Biraw (Birau) Biraw Pers. (“biro”, “buro”, “burro”) go!, get away!, get off!
Birjand Bírjand city in eastern Írán
Birjis al-Birjís Jupiter (astronomy). Martyr, Dr Sulaymán Birjís, Káshán (1897–1950)
Birkas Birkás now Lüleburgaz (“Lule Burgas”), Türkiye. It is 23 km ESE Babaeski and 75 SE Edirne.
Birujird Birújird Capital city of the province of Luristán, Mírzá Bururg was governor
Birun Bírún Pers. without, out of doors; exterior, extrinsic, foreign; the outside; from, a great way from
Biruni Bírúní Pers. outer or men’s quarters. See andarúní
Bisat, Bisatat, Absita, Busut Bisáṭ, pl. Bisáṭát, Absiṭa[h or t], Busuṭ (anything spread out such as) carpet, rug; bedding; goods, wares
Bishara, Bisharat, Basha’ir Bishára(t), pl. Bishárát, Bashá’ir good news, glad-tidings; annunciation, prophecy; gospel; bashá’ir good omens, propitious signs. Glad-Tidings by Bahá’u’lláh
Bisharat-i-‘Uzma Bishárát-i-‘Uẓmá Supreme Glad-tidings
Bishr Bishr joy
Bisitun (Bisotun) Bísítún city (34.396402, 47.444158) in Kermanshah Province
Bismi’llah Bismi’lláh “word” derived from the expression “In the name of God” = bi-ismi-alláh = bi’smi-alláh. Basmala is the act (verb) of saying the recurring Islamic phrase “Bismi’lláhi ar-Raḥmáni ar-Raḥími”—“In the name of God, the Most Compassionate (or Gracious), the Most Merciful”. Bismi’lláh is the first phrase of the first verse of every súra of the Qur’án except the ninth, and is repeated in 27:30, i.e. it occurs 114 times in the Qur’án. The verse/expression consists of 19 letters.
Bismi’llahu’l-Amna’u’l-Aqdas Bismi’lláhu’l-Amna‘u’l-Aqdas (“In the Name of God, the Most Unapproachable, the Most Holy”—Báb) (DB 66), the formula substituted by the Báb for the Muslim Bismi’lláhi’r-Raḥmáni’r-Raḥím.
Bismi’llahi’l-Bahiyyi’l-Abha Bismi’lláhi’l-Bahíyyi’l-Abhá “In the name of God, the Glorious, the Most Glorious” (used in calligraphic bird design by Mishkín-Qalam—described as a “bird of paradise in the form of the Greatest Holy Name sitting on the tree of Ṭúbá (tree of paradise)”
Bismi’llahi’r-Rahmani’r-Rahim Bismi’lláhi’r-Raḥmáni’r-Raḥím or Bismi’lláh ar-Raḥmán ar-Raḥím (there are 19 consonants in بِسْمِ ٱللّٰهِ ٱلرَّحْمٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ, and it has an abjad value of 786) “In the Name of God, the Most gracious, the Most Merciful”—it appears at the start of every sura, except Súra 9, and constitutes the first verse of Súra 1 in the traditional order. Súra 9:1 also starts with the letter “B”, the word Bará’at”. It is claimed that ‘Alí said: “All that is in the Qur’án is contained in the first sura, all that is in the first sura is contained in Bismi’lláhi’r-Raḥmáni’r-Raḥím, all that is in Bismi’lláhi’r-Raḥmáni’r-Raḥím is contained in the B of Bismi’lláh, all that is contained in the B of Bismi’lláh is contained in the point which is beneath the B—and I am that Point.”
Bistami Bisṭámí native of Basṭám
Bistum Bistum, Bístum Pers. the twentieth
Bisutun (Bisotun) Bísutún Pers. pillarless. Bísutún city 36 km NE Kirmásháh, at the foot of Mount Bísutún on which there is the huge Bísutún Inscription in 3 cuneiform scripts (crucial to the decipherment of one of the cuneiform scripts)
Bisyar Bisyár Pers. many, much; numerous; frequent; copious; very; exceedingly
Bisyar Khub Bisyár Khúb Pers. very well, all right, very or most good
Bitra’, Batra’ Bitrá’, Batrá’ Petra (“rock”, ancient city of the Edomites and Nabataeans; ruins now in SW Jordan)
Biya Biyá Pers. (imperative of ámadan), come, come hither, approach
Biya inja Biyá ínjá Pers. come here
Biyaban, Bayaban Biyábán, Bayábán Pers. uncultivated, desert; a desert. A mountain (30.563130, 57.439224; 2,724 m) 47 km NE of Kirmán. A village, Qal‘ah Biyábán (28.526147, 54.872187). The mountain range to the south of Nayríz. It lies between the Nayríz plain and the Biyábán Plain. It is accessed via the “Bísámán” track from the mill on the Farusht Stream.
Biyarjumand (Beyarjomand) Bíyárjumand a small village (36.080803, 55.804240) in Semnan Province
Bronlundfjord Brønlundfjord (error “Bronlunsfjord”) a former research and radio station on the shore of Jørgen Brønlund Fjord (a northern branch of Independence Fjord) in southern Peary Land, north Greenland. MBW p. 149 (“147”)
Biyaban Bíyábán a mountain near Zanján
Brummana (Broummana) Brummáná (Beit Roumana, Aramaic name possibly meaning the “house of Rammana, the God of Air, Storm and Thunder") town 13 km east of Beirut, Lebanon
Budan Búdan Pers. to be; to become; to exist; existence
Buddha dhá (Ar.) Buddha Maitreya-Amitábha, the Buddha of the future, the Lord of the Age. Maitrya or Maitreya—”Kindness”; Amitábha—“Infinite light”.
Bughḍ, Bighda and Baghda’ Bughḍ, Bighḍa(h) and Baghḍá’ hatred, hate
Bujnurd (Bojnord) Bujnúrd city (37.474359, 57.324294) in North Khurasan province. 242 km NW of Mashhad.
Bukhar, Bukharat, Abkhira Bukhár, pl. Bukhárát, Abkhira vapour, fume; steam
Bukhara Bukhárá city in Uzbekistan
Bukharan Bukhárán people of Bukhárá
Bukhari Bukhárí steam (adjective), steam-driven. Abú ‘Abd Alláh Muḥammad ibn Ismá‘íl ibn Ibráhím ibn al-Mughírah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fí al-Bukhárí (810–870), Persian Islamic scholar, author of the aṣ Ṣaḥíḥ al-Bukhárí collection of hadiths (aḥádíth).).
Bulbul, Balabil Bulbul, Balabil nightingale
Buli, Bolu Búlí Ar. for town (Bolu) 260 km east of Istanbul.
Buluk Bulúk Pers. a tract of country that a subject obtains either by gift, purchase, or succession, holding of the sovereign upon feudal tenure; a district (modern colloquialism)
Bulus Búlus Arabic form of Paul
Bun Bun Pers. root, basis, foundation; the bottom; the stern of a ship; extremity, point, end, tip (of anything); a cluster of dates; the trunk of a tree
Bun (Bon) Bún Pers. foundation, root, origin; end, limit
Bunab Bunáb Pers. the bottom or depth of water
Bunduq, Banadiq Bunduq, pl. Banádiq hazelnut(s), filberts; hazel, hazel tree. Pers. Funduq, Turk. Findík
Buni Búní ‘Abdu’lláh Búní (SDC 104)
Bunn Bunn coffee beans; coffee
Buq’a, Buqa’, Biqa’ Buq‘a, pl. Buqa‘, Biqá‘ spot, blot, smudge, stain; place, site, plot, patch, lot
Buq’atu’l-Hamra Buq‘atu’l-Ḥamrá’ “Crimson Spot”—a term used in several allegorical and symbolic senses in the Bahá’í Writings, including for the prison-city of ‘Akká. Samaríyyih Hill (32.961469, 35.092595, designated Buq‘atu’l-Ḥamrá’ by Bahá’u’lláh), 2 km north of Bahjí, opposite the kibbutz of Lohamei HaGeta’ot, where red flowers grew in abundance in the time of Bahá’u’lláh.
Buq’atu’l-Khadra’ Buq‘atu’l-Khaḍrá’ “The Verdant Spot”, a former private cemetery near the government “castle”, Yazd. Designated as such by Bahá’u’lláh.
Buqrat Buqráṭ Hippocrates, from the Greek Ippokrátis. Hippocrates II of Kos, usually known simply as Hippocrates. The most celebrated physician of ancient Greece and the grandson of Hippocrates I.
Bur Búr uncultivated, fallow
Burhan (Borhan), Barahin Burhán, pl. Baráhín proof, demonstration
Burhan-i-Lami’ Burhán-i-Lámi’ (Burhane Lame) published as “The Brilliant Proof”
Burhani’d-Din Burháni’d-Dín Proof of religion
Burida Gush (Borideh Gosh) Burída(h) Gush Pers. crop-eared, i.e. ear cut off. Name applied to ‘Abdu’l-Karím (assisted with the internment of the remains of the Báb)
Burj-i-Azadi (Burj-i-Shahyad) Burj-i-Ázádí Pers. “Freedom Tower” since 1979, formerly known as the Burj-i-Shahyád (“Shah’s Memorial Tower”). Designed by the Bahá’í architect Ḥusayn Amánát. Since moving to Canada in 1980, he has designed three administrative buildings on the Baháʼí Arc in Haifa, and the Baháʼí House of Worship in Samoa.
Burj, Buruj, Abraj Burj, pl. Burúj, Abráj tower, castle, sign of the zodiac
Burnus, Baranis, Barnus,Burnus Burnus, pl. Baránis (also barnús, burnús, pl. baranís) burnoose, hooded cloak; casula, chasuble (of Coptic priests)
Burqa, Burqu’, Baraqi’ Burqu‘, (Pers. also Burqa‘), pl. Baráqi‘ veil (worn by women; long, leaving the eyes exposed)
Burujird Burújird Capital city of the province of Luristán, place of the governorship of Mírzá Buzurg
Busayra, Busayrah, Busaira, Bozrah Buṣayrá (Ar.), Boṣrah (Heb.) historical site and former capital of Edom. Adjacent to the town of Basira (Bouseira, Busaira), Jordan—about 30 km SE of the “southern end” of the Dead Sea.
Bushihr (Bushehr or Bushire) shihr also known as Bandar Búshihr, previously Beh Ardasher, Antiochia in Persis and Bukht Ardashir. Iranian city (once the primary port of Írán) and province on the Persian Gulf.
Bushr Bushr glad-tidings
Bushru’i Bushrú’í (of or from Bushrúyih)
Bushruyih (Boshrouyeh) Bushrúyih a town in Khurásán, 55 km NE of Ṭabas and 70 km WSW of Tún.  It is the birthplace of Mullá Ḥusayn, first disciple of the Báb.
Busra (Bosra, Bozra, Bozrah) Buṣrá officially named Buṣrá ash-Shám, town SW Syria where 12-year old Muḥammad met the monk Baḥírá
Bustan, Basatin Bustán, pl. Basátín garden or orchard. Tablets of Abdul-Baha Abbas “Boston”
Bustani Bustání gardener; garden (adj.); horticultural
Butrus Buṭrus Peter (Petros). See batrá
Buy Búy Pers. odour, fragrance, perfume; scent, spice; hope, wish, desire; search, quest; love; nature, disposition; portion, part, lot
Buy-i-Juy-i-Muliyan Búy-i-Júy-i-Múliyán Pers. "The fragrance of the Muliyan Brook" poem by Rúdakí
Buya (Boya) Buya Pers. hope, desire; fumitory; a Persian dynasty (Buyid) of the Dailamites (Daylamígán) founded by ‘Alí ibn Buya.
Buyuk Búyúk Turkic (Büyük), great, big, large, major, grand
Buyuk-Aqa Búyúk-Áqá
Buyuk-Chakmachih Búyúk-Chakmachih Büyükçekmece, a district and municipality of Istanbul Province (abour 30 km west of the city), on the European side of the Sea of Marmara coast. It is west of Küçükçekmece.
Buzurg-Banna Buzurg-Banná Ustád Áqá Buzurg-Banná
Buzurg-Mihr Buzurg-Mihr Pers. “large sun”. Buzurg-Mihr-i-Búkhtagán was an Iranian sage and dignitary, who served as minister of the Sasanian king Kavad I (r. 498–531), and the latter’s son and successor Khusraw I (r. 531–579). He also served as a military commander under Khusraw I and his successor Hurmúzd IV (r. 579–590). He was regarded as a man of “exceptional wisdom and sage counsels” and later became a characterisation of the expression.
Buzurj, Buzurg Buzurj, Pers. Buzurg great, grand. The title given by Fatḥ-‘Alí Sháh to Mírzá ‘Abbás-i-Núrí (better known as Mírzá Buzurg-i-Vazír of Núr, hence also Buzurg-i-Núrí). Bahá’u’lláh was his third child by second wife, Khadíjih Khánum.
Buzurjzada, Buzurgzada Buzurjzáda, Pers. Buzurgzáda (Buzurgzadeh) Bozorgadeh Kahn
Top -s ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
• Arabic and Persian   →   · Letters, transcription & abjad values, · ‘Ayn & hamza consonants, · Capitalisations, · Elative word forms, · Hybrid words/names, · Numbers, · Plurals (Arabic, Persian) · Underdots, · Underscores, · Vowel Sounds
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• Twelfth Imám—occultation and return
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• Qur’án suras
• Qur’anic “names” of God
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• Microsoft Word
Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
C
Caelum, Cælum, Coelo, Cœlo ex cœlo Latin. cælum is sky, heaven. Cœlum is a variation of cælum. Hence, ex cœlo is “from the sky” or “from heaven”. Compare with ex cathedra “from the chair”, with the full authority of office. The Catholic pope is said to occupy the “chair of Peter”. Refer to The heart of the Gospel, p. 66.
Chadar, Chadur (Chador) Chádar, Chádur Pers. A tent, pavilion; a mantle, scarf; a veil; a sheet; a shroud, winding-sheet; a table-cloth. Shawl or a long, loose cloak worn over other garments by Muslim women.
Chah Cháh Pers. a well, pit; a prison, dungeon; a snare
Chah-Qilan Cháh-Qílán locality, possibly near Kirmánsháh. Mentioned in DB p. 13.
Chahar (Char, Chihar), Chahar juy Chahár Pers. four, a crab. Contraction chár. Chahár júy, the rivers of Paradise; the elements; name of a province in Khurásán.
Chahar Bagh, Charbagh (Chihar Bagh) Chahár Bágh Pers. “four gardens”, a Persian, Indo-Persian, and Islamic quadrilateral garden layout based on the four gardens of Paradise mentioned in the Qur’án. The quadrilateral garden is divided by walkways or flowing water into four smaller parts.
Chahar Sham’ Pish Chahár Sham’ Písh “four candles ahead” or the time to burn four candles. A shrine (36.553683, 52.685930) in Babol, a former suburb and the area of the Áq-rúd village where Quddús was born.
Chahar Vadi (Chihar-Vadi) Chahár Vádí “Four Valleys” by Bahá’u’lláh. Addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu’r-Raḥmán-i-Karkútí. See chahár and wádí
Chahardar Chahárdah Pers. fourteen
Chahishk Cháhishk Pers. village on the NW side of Mashhad
Chal Chál Pers. a hole wherein one may stand upright without being buried, pit, cavern, trench
Chaman, Chamman Chamán (Chammán) Pers. walking, giving oneself haughty, swinging, or graceful airs in walking; a goblet of wine; a party of friends
Changiz Changíz Genghis Khán (c. 1162–1227)
Chapan, Chupan (Chuppan) Chapán, Chupán Pers. tattered garments
Chapar Chápár Turkish a runner, mounted messenger, courier; post; mail. Persian government post, called in old times, Baríd, where post horses may be hired by private individuals.
Chapar-chi, Chaparchi Chápár-chí, Chápárchí Turkish courier
Chaq Cháq Pers. time; health; healthy, well; stout, obese
Chardivari Chárdívárí private home or four walls
Chashm, Chashmha Chashm, pl. Chashmhá Pers. the eye; hope; an amulet or charm (particularly of holy writ) against fascination or enchantment; the individual himself (as ‘ayn in Arabic); anything resembling an eye, as the hole of a sieve, the eye of a needle, the mesh of a net, etc.
Chashma (Cheshmeh, Chashmih) Chashma (چشمه) Pers. (also “Chashmih”) a fountain, source, spring; the sun; spectacles; eye of a needle; a vaulted arch
Chashma ‘Ali (Chashmih-‘Ali) Chashma ‘Alí or Chashmah-i-‘Alí Pers. “spring of ‘Alí”, “Chashmih-‘Alí”, “Cheshmeh-‘Ali”, “Chishmih-‘Alí”. Name of many locations. A spring (35.607392, 51.444928) 10 km SSE city centre of Ṭihrán. A village (36.278167, 54.083907) near Ástána and NW of Dámghán, all are in Semnan Province.
Chawush Cháwush Turkish a sergeant, a beadle; a herald; the leader of an army or caravan; a guide. A guide who would chant poems praising the Prophet or the Imams, and he would call on people to take him as a guide for a pilgrimage either to Mecca, the ‘Atabát, or Mashhad. He would hoist a special banner to announce the imminent pilgrimage. This may explain why Mullá Ḥusayn’s party were able to carry a black banner without arousing any suspicions.
Chawush-Khwani Cháwush-Khwání recitation by a guide
Chay (Cha’i) Cháy (Chá’í) Pers. tea. See Sháy
Chi or Chih, Chiha Chi or Chih, pl. Chihá Pers. something; who? what? which? a Turkish affix to form words denoting the agent
Chigan, Jigan Chígán, Jígán village (32.897875, 50.334005) 128 km WNW of Iṣfahán
Chihal (Chihil) Chihal, Chihil Pers. forty
Chihr, Chihra Chihr, fem. Chihra (چ‍ره) Pers. face, visage; original essence; a map; small shot
Chihra-Nama (Chehreh-Nama) Chihra-Namá Pers. “Face view”, “portrait painter” or “real face of people”. Iranian newspaper first published (possibly 1890s) in Alexandria and then Cairo. It acted as a conduit of ideas (unable to be published in Írán) between Egypt and Írán in the campaigns of political, social, and cultural reform.
Chihriq, Chehriq, Chahriq Chihríq (Čahrīk, Turkic “challenge”) Qal‘ah Chihríq (“Shimko Castle”, see Şikák) is a citadel in Kurdish Ádhirbáyján, designated by the Báb as Jabal-i-Shadíd (the “Grievous Mountain”), name chosen based on Chihríq and Shadíd (“grievous”) having the same abjad value of 318. He was imprisoned there May 1848–July 1850. There are two villages: Chihríq-i-Ulya (“Upper” Chihríq, 38.079311, 44.599834), about 70 km NW of Urmia; and Chihríq-i-Suflá (“Lower” Chihríq, 38.076439, 44.611989) is 1 km ESE of Chihríq-i-Ulya. The ruins of the fortress (38.080166, 44.589550) is on the end of a ridge with steep sides between the now largely dry Zúlá Cháy River and a side stream. It is about 0.8 km to the west of Chihríq-i-Ulya and 19 km SE of the modern Türkye border. Access to the fort was only possible by crossing the river, making it more difficult for the Báb’s followers to reach him. Armenian Christians (they left about 1830) lived in the walled village (with a church) below the castle. They had a second church (38.078982, 44.591295) 200 m to the south and a cemetery west of this church.
Chilaw-kabab Chiláw-kabáb “national dish” of Írán; cooked rice with one of many varieties of kebab
Chinar Chinár Pers. chenar or Oriental plane tree
Chinar-Sukhtih Chinár-Súkhtih “burnt tree”, a section of Nayriz (south and SW of city centre) that includes the Masjid Jámi‘ Kabír. Varqá’s house ≈ 29.189037, 54.326549. Qal‘ah-i-Khwájah (≈ 29.194332, 54.337368) was ≈ 1 km to the east.
Chiragh (Cheragh, Chiraq) Chirágh Pers. a lamp; light; the wick of a candle; a guide, director; a client, dependant; a horse’s rearing; a pasture. Sháh Chirágh (29.609674, 52.543340) is a funerary monument and mosque in Shíráz. See Ar. Siráj.
Chisht Chisht town (now city, Chishti Sharíf, 34.342240, 63.738131) 140 km east of Heart, Afghánistán (formerly eastern Persia)
Chishti Chish Chishtí Ṣúfí Order is known for its emphasis on love, tolerance and openness. It began with Abú Isḥáq Shámí (d. 940) in Chisht, c. CE 930. It was the first of the four main Ṣúfí orders (Chishtí, Qádiríya, Suhrawardí and Naqshbandí) to be established in this region.
Chiz, Chi Chíz, Chí Pers. something; who? what? which? a Turkish affix to form words denoting the agent
Chub (Chob) Chúb Pers. a log; wood; a tree; a staff, rod, baton, stick; a drumstick; a beam; a plough-tail; a shoot of a tree, sucker
Chubin Dar, Chubindar, Jubin Chúbín Dar (Choobindar Choubindar; also known as Júbín Dar, Chúbín, and Chundar) is a village to the SW of Qazvín. Chúbín Dar Zindán (Prison) is on the west side of the village. See Sijn-i-Matín
Chula (Chuleh, Chulih, Choleh) Chúla (چوله) Pers. porcupine
Chulaw (Chulav), Chilaw Chuláw (Chuláv) Pers. plain boiled rice
Chupan Chúpán Pers. (Chopan, Copan) a shepherd. Amír Chúpán and Dr Chúpán
Comforter Comforter (Gk. Paracletos) Muḥammad and Aḥmad (“the Praised One”, “a Mercy for all creatures” and “most kind and merciful to the Believers”) are almost a translation of the Greek word Periclytos. The use of “Comforter” in the John 14:16 and 16:7 is based on the Greek word Paracletos (“Advocate”, “one called to the help of another, a kind friend”). Muslims argue that Paracletos is a corrupt reading for Periclytos.
Cunningham Cunningham 1919 model car arrived Port Said early January 1920 (Prelude to the Guardianship, p. 126). Recently restored and stored in an air conditioned building at the front of 7 Har-Parsim St, Haifa.
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Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
D
Da’a, Du’a’ Da‘á, Du‘á’ Ar. to call (someone); to summon, call or send for someone; to call up; to call upon someone, appeal to someone for something or to do something; to propagate, propagandize (something), make propaganda, make publicity (for)
Da’i or Du’at Dá‘í, pl. Du‘át Pers. who or what invites or stimulates (others) to anything; who prays for, invokes a blessing upon; the Muezzm who calls to prayers; Muhammad (as caller to the faith). Meaning also a missionary, see da’wa.
Da’if, Du’afa Ḍa‘if, pl. m. Ḍu‘afa’ weak, feeble; frail, weakly, delicate, debilitated, impotent, languid, flabby, slack
Da’im Dá’im lasting, enduring; endless, eternal, perpetual, everlasting; perennial; continued, continuous, continual, incessant, unceasing, constant; permanent, standing, established; durable. As in permanent marriage. Compare with munqaṭi‘.
Da’iman Dá’iman continually, forever
Da’ir Dá’ir turning, revolving, spinning; circulating; current (e.g., expression), common; ambulant, itinerant; in progress, under way; working, in operation; running (machine, engine); round
Da’ira, Dawa’ir Dá’ira(h), pl. Dawá’ir circle (also mathematics); ring; circumference, perimeter, periphery; sphere, scope, range, compass, extent, circuit; field, domain (figurative); official agency, department (especially Ir., Syr., Leb.); office, bureau; department of a court of justice (e.g., Tun.); farm, country estate (e.g.); misfortune, calamity, affliction. The Dá’ira represents the Sun of Truth (the Manifestation of the Names and attributes of God) (from the Báb). Hence, women are called the “possessors of the circle (dá’ira)” because the Manifestation of the Names and attributes of God is enshrined within the heart of each individual. See haykal.
Da’ish (Daesh) Dá‘ish The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, ad-Dawlah al-Islámiyah fí’l-‘Iráq wa sh-Shám), officially known as the Islamic State (IS) and also known by its Arabic-language acronym Daesh (Dá‘ish), is a terrorist militant group that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi jihadist doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Da’iya (Da’i), Dawa’in Dá‘iya (“Dá‘í”), pl. Dawá‘in one who calls for something, invites to something; propagandist, herald; (pl.) motive, reason, cause, occasion; requirements, exigencies. Hence, ad-dá‘iya, the caller.
Da’wa, Da’awa, Da’awin Da‘wá, pl. Da‘áwá, Da‘áwin allegation, pretension; claim; lawsuit, case, action, legal proceedings (Islamic Law)
Da’wa, Da’awat Da‘wa(h), pl. Da‘awát call; appeal; bidding, demand, request; call, convocation, summons (to), calling up, summoning; (official) summons, citation; invitation; claim, demand, plea; missionary activity, missionary work, propaganda;—pl. invocation, imploration, supplication, prayer; good wish. The summons to Islám that precedes or replaces holy war; Islamic missionary endeavour, proselytization.
Dabb, Dabab, Adubb, Dubban Ḍabb, pl. Ḍabáb, Aḍubb, Ḍubbán lizard
Dabba, Dawabb Dábba(h or t), pl. Dawább animal (including man), beast; riding animal (horse, mule, donkey). See Qur’án 11:59 and 27:19.
Dabir, Dibir Dabír, Dibír Pers. a writer, secretary, notary; a writing-master; dabíru’l-mulk, Secretary of State
Dabiristan (Dabistan), Dibiristan Dabíristán, Dibíristán Pers. a high school; a record office. Dabistán (“Debistan”) is either a contraction of dabíristán or an abbreviation of adabistán.
Dabistan al-Madhhahib Dabistán al-Madhháhib title of a book (“School of doctrines”) containing historical records of religions and creeds, we find stories and traditions concerning the Brahaman and Zoroastrian miracles. Persian Dabistánu’l-Madhháhib
Dabit, Dubbat, Dawabit Ḍábiṭ controlling device, control, governor, regulator (techn.); prepositor entrusted with discipline (in e.g. schools); (pl. ḍubbáṭ) officer; (pl. ḍawábiṭ) general rule, canon, (moral) precept or order
Dabita, Dawabit Ḍábiṭa, Ḍawábiṭ police; (pl.) curbing force, order
Dad Dád Persian. He gave; a gift; justice, equity; redress of grievances; complaint, lamentation (under oppression); measure; a part, portion; revenge; a ringworm; life; age; a year
Dada Dada (Dadih) Pers. a grandfather; a title given to dervishes, especially qalandars; a nurse who brings up children
Dada Dáda governess, dry nurse, nurse
Dada Dádá Pers. a female servant, particularly an old one who has attended upon anyone from her youth; a handmaid.
Dadash Dádásh Pers. brother
Dah Dah Pers. ten; indicating sometimes a large, sometimes a small number; displeasure; annoyance, trouble; curses, imprecations; commanding what is right and forbidding what is wrong
Dahaj (Dehaj) Dahaj (Dahíj) town (30.690764, 54.877358) between Shíráz and Kirmán
Dahaji Dahají from Dahaj. Siyyid-i-Mihdíy-i-Dahají was named Ismu’lláhu’l-Jamál by Bahá’u’lláh. He rebelled against ‘Abdu’l-Bahá after the death of Bahá’u’lláh.
Dahan, Dihan Dahán, Dihán Pers. the mouth; an orifice
Dahiya, Dawahin Dáhiya(t), pl. Dawáhin calamity, disaster, catastrophe; misfortune
Dahmubidi Dahmúbidí (Dah + múbidí) Dáryúsh Dahmúbidí
Dahr, Duhur, Adhur Dahr, pl. Duhúr, Adhur (ادھر) time; long time, age, epoch; lifetime; eternity; fate, destiny; “world of duration”. Note adhur plural has the letters d and h, not dh.
Dai’a, Diya’ Ḍai‘a, pl. Ḍiyá‘ landed estate, country estate, domain; small village, hamlet
Daidanaw (Day Da Naw) Daidanaw Burmese. Daidanaw, known as “‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s village”, is 4.25 km NE along the road to Kawhmu from the main road junction in Kungangon, Burma (Myanmar). Siyyid Muṣṭafá Rúmí’s shrine is to the north of the Bahá’í Centre (16.465353, 96.040762). Refer to https://bahai-library.com/history_bahai_faith_myanmar
Dajjal, Dajjalun, Dajajila Dajjál, pl. Dajjálún, Dajájila (“Dedjal”) swindler, cheat, imposter; quack, charlatan; Antichrist (false Christ or anti-Christ). The Antichrist (Siyyid Muḥammad Iṣfahání, the “Antichrist of the Bahá’í revelation”), who would appear at the Advent of the Promised One (Bahá’u’lláh), to contend with and ultimately be defeated by Him. See Sufyání and Áqásí.
Dakhan Dakhan smoke, fume, vapour. Town 98 km ENE Hamadán
Dakhil, Dukhala’ Dakhíl, pl. Dukhalá’ inner, inward, internal; inner self, heart, core;—pl. extraneous; foreign, alien; exotic; foreigner, alien, stranger; not genuine, false, spurious; newly added (to); novice; (new) convert; guest; protégé, charge, ward
Dakhili Dakhílí Masrúr Dakhílí executed 1981
Dakhma (Dakhmih, Dakhmeh) Dakhma a Pársí word for a circular stone building in the form of a cylinder (so-called “tower of silence”, tower of khámushí “silence”). Zoroastrians lay the bodies of their dead on its flat top surface (the receptacle for the dead); a tomb; a coffin; a mausoleum (modern colloquialism)
Dal Dál Letter ‘D’
Dala’il al-‘Irfan, Dala’ilu’l-‘Irfan Dalá’il al-‘Irfán, Dalá’ilu’l-‘Irfán “Signs of knowledge” by Ḥájí Mírzá Ḥaydar ‘Alí Iṣfahání
Dala’il-i-Sab’a (Dala’il-i-Sab’ih) Dalá’il-i-Sab‘a (Dalá’il-i-Sab‘ih) “The Seven Proofs” in Persian by the Báb
Dalaki Dálakí city 73 km NE of Búshihr and 15 km SW Kunár Takhta. The Báb was arrested in this city in 1846.
Dalal Ḍalál a straying from the right path or from truth; error
Dalil, Adilla, Dala’l, Adilla’, Dala’il Dalíl, pl. Adilla, Dalá’l, Adillá’ (the latter of persons) indication (of); sign, token; symptom; proof, evidence (of); guide; tourist guide; pilot (of a ship, of an airplane);guidebook, guide manual, handbook; directory, telephone directory; railroad guide, timetable; guide rail (technical); roller path (in steel construction). pl. also dalá’il.
Dalilu’l-Mutahayyirin Dalílu’l-Mutaḥayyirín Guide of the astonished, bewildered, helpless or perplexed
Daliyat ar-Rawha’ Dálíyá(t) ar-Rawḥá’ (fragrant vine”) a Palestinian village 24.5 km SE of Haifa. The Jewish colony of Dalia was established on land purchased in the village in 1939. It was depopulated of its Arab inhabitants in late March during the 1948 Palestine War.
Dall, Dawall, Dallin Ḍáll, pl. Ḍawáll, Ḍállín straying, roaming, wandering; astray, lost; erroneous, false. Ḍállín (gone astray)
Dallal Dallál auctioneer; broker, jobber, middleman, agent, commission merchant; hawker
Dalvand Dálvand Sháhín Dálvand
Damawand, Damavand Damáwand, Damávand city (58 km east Tehran), county and mountain (5,609 m, 27 km north of the city)
Damdam Ḍamḍám one who comprehends, contains, grasps, or holds everything; anything that contains, surrounds, or comprises another
Damghan Dámghán city (36.162988, 54.333824) 125 km SE Sari and 60 km SW of Sháhrúd
Damir Ḍámir loan, skinny, thin; slender, slim, svelte, lank (camel or any riding animal). See Qur’án 22:27 where it is often translated as “lean camel”.
Damma, Dammat Ḍamma, pl. Ḍammát the vowel point for the short vowel u;—pl. embrace, hug. See kasra and fatḥa
Dana (Danih) Dána Pers. grain; a berry; stone of fruit, seed of grain or fruit; a pimple; grain or bait scattered for catching birds; a cannon-ball; knowledge, science, learning; learned
Danaq, Daniq, Dawaniq Dánaq, Dániq, pl. Dawániq two carats (2 qíráṭ, 1/6 dirham); an ancient coin; small coin; a square measure. Abú Dawáníq, a nickname of the Caliph Abú-Ja‘far Manṣúr on account of his avarice.
Dani’, Adniya’, Adna’ Daní’,pl. Adniyá’, Adná’ low, base, mean, vile, despicable, contemptible; inferior, second-rate, of poor quality. Adná’ also “lowest” or “even closer”—being the second station (the other is that of divinity) of the Báb, that of servitude. (Gate of the heart, p. 223)
Danish Dánish Pers. science, knowledge, learning; excellence
Danishniya Dánishníyá[t] Pers. (dánish + níyá[t]) knowledgeable or learned. Adíb Dánishníyá.
Dannun (Danun, Dunnun, Thulnoon) Dannún shrines of Shaykh Dannún (32.991081, 35.147904) and Shaykh Dawúd (32.993921, 35.150093) in small villages of the same name are now merged as the village of Sheikh Dannun, 5 km ESE of the city of Nahariya, Israel.  Bahá’u’lláh would have passed through or near here enroute to the former village of an-Nahr in 1880. See Nahr. For “thulnoon”, see Dhú’n-Nún.
Daqiqa, Daqa’iq Daqíqa, pl. Daqá’iq particle; nicety (“subtlety”); intricacy; detail, particular; minute (time unit)
Dar Dar Pers. 1. (preposition) in, into, within, among; on, upon, above; of, concerning, about; by, for; because of; near, hard by, at; to, as far as, according to; before, in presence of; against; with; under; at length; after; so much; out, out of doors. 2. (noun) a door, gate, passage, door-way or gate-way; a chapter (of the Zand); a subject, topic; way, manner, method; genus, sort, kind; turn, step, degree; a kind of wild bird; a gnat; a blackberry; a valley; a mountain-pass; the foot, also summit, of a mountain. 3. (imperative of darídan), tear thou; (in composition) tearing, as parda-dar, veil-tearing, dishonouring.
Dar al-Athar, Daru’l-Athar Dár al-Áthár, (Pers.) Dáru’l-Áthár museum, archives
Dar al-Funun, Daru’l-Funun Dár al-Funún, Dáru’l-Funún building or centre for arts and sciences) The first technical college of Írán in Teheran founded by Prime Minister Mírzá Taqí Khán. BKG 72
Dar as-Salam, Daru’s-Salam Dár as-Salám, Pers. Dáru’s-Salám (Darussalam, Dar es Salaam) paradise, heaven; epithet of Baghdád (Abode of Peace or the City of God since peace is an attribute of God). See Bahá’u’lláh King of Glory, p. 296. Dar es Salaam (seaport and capital of Tanzania).
Dar Kula, Darkula, Darab Kola, Dara Kola Dár Kulá (Dárkulá) a village (36.512137, 52.301776) in the Central District of Amol County, Mazandaran Province
Dar, Daran Dár, pl. Dárán Pers. wood; a gallows; a beam; the roofing of a house; a tree, stake; (imperfect of dáshtan, in compounds) holding, possessing, keeping; a keeper, possessor, lord, master
Dar, Dur, Diyar, Diyarat, Diyara Dár f., pl. Dúr, Diyár, Diyárát, Diyara[h] house; building, structure, edifice; habitation, dwelling, abode; residence, home; seat, side, locality; area, region; land, country (especially diyár). dár al-baqá’ the eternal abode, the hereafter; dár as-sa‘áda and dár as-salṭana Constantinople (designation before World War I); dár as-salám paradise, heaven; dár al-hijra Medina. Example Dúru’l-Bahá’íyya. Pers. in compounds as an imperative of dáshtan: holding, possessing, keeping; a keeper, possessor, lord, master.
Dara Dárá Pers. holding fast; a possessor; God; Darius, son of Dáráb; the Darii, kings of Persia; a sovereign
Darab Daráb (Dar Áb) Pers. dar+áb (در آب), in the water
Darab Dáráb A town in Fárs, southern Persia, home of Vaḥíd’s ancestors.
Darabi Dárábí Sayyid Yaḥyá Dárábí (1811–1850), Bábí leader usually known as Waḥíd Akbar (Peerless One), a title given him by the Báb. The eldest son of Sayyid Ja‘far al-Kashfí Iṣṭahbánátí.
Daraja, Darajat Daraja, pl. Daraját step, stair; flight of steps, stairs, staircase; degree, step, tone (of a scale; music); degree (mathematics, geography; of temperature); grade, fate; degree, order, rank; club (also, e.g., in trains, of a decoration); phase state, stage (of a development); mark, grade (in school)
Darb, Durab, Adrab Ḍarb, pl. Ḍurúb, Aḍráb beating, striking, hitting, rapping; shooting, shelling, gunning, bombing, bombardment; multiplication; coining, formation; minting (of money);— (pl. ḍurúb) kind, sort, specimen, species, variety; (pl. aḍráb) similar, like
Darband Darband Pers. gateway or mountain door. City (renamed Derbent) in the province of Dághistán (Russia) on the western banks of the Caspian Sea (gateway to the Caucasus). Also a village (gateway to Mt. Tochal (Tuchál), mountain and ski resort) that is now a neighbourhood on the north side of Ṭihrán.
Dard, Darad Dárd, Dárad Pers. an attribute of God; dárad he holds, has, is possessed of
Dargaz (Dar Gaz) Dargaz (Dar Gaz) also known as Darreh Gaz; formerly, Muḥammadábád, Muḥammadábád Arbáb, and Abíward (Abivard), is a city 65 km NE of Qúchán, in Raḍawí Khurásán Ústán (province), Írán.
Dari Darí Pers. belonging to a door; belonging to the royal court, courtly; one of the three surviving dialects of the seven anciently spoken in Persia, said to prevail chiefly in Balkh, Bukhárá, and Badakhshán, and called the language of the court and of Paradise
Daridan Darídan Pers. to tear, rend, lacerate; to cut out (cloth); to lay open; to subtract; to be loosed; to be torn
Darkala or Dar-Kala (Dar-Kola) Dárkalá or Dár-Kalá (“Kalaa”, “Dhakala”) a village (36.161685, 51.939188) in Núr County (8 km SW of Tákur) in Mázindarán, a second ancestral home of Mírzá Ḥusayn-‘Alí. A village (36.464393, 52.193668) 14 km west of Ámul where Bahá’u’lláh’s family stayed away from the winter cold of Tákur.
Darr Ḍárr harmful, injurious, detrimental, noxious, disadvantageous. Abú Dharr al-Ghifárí al-Kinání, also Jundab ibn Junádah, was the 4th or 5th convert to Islam, and a Muhájirún
Dars, Durus Dars, pl. Durús effacement, obliteration, extinction;—pl. study, studies; lesson, chapter (of a textbook); class, class hour, period; lecture; lesson (taught by experience, etc.)
Darsu’l-Akhláq, Dars-i-Akhlaq Darsu’l-Akhláq, (Pers.) Dars-i-Akhláq “Lessons in morals, good behaviour and character building” (“Dars Akhláq”)
Daru’l-Tabigh or Daru’l-Tarwij Dáru’l-Tabígh or Dáru’l-Tarwíj (Teaching or Propagation Centre, for the Hands)
Daru’l-Tashri’ Dáru’l-Tashrí‘ (House of Legislation, Universal House of Justice)
Daru’s-Surur Dáru’s-Surúr “the happy home”
Daru’sh-Shafa Dáru’sh-Shafá Pers. house of treatment, a building constructed for medical purposes, equivalent of a modern hospital or health clinic
Daru’sh-Shafay-i-Masjid-i-Shah Dáru’sh-Shafáy-i-Masjid-i-Sháh Pers. hospital at the Sháh Mosque in Tehran
Darugha (Darughih) Dárúgha (Pers. Bahá’í Dárúghih) Pers. from Chinese, a territorial subdivision (later a province) in the Mongol Empire that was ruled by a darughachí. In Safavid Persia, a dárúgha was the head man of an office, prefect of a town or village, overseer, or superintendent of any department. Similarly, in the Mughal Empire of South Asia, dárúgha was the title of the district police officer or police magistrate.
Darughagi (Darughachi) Dárúghagí Pers. from Mongolian dárúghachí. A superintendency. He was in charge of administration and taxes—sometimes referred to as a governor.
Darvish Muhammad-i-Irani Darvísh Muḥammad-i-Írání Name used by Bahá’u’lláh while in Sulaymáníyyih
Darvish Sidq-‘Ali Darvísh Ṣidq-‘Alí
Darvish-Salah Darvísh-Ṣaláḥ
Darwaz, Darwaza (Darvarza, Darvazih) Darwáz, Darwáza Pers. large gates, or doors of a city, palace, or fortress (always open); a square, market-place; mendacity;—fem. a door; a gate; a square, market-place, or exchange where merchants meet, and mendicants beg; (hence) begging; a pass through mountains.
Darwaza Kazirun Darwáza Kázirún Kázirún Gate (29.609111, 52.532378) is the west side old city gate (destroyed) of Shíráz on the Kázirún to Shíráz road. The Báb met Mullá Ḥusayn here on 22 May 1844.
Darwaza Qur’an Darwáza Qur’án (or Darwáza Shíráz) “Qur’án Gate”, was at the northern entrance gate to Shíráz on the Iṣfahán road. The gate once had two very large and heavy, hand-written “Qur’áns” (i.e. maṣḥafayn; named hafdah man (weight 51 kg)) stored in a room on top of the arch. The maṣḥafayn were moved in 1937 and are now in the Pars Museum. The modern gate is a “recreation”. All the other city gates have been destroyed.
Darwish (Darvish), Darawish Darwísh, pl. Daráwísh poor, indigent; dervish or monk. A beggar or faqír (poor one) “... those who are completely severed from all but God, who cleave to His laws, are firm in His Faith, loyal to His Covenant, and constant in worship.” Attributed to Bahá’u’lláh in MF 39. May be written as Darwesh or Darvesh in Persian.
Darya Daryá Pers. a sea, ocean; a river; (in the language of mysticism) pure, uncreated, divine essence
Daryay-i-Nur (Daryay-i-Noor) Daryáy-i-Núr Pers. the Sea of Light or the Ocean of Light—the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.
Name of the famous and largest pink cut diamond (≈182 carats, from India), the colour is a very rare pale pink.
See Kúh-i-Núr.
Daryun (Dariun), Daryan (Darian) Dáryún (Dáríún), Dáryán (Dáríán)) city (29.563709, 52.931288; 35 km east of Shíráz) in the Central District of Shíráz County, Fárs Province;
city (38.216401, 45.628214; 60 km WNW Tabriz) in East Azerbaijan; village (35.145114, 46.315736) 1 km SE of the Daryan Dam in Kirmánsháh Province.
An area (32.677209, 51.707902) in Iṣfahán (5 km NE of city centre).
Daryush (Dariush, Darioush) Dáryúsh Pers. (“Dáriúsh”, Darioush) a common Persian male given name.
Old Persian Dárayavush = Dáraya- [hold] + vush (wash) [good], i.e. “holding firm the good”.
Historically it has been translated into English and Latin as “Darius”.
Dáryúsh Dahmúbidí..
Darz, Duruz Darz, pl. Durúz seam, hem; suture
Darzi Darzí Pers. a tailor
Dasht Dasht Pers. a desert, plain without water; a burial-ground; a chess-board; dry musk
Dashtan shtan Pers. to have; to hold; to possess; to profess, maintain
Dast, Dast ba Dast Dast, Dast bá Dast Pers. the hand; the forearm; a cubit. dast bá dast, hand in hand; very near; agile, quick, speedy.
Dast, Dust Dast, pl. Dusút place of honour, seat of honour, seat of office; council; dast al-ḥukm (a ruler’s) throne
Dastan Dastán Pers. history, romance, fable; song, melody, trill, shake; the key of a musical instrument; foolish, idle talk; fraud, imposture, stratagem
Dastjird Dastjird (Dastjerd) city 60 km WSW of Qum, Írán
Dastjirdan Dastjirdán people of Dastjird
Dastmal-Girih-Zan Dastmál-Girih-Zan Pers. literally “handkerchief-knot-woman”
Dastmal, Dast-mal Dast-mál, Dastmál Pers. rubbing the hands; a towel; a handkerchief; a kettle-holder; dinner-plate; easy, smooth; bare; a prisoner; wealth
Dastur, Datwar, Dasturan Dastúr, pl. Dasátír or Dastúrán Pers. (borrowed from Arabic dustúr) leave, permission, licence; congé; a prime minister, vazír, senator, councillor of state; a confidential person; a model, exemplar, rule, basis, foundation, canon, original of a book, record, formula, or any writing of authority to which people have recourse; custom, mode, manner, fashion; constitution, privilege; a customary fee, tax, or percentage; fulfilment of a promise; a bolt, bar; a large log laid across a ship as ballast; a high Zoroastrian priest; a powerful man; in India a Pársí priest. See dustúr.
Dasturi Dastúrí Pers. perquisites paid to servants by one who sells to their master, fees; leave; custom; anything thrown in, or placed upon another (as if one should buy a pound of sugar, and an apple should be put on the top)
Dawachi (Davachi) Dawachí an old district of Tabriz to the north of the city centre
Dawla (Daula, Daulih, Dawlih), Duwal Dawla[h or t], pl. Duwal originally: alternation, rotation, cycle, change; change of time, period of rule. Used in particular by the early Abbasid caliphs to denote “the time of their success”, i.e. the period of their rule, and soon became associated specifically with the ruling house and acquired the connotation of “dynasty”. Since 19th century: dynasty; state or government, country; power, empire. e.g. Dawlat-Ábád and Dawlat-Ábádí. Pers. also dawlih.
Dawli (Dauli), Duwali Dawlí state (adjective); duwalí international
Dawr (Daur), Adwar Dawr, pl. Adwár Pers. (Ar. influence) time, age; a revolution, period of years; a period of 360 solar years; evil times; days of oppression; a state of poverty; the world, fortune; the repetition of a lesson; a cup handed round by the guests; intelligence which spies transmit to the court of their sovereign;—pl. orbs, orbits, revolutions, circles; periods, ages
Dawr (Dur, Daur), Adwar Dawr, pl. Adwár round (of a patrol; in sports); role, part (played by someone or something); film role, stage role; periodic change, rotation, alternation; crop rotation; period; (one’s) turn; phase, stage, step, degree, station; epoch, age, era, cycle; fit, attack, paroxysm (of a disease); floor, story; musical composition; number, single performance (within a program)
Dawr an-Nabawi, Dur-i-Nabuwwat Dawr an-Nabawí, Dur-i-Nabuwwat Prophetic Cycle
Dawra (Daura, Zorah), Dawrat Dawra[h or t], pl. Dawrát urn, revolution, gyration, rotation; circulation; cycle; circuit; round, patrol; procession (Christian); round trip; tour (in general, of an artist or performer); detour; period (also electricity); session (of parliament); course (of instruction). ad-Dawra is a neighbourhood of southern Baghdád.
Dawran (Dauran), Dawaran Dawrán, Dawarán Pers. (Ar. influence) a revolution, period, circle, cycle; time, an age; fortune, vicissitude; rolling round.
Daws (Daus) Daws treading, trampling, tread, step
Dawud (Davud), Da’ud (Daoud) Dáwud, Dáwúd, Dá’úd David. Hebrew Daoud. Other variants: Daut, Dawood and Davut. Abú Dáwud Sulaymán ibn al-Ash‘ath al-Azdí as-Sijistání, commonly known simply as Abú Dáwúd, was a Persian scholar of prophetic ḥadíth who compiled the third of the six “canonical” ḥadíth collections recognized by Sunní Muslims.
Dawudi (Daoudi), Daiudi Dáwúdí, Dá’údí of David. Followers (Daoudis) of David, a small sect of Islám. Dr ‘Alí Murád Dávúdí (1922–1979)
Day (Dai) Day Pers the 10th month of the Persian solar year
Dayf (Daif), Duyuf, Adyaf, Difan Ḍayf, pl. Ḍuyúf, Aḍyáf, Ḍífán guest; visitor
Daylam Daylam Old Province SW cnr Caspian Sea (now Gílán)
Dayr (Dair), Adyar, Adyira, Duyura Dayr, pl. Adyár, Adyira, Duyúra (“deir”) monastery, convent, cloister
Dayyan (Daiyan) Dayyán pious, godly, devout, religious, a requiter (rewarder) of good and evil; metaphorical accountant who rewards people for their deeds on the Day of Resurrection: hence an epithet of God; a conqueror, a subduer; a judge, umpire, administrator. Mirza Asadu’lláh was given the title Dayyán (Judge) by the Báb and “the third Letter to believe in Him whom God shall make manifest” by Bahá’u’lláh.
Dha Kifl, Dha’l-Kifl (Dha’u’l-Kifl) Dhá Kifl, Dha’l-Kifl (Dhá’u’l-Kifl) or dhú Kifl, Dhu’l-Kifl (Dhú’u’l-Kifl) “Possessor of the Fold”. Kifl occurs in Qur’án 21:85 and 38:48. Name believed to be Elijah, Joshua, Zachariah or Ezekiel. Sometimes zul, dhul, etc. are used.
Dhabih, Dhaboha, Dhaba’ih Dhabíḥ, fem. Dhabíḥa[h or t] pl. Dhabíḥíyún fem. pl. dhabá’iḥ. sacrifice or slaughtered. fem. slaughter animal; sacrificial victim, blood sacrifice; sacrifice, immolation; offering, oblation. Pers. zabíḥ. Ḥájí Muḥammad Ismá‘íl was known as Dhabíḥ. The name Ismá‘íl in Bábí-Bahá’í history is associated with the soubriquet ‘Dhabíḥ’. Ismá‘íl (Ishmael), the son that Abraham had by Hagar, and according to the Qur’án, it was Ishmael whom Abraham offered to sacrifice—hence the association of the name Ismá‘íl with Dhabíḥ. (Balyuzi, E. G. Browne) Azízu’lláh Dhabíhíyán, martyred in Yazd in 1980.)
Dhabih Allah, Dhabihu’llah Dhabíḥ Alláh, Dhabíḥu’lláh “Sacrifice of God”, reference to Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice His eldest and patient (Qur’án 37:101, 21:85) son, Ismá‘íl (Ishmael).
Dhahab Dhahab (m. and f.), pl. Dhiháb gold; gold piece, gold coin; having the eyes dazzled at the glare of gold, or on entering suddenly into a glittering mine; the yolk of an egg
Dhahaba, Dhahab, Madhhab (Mazhab) Dhahaba (Dhaháb, Madhhab) to go (to); to betake oneself, travel (to); to go away, leave, depart; to disappear, vanish, decline, dwindle; to perish, die, be destroyed; with to carry something off, take something away, abduct, steal something, sweep something or someone away, annihilate, destroy something or someone
Dhahabi Dhahabí golden, of gold; precious, excellent, apposite (e.g., advice, saying, etc.)
Dhahabiya, Dhahabiyyat Dhahabíya[h or t], pl. Dhahabíyát Pers. (English dahabeah) a long, light-draft houseboat, used on the Nile. Pers. dhahabiyya[h]. adh-Dhahabiyya, Shí‘í Ṣúfí order in Írán.
Dhaka’, Dhuka’ Dhaká’ acumen, mental, acuteness, intelligence, brightness;—dhuká’, the sun
Dhakawa (Dhakava, Zakawa) Dhakáwa[h or t] brightness of genius, wit, intelligence, sharp-mindedness
Dhaki Dhakí Pers. acute; strong, diffusive musk
Dhakir, Dhakirin Dhákir, pl. Dhákirín Pers. rememberer; a praiser of God
Dhakira Dhákira memory
Dhakiy, Adhkiya’ Dhakíy, pl. Adhkiyá’ person of discernment, penetration, or understanding; acute, witty
Dhanb, Dhunub Dhanb, pl. Dhunúb offence, sin, crime, misdeed
Dhaqa, Dhawq (Dhauq), Madhaq Dháqa, (Dhawq, Dhawáq, Madháq) to taste, sample (food, etc.); to try, try out, test (something); to get a taste (of something), experience, undergo, suffer (something), go through something; form IV to have (someone) taste or sample (something), give (someone something) to taste; form V to taste (something) slowly, repeatedly, thoroughly; to get a taste (of something); to sense, perceive (something); to enjoy thoroughly, savour, relish (something); to derive pleasure (from)
Dhar’ Dhar‘ (verbal noun of dhara‘a) power, ability, capability (to do something)
Dhara’a Dhara‘a (verb) to measure (something); to take the measure or measurements (of something); to cover (a distance); to cross, travel (a country), travel through; to intercede, intervene, mediate, put in a word (for someone, on behalf of someone, with someone else)
Dhariyatun, Dhariyat Dháriyatun, pl. Dháriyát quick-scattering wind; that which scatters, that which blows away
Dharkara, Dhikr, Tadhkar Dharkara, Dhikr, Tadhkár to remember, bear in mind (something), think (of); to keep in mind (something); to recall, recollect (something)
Dharr Dharr strewing, scattering, sprinkling; (collective) tiny particles, atoms, specks, motes. Root word dharra has another derivative, dhurríya, so dharr can be understood as “seeds”, as in progeny. See dharra and dhurríya.
Dharra, Dharr Dharra (Dharr) to strew, scatter, spread (something); to sprinkle (on something, something)
Dharw Dharw scattering, dispersing, the act of blowing away
Dhat, Dhawat, Dhatan Dhát, pl. Dhawát (fem. of dhú) being, essence, nature; self; person, personality; the same, the self-same; adh-Dhawát people of rank, people of distinction, notables; dhátan personally. Examples: dhátu’ṣ-ṣadr, dhátu’l-‘amúd, (Pers.) dháti sharíf.
Dhatiya, Dhatiyat Dhátíya(h or t), pl. Dhátíyát personality; subjectivism (philosophy); identity (of a person)
Dhawq (Dhauq), Adhaq Dhawq, pl. Adhwáq gustatory sense; taste (for; also, e.g., literary taste); perceptivity, responsiveness (for); sensitivity, sensitiveness; savoir-vivre, suavity, urbanity, tact; liking, inclination; taste, flavour (of food, etc.)
Dhawqi (Dhauqi) Dhawqí of taste, gustative, gustatory. Form V “of sensing, perceiving”—see Dháqa
Dhi’b, Dhi’ab, Dhu’ban Dhi’b, pl. Dhi’áb, Dhu’bán wolf, jackal. Bahá’u’lláh named Shaykh Muḥammad Báqir (1819–1883) the “Wolf” and his son, Shaykh Muḥammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí (1846–1914), Ibn-i-Dhi’b (“Son of the Wolf”). The son forbade people from chanting the Muslim Pre-Dawn Prayer because of its mentions of Bahá’.
Dhi’l-Hijjih Dhi’l-Ḥijjih Pers. Twelth month in Islamic calendar
Dhi’l-Jawshan Dhi’l-Jawshan Ar. “clad in armour”. Term applied to Mullá ‘Abdu’lláh the arch-killer of Imám Ḥusayn
Dhi’l-Qa’dih Dhi’l-Qa‘dih Pers. Eleventh month in Islamic calendar
Dhibh Dhibḥ sacrificial victim, blood sacrifice
Dhikr, Adhkar Dhikr, pl. Adhkár recollection, remembrance (e.g of God), reminiscence, memory, commemoration; reputation, repute, renown; naming, stating, mention(ing), quoting, citation; report, account, narration, narrative; invocation of God, mention of the Lord’s name; (in Sufism) incessant repetition of certain words or formulae in praise of God, often accompanied by music and dancing. A name of the Qur’án.
Dhikra, Dhikayat Dhikrá, pl. Dhikrayát remembrance, recollection, memory;—pl. reminiscences, memoirs
Dhikran Dhikrán remembrance
Dhikriya, Dhikriyya (Dhikriyyih) Dhikríya, Pers. Dhikriyya remembrance
Dhikru’llah (Dhikr Allah, Zikhru’llah) Dhikru’lláh (Dhikr Alláh) “Remembrance of God” (Pers. Zikru’lláh), an early title used by the Báb.
Zikru’lláh Khádim (Zikrullah Khadem, 1904–1986) Hand of the Cause of God.
Dhikru’llah-i-A’zam Dhikru’lláh-i-A‘ẓam “Greater remembrance of God”, term used by Siyyid Káẓim to refer to the Báb.
Dhimmi, Dhimmiyun Dhimmí, pl. Dhimmíyún a non-Muslim, but follower of another religion mentioned in the Qur’án, who lives as a protected subject in an Islamic state
Dhira’, Adhru’, Dhur’an Dhirá‘, pl. Adhru‘, Dhur‘án arm; forearm; connecting rod; cubit
Dhu, Dhi, Dha, Dhat, Dhawu, Ulu, Dhawat Dhú gen., Dhí accus., fem. Dhá, Dhát pl. masc. Dhát, Dhawú, Ulú; pl. fem. Dhawát (with following genitive) possessor, owner, holder or master of, endowed or provided with, embodying or comprising something. ulú’l-amr (“ulu’l-amr”), the companions of Muhammad; also their followers in learning and authority. ulú’l-‘azm (“ulu’l-‘azm”), those resolved to obey the commands of God (Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Muhammad); those with constancy and patience (Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Moses, David and Jesus). See Dhát for fem. examples: dhú aḍ‘áf, dhú’l-jalál, dhú’n-najmat.
Dhu’l-Awtad Dhu’l-Awtád is variously rendered by translators of the Qur’án as The Impaler, The Contriver of the Stakes, The Lord of a Strong Dominion, The One Surrounded by Ministers, etc.
Dhu’l-Faqar (Zulfiqar, Dhulfiqar) Dhu’l-Faqár “that which possesses a spine”. The name of the well-known sword of Muḥammad and Imám ‘Alí. So named because it had projections and jags, like the spinal cord, on its back.
Dhu’l-Faqar Khan Dhu’l-Faqár Khán Fort in “vicinity” of Sháhrúd. Possibly Qal‘ah Naw-Rúz Khán (36.405557, 54.965566), Sháhrúd.
Dhu’l-Hijjah, Dhu’l-Hijjih Dhu’l-Ḥijjah (Pers. Dhu’l-Ḥijjih) twelfth month of Islamic calendar (the one of pilgrimage or “Possessor of the Pilgrimage”)
Dhu’l-Qa‘da Dhu’l-Qa‘da Eleventh month of Islamic calendar (the one of truce/sitting)
Dhu’l-Qarnayn, Dhu’l-Qarnain Dhu’l-Qarnayn a prophet in Qur’án 18:83–101—”the one with two horns (of the world)” or “He of the Two Ages”. In traditional scholarship, the character is usually identified as Alexander the Great. See Sikandar.
Dhu’n-Nun, Dha’n-Nun Dhú Nún (Dhú’n-Nún) fem. Dhá Nún (Dhá’n-Nún) (“dhu’l-nun”, “dha’l-nun”, “dhul-nun”, “dhal-Nun”, “zu‘l-nun”, “zul-nun”, “thulnoon”, etc.) “him of the fish” or “one with a fish”, the Prophet Jonah. Dhú’n-Nún Abú’l-Fayḍ Thawbán bin Ibráhím al-Miṣrí (d. Giza 245/CE 859 or 248/CE 862), often referred to as Dhú’l-Nún al-Miṣrí or Zúl-Nún al-Miṣrí, was an early Egyptian Muslim mystic and ascetic.
Dhurriya, Dhurriyat, Dharariy Dhurríya, pl. Dhurríyát, Dharáríy progeny, descendants, children, offspring. See root Dharra
Didan, Didam Dídan Pers. to see, look, observe; to perceive, feel; to expect, hope for; to visit (modern colloquialism).Dídam, saw.
Dídam ín Bahá’u’lláh ast, “I beheld the countenance of Bahá’u’lláh in Him”.
Didha (Deza, Dezah, Dizah, Dizeh) dha (d-dh-h) Pers. a horse or mule of an ash-colour; a dark colour; a fortress
Dighth, Adghath Ḍighth, pl. Áḍgháth a handful of herbs partly green and partly dry. Also translated as “a handful of worldly goods”. Word used in Qur’án 38:44.
Dih (Deh), Dihak Dih, pl. Dihák village, country
Dih-Bala Dih-Bálá (Deh-i-Bala) common place name in Írán (GPB p. 298)
Dih-Chah (Deh Chah) Dih-Cháh a village ((29.367806, 54.464782)) 23 km NNE Nayríz
Dih-Mulla (Deh-Mulla) Dih-Mullá Pers. a small village (36.272722, 54.755498) in Semnan Province
Dihi Díhí peasant, villager
Dihqan, Dahaqina, Dahqin, Duhqan Dihqán, pl. Daháqina, Daháqín man of importance, one who plays an important role, leading personality; grandee (in ancient Persia). Pers.: also duhqán (from Per. dih-khán or dihgán), chief man or magistrate of a village, prince or head of the farmers (among the Persians); a husbandman, cultivator of the ground; a historian; a minstrel, bard.
Dihqani, Dahqani Dihqání, Dahqání (Ar. element) tillage, husbandry; a husbandman
Dil Dil Pers. the heart, mind, soul; marrow; pith of a tree; trunk of a tree; the centre; the eye; a dot; an enigma; cote (animal shelter)
Dil-Dari Dil-Dárí Pers. demonstrations of love; comfort, consolation
Dil-Gusha (Dilgusha) Dil-Gushá Pers. exhilarating; “expansion” or “delight” of the heart
Dilaram (Dil-aram) Dilárám Pers. quieting the mind; heart-approving; a lovely woman, sweet-heart; anything admired or wished for
Dili-‘Abbas Dilí-‘Abbás (Delli Abbas) a small town 12 km NW of al-Miqdádiyah and 90 km NE of Baghdád, in ‘Iráq
Dilir Dilír Pers. brave, valiant, intrepid; audacious, fearless, insolent, bold
Dimagh (Damagh), Admigha Dimágh (Pers. Damágh) pl. Admigha[h or t] brain. Pers. also the palate; the nose; pride, haughtiness, consequential airs.
Dimashq (Damashq), Dimishq Dimashq, Dimishq Damascus, capital of Syria, colloquially known in Syria as ash-Shám and titled the “City of Jasmine” (Madínat al-Yásamín)
Dimashqi (Damashqi), Dimishqi Dimashqí, Dimish of Damascus, e.g. Damashqí Gate, the city gate facing Damascus near a mosque in ‘Akká, or the gate on the NW side of old Jerusalem
Din al-Qayyin ad-Dín al-Qayyim True Religion (Qur’án 30:30
Din-i-Ilahi Dín-i-Iláhí (The Divine Faith)
Din-Muhammad-Vazir Dín-Muḥammad-Vazír
Din, Adyan Dín, pl. Adyán religion, creed, faith, belief. Suffix in proper names, i.e. Salah ad-Dín, Pers. Salah-ud-Dín.
Dinar, Dananir Dínár, pl. Danánír (originally dinnár), a coin; a gold coin, a ducat, a dinar; a weight of gold (variously stated); (metaphorically) the sun
Dini Díní religious; spiritual
Dinur, Dinwar (Dinyar) Dínúr, Dínwar (Pers. with Ar. influence) religious, faithful; who knows the law
Dirakh (Derakh) Dirakh Pers. (for dirakht), a tree; a beam
Dirakhshani (Derakhshani) Dirakhshání Pers. name
Dirbas, Darabis (Pers. Zarrabis) Dirbás, Darábís bolt, door bolt
Dirham, Darahim Dirham, pl. Daráhim dirhem, drachma; a weight; money, cash. Dirham = 6 dániq = 12 qíráṭ.
Disatir (Desatir) Disátír Pers. is a literary forgery with Sufi leanings published in Bombay in 1818 from an Iranian manuscript
Disciples of ‘Abdu’l-Baha Disciples or Heralds of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá Designated by Shoghi Effendi: Dr John Ebenezer Esslemont, Thornton Chase, Howard MacNutt, Sarah Farmer, Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney, Lillian Kappes, Robert Turner (first Afro-American Bahá’í in America), Dr Arthur Brauns, W. H. Randall, Lua Getsinger (née Louisa Aurora Moore—Livá (banner)), Joseph Hannan, Chester I. Thatcher, Charles Greenleaf, Mrs J. D. Brittingham, Mrs Thornburgh, Helen S. Goodall, Arthur P. Dodge, William H. Hoar and Dr J. G. Augur.
Diwan (Daywan, Divan), Dawawin Díwán (Díván), pl. Dawáwín Pers. origin, loaned to Ar. Original meaning was “bundle (of written sheets)”, hence “book”, especially “book of accounts”, and hence “office of accounts”, “custom house”, “council chamber”. The meaning of the Engliah divan, “long, cushioned seat” is because such seats were placed along the walls in Middle Eastern council chambers. A royal court; tribunal of justice or revenue; a council of state, senate; account books of the treasury (in older Islamic administration); collection of poems by an author; governmental office, administrative office; chancellery, office, bureau, secretariat; council or state, cabinet; council, consultative assembly, board of advisers, executive committee; government; hall. Used in titles, as in Amír-Díwán, Head of the Court, or Prime Minister.
Diwan-Khanih, Divan-Khanih Díwán-Khánih Court
Diya (Deya), Dia, Ziya, Zia Ḍiyá’ (ضياء), Ḍíyá’ (ضيىاء) light, brightness, glow. Transcriped as ḍiyá’ (dictionaries, elsewhere also with ẓ instead of ḍ) or ḍíyá’ (Shoghi Effendi). The same issue with the “íyá” letter combination also occurs with díyár.
Diya Baghdadi Ḍíyá’ Baghdádí Dr Zia (Ḍíyá’) Baghdádí (1882–1937). Named Ḍíyá’ and Afandí by Bahá’u’lláh (He also called him Mabsúṭ Afandí, “the happy one”)
Diya’ ad-Din, Diya’u’d-Din Ḍiyá’ ad-Dín, Ḍiyá’u’d-Dín light of faith or light of religion
Diya’i Ḍíyá’í of Ḍíyá’. Nuṣratu’lláh Ḍíyá’í
Diya’iya, Diya’iyyih Ḍíyá’íya[h or t], Ḍíyá’iyyih (Ziaiyyih or Zia’iyyih) Ḍíyá’íyyih Khánum, eldest daughter of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and mother of Shoghi Effendi.
Diya’u’d-Din Ḍíyá’u’d-Dín ẓíyá
Diya’u’l-Hajiyyih Ḍíyá’u’l-Ḥájíyyih
Diya’u’llah Ḍíyá’u’lláh light of God (Zíá’u’lláh or Ziaoullah). Mírzá Ḍíyá’u’lláh—a son of Bahá’u’lláh
Diyafa Ḍiyáfa(t) hospitable reception, entertainment as guest, accommodation; hospitality; “feast”
Diyala, Sirwan Diyálá (in ‘Iráq), Sírwan (in Írán) 445 km tributary of Tigris River in eastern ‘Iráq, flowing on east side of Baghdád and joining the Tigris River to the south side of the city. Given incorrectly as Dajli in Star of the West.
Diyar-Bakr (Diar-Bakr) Diyár-Bakr (Diyár Bakr or Diyárbakir, “land of Bakr” tribe) city (37.925386, 40.205236) in SE Türkiye, 630 km NW of Baghdád. Transcribed Díyár-Bakr by Shoghi Effendi. Arabic: ديار بكر (Diyár Bakr). Renamed Diyabakir (Turkish, “land of copper”) by Atatürk in 1931. See Ma‘dan-i-Mis.
Diyar-i-Khatt Díyár-i-Khaṭṭ “domain of writing” or “realm of calligraphy”. Verse inscribed by Nabíl when asked by Mishkín-Qalam: Dar díyár-i-khaṭṭ sháh-i-ṣáḥib-‘alam Bandiy-i-báb-i-Bahá, Mishkín-Qalam.”
“In the realm of calligraphy, the king who possesses the Banner, is the servant of the gate of Bahá [the Báb], Mishkín-Qalam.”
Diz-Abad, Dizabad Díz-Ábád (Dízábád) a village (34.490278, 49.181111) in Markazi Province. A village (36.423725, 52.806759; “Dízvá” (“Dizva”); 1.3 km south of the Shrine of Shaykh Ṭabarsí) in the Central District of Qaem Shahr County, Mazandaran Province.
Dizful (Dezful) Dizfúl a city and capital of Dezful County, Khuzestan Province, Írán. 120 km NNW of Ahváz.
Dizij Abad (Dizaj Abad) Dízij Ábád village (36.628908, 48.595490) 11 km ESE of the centre of Zanjan
Dolgorukov (Dolgorouki) Dolgorukov Prince Dimitri Ivanovich Dolgorukov (1797–1867) was a Russian career diplomat born into one of the most prominent Russian families. He held a number diplomatic posts: Constantinople and Madrid (1826–1830); The Hague (1832–1837), Naples (1838–1842), and again in Constantinople (1842–1845). He was the Russian Minister in Írán (1845–1854).
Droshky (Doroshky, Durushkih) Droshky, Pers. Durushkih a low four-wheeled open carriage once used in Russia
Du, Do Dú, Du, Do Pers. two
Du’a’ Du‘á’, pl. Ad‘iya(h or t), Pers. Ad‘iyyih call; invocation of God, supplication, prayer; request, plea; good wish; imprecation, course. Prayer (supplication) for certain occasions and requirements.
Du’a’ al-Baha’ Du‘á’ al-Bahá’ (also known as Du‘á’ as-Saḥar, “Supplication of pre-dawn”) is a prayer recommended to Muslims to recite during the pre-dawns of Ramaḍán. The prayer contains the names (and in the same order), which refer to attributes of God, of the months adopted by the Báb for the Badí‘ calendar. This prayer also gives precedence to the name Bahá’ (4 times in the first verse), which apparently does not appear in the Qur’án. “I beseech Thee by Thy Splendour (Bahá’) at its most splendid (abhá’) for all Thy Splendour (Bahá’) is truly resplendent (bahíy). I, verily, O my God! beseech Thee by the fullness of Thy Splendour (bahá’). See Shaykh Bahá’í.
Du’ab (Doab) Dú’áb Pers. “two” + “water”, water-rich tract of land lying between two converging, or confluent, rivers. Village (36.017927, 53.046496) in Mazandaran Province.
Dudman Dúdmán Pers. a great tribe, family, illustrious house; generation, race; fragrance; dynasty
Dugh Dúgh Pers. a mixture of yoghurt and water, to which mint salt and pepper may be added.
Dugh-Abad (Dughabad) gh-Ábád village (35.085454, 58.854295) in Razavi Khorasan Province, Írán. It is 150 km SW of Mashhad. Named Fúrúgh by Bahá’u’lláh.
Duhan, Duha, Zuha, Zuhwat Ḍuḥan, Ḍuḥá, Pers. Ḍuḥwat Forenoon, luncheon-time
Dukhan Dukhán (Dukkán), pl. Adkhina smoke, fume, vapour; tobacco
Dukht Dukht Pers. a daughter; a virgin; ability, strength; contempt and hatred
Dukhtar, Dukhtaran Dukhtar, Pl. Dukhtarán Pers. a daughter; a girl; a virgin; power, strength
Duldul, Daladil Duldul and Duldúl, pl. Daládil porcupine; the name of a mule gifted to Muḥammad by al-Muqawqis, probably the governor of Egypt. See Ya‘fúr.
Dumit Ḍúmiṭ ‘Azíz Sulaymán Ḍúmiṭ (fanatical Christian)—his house (since demolished) was on eastern side of the Pilgrim House near the Shrine of the Báb. He erected a large illuminated cross on the roof of his house.
Dunam Dunam Ottoman Turkish origin. Modern metric unit is 0.1 ha of land (about 0.25 acre).
Durar al-Baha’iya, Durar’u’l-Baha’iya ad-Durar al-Bahá’íya Pers. Duraru’l-Bahá’íyyah (or -ih) or ad-Durar al-Bahiyyah (Dorar-ul-Bahiyyih) “The Brilliant Pearls” by Mírzá Abu’l-Faḍl, translated into English and published as Miracles and Metaphors.
Durr Durr (collective) pearls
Durra, Durrun, Durar Durra[t], Durrun, pl. Durar pearl, e.g. Durratu’l-Bahá’íyya
Durri, Darri, Dirri Durrí, (Pers. Darrí, Dirrí) glittering, twinkling, brilliant (star), a sparkling star glittering like a gem
Durud Durúd (Dorud) place 260 km NW of Iṣfahán
Durukhshan, Derakhshan Durukhshán Pers. (pronounced Derakhshan) shining, flashing
Durzi, Darzi, Duruz Durzí, Darzí, pl. Durúz Druze. The name is derived from the name of Muḥammad bin Ismá‘íl Nashtakín ad-Darazí (from Persian darzí, “tailor”) who was an early preacher. However, the people prefer the name al-Muwaḥḥidún (“Unitarian” or “people of monotheism”)
Dust (Dost), Dustan Dúst, pl. Dústán Pers. friend; lover; mistress, sweetheart. Dúst Muḥammad, friend of Muḥammad, town (31.145648, 61.791519) in eastern Írán, and 16th century Persian painter of miniatures, calligrapher, and art historian.
Dusti (Dosti) Dústí Pers. friendship; love, affection. Insán-dústí, “love of humankind in general” or philanthropy.
Dustur, Dasatir Dustúr, pl. Dasátír Pers. (Ar. influence) a note or common-place book; a senator, grandee; a pillar; a canon, copy, exemplar, model
Dustur, Dasatir Dustúr, pl. Dasátír statute; regulations; by-laws; (basic) constitutional law; constitution (politics);—(colloquial) dastúr permission
Dusturi Dustúrí constitutional
Dusturiyya Dustúríyya(h) constitutionality
Duwaliya Duwalíya internationality; internationalism; the International ...
Duz (Doz) Dúz Pers. (in compound word) sewing
Duzd, Duzdan Duzd, pl. Duzdán Pers. A thief, robber, assassin; theft
Duzdab Duzdáb Pers. “water thieves”, renamed Záhidán (pl. “pious”) late 1920s, capital of Sístán, Írán
Duzdgah (Duzd-gar) Duzdgáh Pers. home or hiding-place of thieves
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• Arabic and Persian   →   · Letters, transcription & abjad values, · ‘Ayn & hamza consonants, · Capitalisations, · Elative word forms, · Hybrid words/names, · Numbers, · Plurals (Arabic, Persian) · Underdots, · Underscores, · Vowel Sounds
• Bahá’í   →   · Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh, · Bearers of the throne of God (8), · Hands of the Cause of God, · Letters of the Living, · Principles, · Shrine of the Báb, · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh
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• Caliphs (first 28 caliphs)   →   · The Rightly-guided, · The Umayyad, · The Abbaside.
• Imams   →   · Twelfth Imám, · Deputies of the 12th Imám
• Twelfth Imám—occultation and return
• Meccan pilgrim meeting points
• Qur’án suras
• Qur’anic “names” of God
• Special characters   →   · Non-printing characters, · Unusual characters,
• Traditional Qur’anic/Ṣúfí concepts
• Microsoft Word
Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
E
Eirene, Eirenion Eiréné (Greek) one, peace, quietness, rest. Greek goddess of peace (Roman counterpart is Pax). The Eirenion Hall was built in 1897 on the Green Acre property and was used as a lecture hall during the summer lecture series at Green Acre. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave a number of talks in the hall in 1912.
El El Hebrew אֵל (e-l), a god, supreme deity.
Elders Elders ‘Abdu’l-Bahá has named 20 of the 24 elders of Revelation 4:4 and 11:16: the Báb, the 18 Letters of the Living, and Ḥájí Mírzá Muḥammad Taqí, a cousin of the Báb.
Erzurum Erzurum city in eastern Turkey (“Erzeroum”). Known as Theodosiopolis in Roman times. Neighbouring city of Artsn (Arzan) was destroyed 1048–49 and citizens moved to Theodosiopolis and called it Artsn Rum (Arzan of the Romans). Muslim citizens changed it to Arzan ar-Rúm (or Arz ar-Rúm) and then to Erzurum.
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• Arabic and Persian   →   · Letters, transcription & abjad values, · ‘Ayn & hamza consonants, · Capitalisations, · Elative word forms, · Hybrid words/names, · Numbers, · Plurals (Arabic, Persian) · Underdots, · Underscores, · Vowel Sounds
• Bahá’í   →   · Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh, · Bearers of the throne of God (8), · Hands of the Cause of God, · Letters of the Living, · Principles, · Shrine of the Báb, · Travels of Bahá’u’lláh
• Calendars (days, months)   →   · Badí‘-Bahá’í days, months, years (Days, Months, Years), · Gregorian days, months, · Islamic months, · Persian Solar Months
• Caliphs (first 28 caliphs)   →   · The Rightly-guided, · The Umayyad, · The Abbaside.
• Imams   →   · Twelfth Imám, · Deputies of the 12th Imám
• Twelfth Imám—occultation and return
• Meccan pilgrim meeting points
• Qur’án suras
• Qur’anic “names” of God
• Special characters   →   · Non-printing characters, · Unusual characters,
• Traditional Qur’anic/Ṣúfí concepts
• Microsoft Word
Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
F
Fa Fa (conjunction, often as a prefix, e.g. fatabayyanú) then, and then; and so, thus, hence, therefore; but then, then however; for, because; (with subjective) so that
Fa’id, Fa’ida, Fawa’id (Fava’id) Fá’id, fem. Fá’ida[h or t], pl. Fawá’id utility, avail, benefit, advantage; gain, profit; interest (on money); useful lesson, moral; use (e.g. of a medicine). The Qur’án forbids usury, not reasonable interest. See riban.
Fa’il, Fa’ilun, Fa’ala Fá‘il, pl. Fá‘ilún, Fa‘ala effective; efficacious, efficient; (with pl. fá‘ilún) doer, actor, perpetrator; (with pl. fa‘ala) worker, workman, labourer; active subject of a verbal clause (grammar). See maf‘úl, manṣúb and marfú‘
Fa’iq Fá’iq superior; surpassing, excellent, exquisite, first-rate; outstanding, remarkable, striking; pre-eminent; exceeding, extraordinary; going far beyond (a restriction, etc.); awake, waking, wakeful. Aḥmad Fá’iq Afandí (Armenian) rebelled against Shoghi Effendi.
Fa’iz, Fa’iza, Fa’izun Fá’iz, fem. Fá’iza, pl. Fá’izún successful, victorious, triumphant; victor, winner; reaching, attaining. Fá’izih (Pers. variation)—name given to Gulsurkh Bagum by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
Fad-dan Fad-dán (feddan) about an acre in size
Fada, Fayd, Fayadan (Fayazan) Fáḍa (Fayḍ, Fayaḍán) to overflow, flow over, run over; to inundate, flood, flood, inundation, deluge
Fadak Fadak a large, formerly Jewish owned oasis region (25.978874, 40.470053) south of the city of al-Ḥá’iṭ, and 122 km ENE of Khaybar. See Taymár’ and Wádí al-Qurá’.
Fadhlaka Fadhlaka brief summary, résumé, survey, outline, abstract, epitome
Fadil (Fazil), Fawadil, Fadilun, Fudala Fáḍil, pl. Fawáḍil, Fáḍilún, Fuḍalá Ar. (Fazel is an old Persian form) remaining, leftover, left, surplus, exceeding, in excess; (pl. fawáḍil) remainder, remnant, residue, rest, leftover, surplus, excess;—(pl. fáḍilún, fuḍalá) outstanding, eminent, very good, first-rate, superior, excellent, distinguished, deserving; learned; man of culture and refinement. Persian (ẓ may be used instead of ḍ): fáḍil, fem. fáḍilat, fáḍila, pl. fáḍilát.
Fadil (Fazil), Fadila, Fudala, Fada’il Faḍíl, fem. Faḍíla[h or t], pl. Fuḍalá’ (fem. pl. Faḍá’il) outstanding, eminent, very good, first-rate, excellent; distinguished, deserving; learned, erudite. As the day of the Badí‘ week, Faḍíl: grace, favour. Fem. moral excellence, excellent quality, virtue; merit, advantage, excellence, exquisiteness.
Fadil-i-Furughi Faḍíl-i-Furúghí Pers. savant of Furúgh. See Furúghí
Fadil-i-Mazandarani Fáḍil-i-Mazandarání Persian Bahá’í scholar (1880-1957)
Fadil-i-Qa’ini Fáḍil-i-Qá’iní the Learned One of the Qá’in. A district in the province of Khurásán
Fadil-i-Yazdi Fáḍil-i-Yazdí “scholar of Yazd”. Fáḍil-i-Yazdí (‘Alí Muntazi‘ of Nadúshun) was a poet, religious scholar, and a devoted servant of Bahá’u’lláh.
Fadilabad (Fazelabad) Fáḍilábád 28 km ENE of Gurgán (SE corner of the Caspian Sea), Írán
Fadl (Fazl), Fudul, Afdal Faḍl, pl. Fuḍúl, Afḍál surplus, excess, superfluity, overflow; leftover, remainder, remnant, rest; matter of secondary importance, subordinate matter;—pl. fuḍúl that which is superfluous, redundant or in excess, a surplus, superfluity; waste, refuse; droppings, excrement;—pl. afḍál merit, desert (on behalf of, with respect to), credit (for, in), service(s) (to); benefit, favour, gift, present. Persian—ẓ may be used instead of ḍ)
Fadla, Fadalat Faḍla(t), pl. Faḍalát remnant, remainder, residue, leftover, rest, surplus; waste, scrap, discard, offal, waste product; pl. excretions (physiology), excrements
Fadlu’llah (Fazlu’llah), Fadl Khuda Faḍlu’lláh, Faḍl Alláh (Faḍlalláh) Grace or bounty of God. Pers. Faḍl Khudá
Fahandizh Fahandizh Pers. a family name
Fahd, Fuhud, Afhud Fahd, pl. Fuhúd, Afhud lynx (also the term for cheetah and panther)
Fahima, Fahm, Faham Fahima, Fahm, Faham to understand, comprehend, realize (something); to note (something), take note, take cognizance (of something); to hear, learn (of something from), be informed (of something by)
Fahm, Afham Fahm, pl. Afhám understanding; comprehension, grasp; perceptive faculty, perceptivity; brains, intellect; discernment, acumen, penetration, insight, intelligence
Fahnih (Faneh), Panah, Dakhin Fahnih (also known as Panáh and Ḍakhín) is a small village 72 km SSWchán in Razavi Khorasan Province, Írán. See Panábandán.
Fajr Fajr dawn, daybreak, morning twilight; dawn (figurative), beginning, outset, start; morning prayer (Islamic Law)
Fakara, Fakr Fakara (Fakr) to reflect, meditate, cogitate, ponder, muse, speculate (on), revolve in ones mind, think over, contemplate, consider (something) form V to reflect, meditate, cogitate, ponder, muse, speculate (on), revolve in ones mind, think, over, contemplate, consider (something); to think (of) forms V & VIII to remember, recall, recollect (someone, something)
Fakhkhar Fakhkhárár (fired) clay; earthenware, crockery, pottery. Tel ‘Akká (inaccurately also called Tel al-Fakhkhár (Hill of Shards) or “Napoleon’s Hill”. See Tall al-Fakhkhár
Fakhm Fakhm stately, imposing, splendid, superb, magnificent, grand, grandiose
Fakhr Fakhr glory, pride; honor; vainglorious poetry (as a literary genre)
Fakhru’d-Dawlih Fakhkhru’d-Dawlih (MF)
Fakhru’d-Din Fakhru’d-Dín (Fakr ed Din)
Fakhru’sh-Shuhada’ Fakhru’sh-Shuhadá Pride of Martyrs. Note final Hamza. See Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí.
Fakhura khúra pottery, earthenware manufactory
Falah Faláḥ thriving, prosperity; salvation; welfare; success
Falaj, Aflaj Falaj, pl. Aflaj split into parts. The irrigation system (see qanáh) in Oman and UAE that conducts underground water into channels that is then evenly divided between farms.
Falak al-Buruj Falak al-Burúj the celestial spheres
Falak, Aflak Falak, pl. Aflák celestial sphere; celestial body, star; circuit, orbit (of celestial bodies). Hence, falak al-burúj (the celestial spheres); falak al-manázil (the celestial stations); falak az-zuḥal (the sphere of Saturn); falak al-mushtarí (the sphere of Jupiter); falak al-mirrikh (the sphere of Mars); falak ash-shams (the sphere of the Sun); falak az-zuhrah (the sphere of Venus); falak ‘uṭárid (the sphere of Mercury); falak al-qamar (the sphere of the moon)
Falaq Falaq daybreak, dawn
Falaqa (Falaka, Falakih) Falaqa[h or t] a device (pole, stick) to hold the feet of a person when the bastinado is given. A rope is fixed to the ends of the stick to form a loose loop. The feet are passed through the loop and two men turn the stick to tighten the rope, and then lift the stick. A third man strikes the soles of the person’s feet with a cane.
Falasifiyya sharq Falásifiyya sharq “philosophers of the East”. See Faylasúf
Fallah, Fallahun, Fallaha Falláḥ, pl. Falláḥún, Falláḥa[h or t] tiller of the soil, husbandman; peasant, farmer, fellah
Fallscheer Fallscheer Dr Josephina Therese Fallscheer-Zürcher (1866–1932), a Swiss physician who lived in the Middle East for many years, including Haifa (1905-1912). Dr Fallscheer served as physician for the family of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and was a confidant of the women of the household of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. Married Heinrich Samuel Fallscheer (b. 1872) in 1899. Daughter Gerda Margarethe Sdun-Fallscheer (1901–1990).
Falsaf, Falsafa Falsaf, fem. Falsafa[h or t], pl. Falsafát to philosophize; philosophy
Falsafi Falsafí Pers. philosophical; a philosopher
Fam Ghadir Fam Ghadír (“Fama Ghadir”) Fam Ghadír (Khumm), i.e. the mouth or orifice of the pool (ghadír). Symbolically, talk or speech.
Fam, Afwah Fam, pl. Afwáh mouth; muzzle; orifice, aperture, hole, vent; mouth (of a river), head (of a canal, etc.)
Fana’ Faná’ passing away, perish, cessation of being; perdition, ruin, destruction, annihilation; evanescence, vanishing, termination, extinction; exhaustion; non-being, non-existence, non-entity; extinction of individual consciousness, recedence of the ego, obliteration of the self (mysticism)
Fana’ Fi’lláh Faná’ Fí’lláh the annihilation of self in God (Scholl, Remembrance of God, p. 5)
Fana’ wa Baqa Faná’ wa Baqá’ annihilation and subsistence (Scholl, Remembrance of God, p. 5)
Fana’yan (Fana’ian, Fanaian, Fanaiyan) Faná’yán (Faná’íyán) Mírzá Faraju’lláh Faná’yán (Junún) (CE 1871–1945)—a shoemaker, Bahá’í and poet
Fanan, Afnan Fanan, pl. Afnán bough or twig. Afnán used to denote those indirectly related to the Báb (there were no surviving children), specifically of His three maternal uncles and His wife’s two brothers. Family name of Ṭúbá Khánum (daughter of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá) who married Mírzá Muḥsin. Children: Rúḥí, Suhayl, Fu’ád and Thurayyá.
Fani, Faniyat (Faniyyat) Fání, pl. Fáníyát (Fániyyát) frail, transitory, perishable, inconstant; tottering (old man); (in the parlance of the Sufis) one who has reached the state of faná’, or annihilation
Fanin Fánin evanescent, transitory, transient, ephemeral, vain; exhausted; far advanced in years, very old
Faniya, Fana’ Faniya (Faná’) to pass away, perish, cease to exist, come to nought; to come to an end, cease, wane, dwindle, evanesce, vanish; to be extinguished, become extinct; to be exhausted, be consumed, be spent; to undergo obliteration of the self; to become totally absorbed (by). See Baqá’
Fann, Funun, Afnan, Afanin Fann, pl. Funún, Afnán, Afánín kind, specimen, variety;—pl. Afánín various sides (of something), diversity;—pl. Funún sciences, arts; modes, ways, manners; tricks, artifices; arts and sciences or technology. Thamarát al-Funún (1875–1908) “The fruits of the arts”, first Syrian Islamic newspaper.
Fannan (Fananan), Fannana, Fannanun Fannán, fem. Fannána, pl. Fannánún artist. Khazeh Fananapazir (Khaḍih Fannánpazír)
Faqa, (Fawq, Fawaq) Fáqa (Fawq, Fawáq) to surpass, excel, overtop (someone, something), tower (above); to be superior (to someone); to outweigh, outbalance; to transcend, exceed (something)
Faqara, Faqar Faqára[h or t], pl. Faqár back joint or vertebra
Faqih, Fuqaha Faqíh, pl. Fuqahá’ legist, jurisprudent (and theologian), expert of fiqh
Faqir, Fuqara’ Faqír, pl. Fuqara’ poor, poverty-stricken; poor man, pauper; mendicant dervish, Sufi mendicant
Faqnas Faqnas phoenix
Faqr Faqr poverty; need, lack, want
Far, Farr Far, Farr Pers. beauty, comeliness, ornament, elegance, decoration; light, splendour, brilliancy, lustre; voice, sound; a feather; a torrent of water; justice; government; infliction of punishment; magnificence, glory, power, dignity, dominion, pomp, state
Far’, Furu’, Afru’ Far‘, pl. Furú‘, Afru‘ twig, branch, bough, limb, (also colloquial) branches, twigs; derivative; section, subdivision; branch office, subsidiary establishment, branch; branch line, feeder line; branch wire (electricity); a fundamental institution or doctrine. al-farú‘ or ‘ilm al-farú‘ the doctrine of the branches, i.e., applied fiqh, applied ethics (consisting in the systematic elaboration of canonical law in Islam)
Farab Fáráb land watered by irrigation. There are a number of places with this name: a village 60 km south of Ardabíl, Írán; Fáráb (Farap) a town in Turkmenistan adjacent to Alat (Olat), Uzbekistan; Farob a town in western Tajikistan.
Farabi Fárábí Abú Naṣr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al Fárábí (known in West as Alpharabius). Renowned Arab philosopher and jurist. Possibly born in Fáráb or Fáryáb, which one?
Faraburz, Fariburz Faráburz, Faríburz Pers. glorious and mighty. Name of a mighty champion and minister of Írán.
Farada, Faruda, Furud Farada and Faruda (Furúd) to be single, be alone; to be singular, be unique;—farada (furúd) to withdraw, retire, segregate (from)
Faraghih (Farugh) Farághih (Faraghe, Faragheh) village 160 km SW Yazd
Farah-Abad Faraḥ-Ábád “The Fair Abode of Joy”, palace near Tehran that was built by Muẓaffari’d-Dín
Farah, Afrah Faraḥ, pl. Afráḥ joy, gladness, glee, gaiety, hilarity, mirth, exhilaration, merriment, happiness; wedding;—pl. feast of rejoicing, celebration, festival, festivity; wedding (feast).
Farahan Faráhán merry, gay, cheerful, joyful, glad, delighted, happy. County in Markazí Province, Írán.
Farahangiz (Farahangise) Faraḥángíz (Faraḥ+ángíz) Faraḥángíz (Faraḥ) Khánum (1894–1967) was a niece of Fáṭimah Naḥrí (Munírih Khánum), sister of Dr Amínu’lláh (Amín) Faríd (their father was Mírzá Asadu’lláh-i-Iṣfahání), she married Sydney Sprague (1875–1943). All (including the father) were Covenant-Breakers. She owned a small piece of land in the area of the International Bahá’í Archives Building and resisted all efforts to purchase it for over 30 years—expropriated by the government in 1954. Sydney changed his mind in 1937, and eventually returned to the Bahá’í Faith in 1941.
Farahmand, Farhmand, Farhamand Farahmand, Farhmand, Farhamand Pers. intelligent, wise; near
Faraj, Faraja Faraj, fem. Faraja[h or t] freedom from grief or sorrow, release from suffering; joy; relaxation; relief, ease, repose, pleasure, comfort; happy ending
Faraju’llah Faraju’lláh God’s relief or rescue
Faraju’llah Dhaki al-Kurdi Faraju’lláh Dhakí al-Kurdí (not Zakí) Shaykh Faraju’lláh Dhakí al-Kurdí, a religious student at al-Azhar University who became a Bahá’í; and later an editor and publisher in Cairo
Faraju’llah Tafrishi Faraju’lláh Tafríshí (MF) (from Tafrísh)
Faramarz Farámarz Pers. keeper of a citadel or fortress; name of the son of Rustam
Faramush Fáramúsh Pers. forgotten, forgetfulness
Faramush-Khanih Farámúsh-Khánih Pers. house of oblivion, Freemasonry headquarters, a corruption of franc-maçonnerie (Freemasonry)
Faran Fárán desert, mountain, wilderness, etc. A small village in Ardistán (32.989358, 52.624571). See Párán.
Farang, Firing Farang (hence Farangí), Firing Pers. from old French word franc (“Frank”), an Italian, European; a Christian; all nations that wear short garments; ruddy, of pleasing aspect; a galley.  See afranj and ifranjí
Farangis Farangís Pers. character in Sháhnáma, daughter of Afrásyáb, married to Siyáwush and mother of Kay Khusraw.
Faraqlit Fáraqlíṭ (Fáriq + líṭ) Arabic rendering of the Greek Paráklétos (Paraclete). “The Comforter”; defender, deputy, or intercessor; a distinguisher between truth and error. Bahá’u’lláh claimed to be the Father foretold by Isaiah and the Comforter covenanted by Jesus. (SLH p. 63)
Farash, Farasha, Farashah, Farashun Farásh, fem. Farásha[h or t] (Pers. “Farásháh”) moth; butterfly; flighty, fickle person. Farásháh (now Islámiyih, Eslamiyeh) is a town SW of Yazd, Írán. pl. faráshún, fem. faráshát.
Faraz Faráz Pers. above, up, upon, on, upwards, aloft, on the top; above and below, up and down; back, behind; after, hereafter
Farazistan Farázistán “The heavenly world”, title of a volume by Muḥammad Ismá‘íl Khán
Fard, Afrad, Furada Fard, pl. Afrád, Furádá alone, single; sole, only; solitary, lone, lonely; singular, unique, matchless, unrivaled, peerless, incomparable; one, a single one, a single thing, a single person, individual; odd, uneven (number)
Fard, Furud Farḍ, pl. Furúḍ notch, incision; duty, precept, injunction, order, decree, ordinance, command; religious duty (Islamic Law); statutory portion, lawful shore (Islamic Law); assumption, supposition, presupposition, premise, postulate, hypothesis
Farda Fardá Pers. tomorrow. A reply sometimes given to creditors since it never arrives
Farda Farda[h or t] (fem. of Fard) one part, one half, one of a pair
Farhad Farhád Pers. elation, happiness. A deserted village 12 km SSW of Níshápúr (36.113013, 58.741850), in the Central District of Nishapur County, Khorasan Province, Írán. Farhád is a famous character in Persian literature and Persian mythology. The story of his love with Shírín is one of the most famous love stories in Persian culture.
Farhan Farhán joyful, joyous, glad, happy; saucy
Farhand Farhand Pers. an excavation formed by a torrent; an artificial canal newly dug; a ditch; a stream above ground flowing from one spot to another; a subterraneous canal which works its way from one well to another; anything falling to pieces from age.
Farhang Farhang Pers. good-breeding; greatness; excellence; gravity; wisdom, science; jurisprudence, a dictionary, lexicon, vocabulary, glossary; a vine-branch bent under ground, so that the other extremity shoots up at a distance from the other trunk; a subterraneous canal
Farhangi Farhangí Pers. a preceptor, tutor, teacher, instructor; a man learned in the law.
Farhumand (Fahomand, Farhoumand) Farhúmand Pers. virtuous and enlightened
Fariba Faríbá Pers. charming, attractive, fem. name
Fariburz (Fariborz, Faribarz) Faríburz Pers. name of the son of Kay Káwús
Farid Fáriḍ old, advanced in years. ‘Umar ibn ‘Alí ibn al-Fáriḍ (1181–1234) was an Arab poet.
Farid, Farida, Fara’id Faríd, fem. Farída[h or t], pl. Fará’id alone, one, lonely, solitary; singular, unique, incomparable, matchless, peerless, unrivalled, incomparable; bright, glittering (sword); a precious gem, pearl, especially one of a larger size, or a bead of gold placed alternately between smaller ones in a necklace or bracelet. Kitábu’l-Fará’id (Book of peerless gems) by Mírzá Faḍl. Fará’id as-Simṭayn (“Two chains of pearls (on the virtues of ‘Alí, Fáṭima, the Imams and their descendants) i.e. two vols) by Ibráhim bin Muḥammad al-Ḥamawí al-Juwayní (1246–1322), mostly hadiths that are also found in Shi’ite sources.
Farida, Fara’d Faríḍa(h), pl. Fará’ḍ religious duty (Islamic Law); divine precept, ordinance of God (Islamic Law); obligatory prayer (Islamic Law);—pl. distributive shares in estate (Islamic Law)
Faridu’d-Din ‘Attar Farídu’d-Dín ‘Aṭṭár Great Persian mystic poet “the druggist”
Fariq, Fawariq Fáriq, pl. Fawáriq distinguishing, differential, distinctive, discriminative, separative;—pl. a separating or distinctive factor; distinctive characteristic, criterion; difference, distinction, dissimilarity, disparity
Faris, Farisa, Farisat, Fursan, Fawaris Fáris, pl. Fursán, Fawáris (fem. Fárisa, pl. Fárisát) mounted upon any solid-hoofed animal; a horseman, a cavalier (hence, a knight), rider; a lion; the Persians; Persia (also balad Fáris—land of Persia);—pl. cavalry. Shoghi Effendi used various terms for “Knights (Fárisán) of Bahá’u’lláh”: “Fárisán-i-Maydán-i-Iláhí”, the similar “Fárisán-i-Miḍmár-i-Iláhí” (“The knights of the divine arena”); “Fárisán-i-Jaysh-i-Iláhí” (“The knights of the divine army”), “Fárisán-i-Dilír-i-Ḥaḍrat-i-Bahá’u’lláh” (“The valiant knights of Bahá’u’lláh”), etc.
Farisi Fárisí Persian; a Persian
Farkhunda (Farkhundih) Farkhunda Pers. fem. happy; fortunate, prosperous
Farma Farmá One who issues orders. From the infinitive Farmúdan (to bid, to order), but never used alone, i.e. Farmán-Farmá, the one who establishes order; the Governor.
Farma Farma Pers. violet
Farmahin, Farahan Farmahín, Farahán Farmahín is in Farahán County and is 40 km north of Arák, Írán
Farman-Farma Farmán-Farmá the one who establishes or issues the order; the commander or governor. Title of Prince Ḥusayn ‘Alí Mírzá, grandson of Fatḥ-‘Alí-Sháh
Farman, Firman, Faraman Farmán, Per. also Firmán, pl. Farámán Royal decree, command, order or edict. Ar. plural also Faramát or Farámín
Farmaniyyih Farmáníyyih (“Farmanieh”) once a garden named after Prince Ḥusayn ‘Alí Mírzá, now a district in NE of Teheran
Farnaz Farnaz Old Pers. fem. name = far+náz: “the most beautiful”, “the most elegant”, “the most charming”
Farnush Farnúsh Pers. fem. name
Farrash-Bashi Farrásh-Báshí chief or head of the servant
Farrash, Farrashun Farrásh, pl. Farráshún one who spreads the carpets; servant, attendant; house servant, valet; office boy, errand boy
Farrukh Farrukh Pers. Beautiful-faced; happy, fortunate
Fars Fárs Pers. Persia, Parthia. Párs is the proper and original name of Írán, Arabs, who do not have the letter p in their language, replaced it by an F: Fárs. Also the name of a southern province.
Farsakh, Farasikh Farsakh, pl. Farásikh Ar. a farasang, a league; an hour; a long time; an interval; a chink, cleft; quiet, repose; perpetual; much. See farsang.
Farsang, Farsang-ha Farsang, pl. Farsang-há Pers. a historical Persian unit of distance; a parsang, league; the distance a laden mule can travel in an hour, which varied according to terrain and the speed of travel (about 4.8 to 5.6 km); 6.23 km in 19th century Persia; and 10 km in modern Írán and Türkiye. Derived from the Persian parsang (sang, “stone”, for stone markers (sára) placed by the road).
Farsh, Furush Farsh, pl. Furúsh furnishing; furniture, household effects; mat, rug, carpet; anything spread on the ground as bedding; foundation (architecture)
Farsi, Farsiyan Fársí, pl. Fársiyán modern (or new) Persian, also known by its endonym Fársí, has been “enriched by the wealth of Arabic, far more expressive, far more mellifluous than its Pársík forbear”. Muḥammad and the Course of Islám, p. 232 See Pársí and Pahlawí.
Fars-Namah (Farsnamah), Fars an-Nama Fárs-Námih (Ar. Fárs an-Náma) “The Book of Fárs”. A Persian-language history and geography of the Fars province, written between 1105 and 1116 during the Seljuk period.
Faruhar Farúhar Pers. possibly a form of Furúhar (same consonants)
Faruq (Faroogh) Fárúq very timorous. al-Fárúq “he who distinguishes truth from falsehood” (epithet Caliph ‘Umar ibn al-Khaṭṭáb (2nd)). A village (29.965218, 53.046784) in Fars Province.
Farwardin (Farvardin) Farwardín Pers. first month of the Persian solar year; the 19th day of every month
Faryab, Faryaw, Firyab Fáryáb, Fáryáw Pers. ground watered by irrigation. Fáryáb (also Fíryáb), a village 140 km NE of Bandar Abbas, Írán; and another 195 km SW of Balkh, Afghánistán.
Farzad Farzád Pers. Far+zád (“greatness” or “majesty” + “born”), a male name “born into a great family”
Farzam Farzám Pers. worthy, suiting, befitting. Dr Arbáb Farzám
Farzan Farzán Pers. science, learning; strength, constancy; wise, learned
Farzanih-Mu’ayyad Farzánih-Mu’ayyad Manúchihr Farzánih-Mu’ayyad, martyred 1982
Fas, Fez or Fes Fás a city in northern inland Morocco. It is the second largest city in Morocco after Casablanca. For the fez (hat), see ṭarbúsh.
Fasa Fasá village (28.948488, 53.637617) SW Nayriz.
Fasaha Faṣáḥa(h) purity of the language; fluency, eloquence
Fashar, Fishar Fashar, Fishár Pers. a scattering; diffusion; compression, constriction, squeezing; the piercing of one thing with another
Fasih, Fusaha’, Fisah, Fusuh Faṣíḥ, pl. Fuṣaḥá’, Fiṣáḥ, Fuṣuḥ pure, good Arabic (language), literary; skilful in using the correct literary language; clear, plain, distinct, intelligible (language, speech); fluent, eloquent
Fasiq, Fasiqun, Fussaq, Fasaqa Fásiq, pl. Fásiqún, Fussáq, Fasaqa godless, sinful, dissolute, wanton, licentious, profligate, vicious, iniquitous, nefarious; trespasser, offender, sinner; fornicator, adulterer; a person not meeting the legal requirements of righteousness (Islamic Law)
Fasl al-Khitab, Faslu’l-Khitab Faṣl al-Khiṭáb, Pers. Faṣlu’l-Khiṭáb “sound or unmistakable judgement” (Fassl-ul-Khitab).  The Conclusive Proof or The Decisive Decree by Mírzá Faḍl
Fasl, Fusul Faṣl, pl. Fuṣúl parting, disjunction, detachment, severance, sunderance, cutting off; separation; division, partition; discharge, dismissal.—plural: section, part; chapter; act (of a play); movement (of a symphony, etc.); article (in a newspaper); class, grade (school); season.
Fass, Fusus Faṣṣ, pl. Fuṣúṣ stone of a ring; clove (of garlic); segment (of an orange); lobe (anatatomy, botanical); joint; essence
Fassala, Fussila Faṣṣala, Fuṣṣila to detail, to enumerate; to expound, to elucidate, to explain; to make understandable, to clarify; to be made distinct
Fata Fatá’ youth, boy, adolescence; a young man; a man-servant
Fata’ Fata’ forgetting; desisting
Fata’l-Malih Fatá’l-Malíḥ handsome young man
Fata’l-Qazvini Fatá’l-Qazvíní youth of Qazvín
Fatah, Fatayat Fatáh, pl. Fatayát (young) girl, young woman
Fataha Fataḥa to open (something); to turn on (a faucet); to switch on, turn on (an apparatus); to dig (a canal); to build (a road); to open, preface, introduce, begin (something); to conquer, capture (something); to reveal, disclose (to someone or something); to grant victory or success (to someone over or in something; of God).
Fatama, Fatm Faṭama, Faṭm to wean (an infant or a young animal
Fath-‘Ali Fatḥ-‘Alí Fatḥ-‘Alí Sháh Qájár (1772–1834), father of Muḥammad Sháh
Fath-al-Futuh Fatḥ-al-Futúḥ Victory of Victories
Fath-i-A’zam Fatḥ-i-A‘ẓam (“Fatheazam”) “supreme victory”. Hushmand Fatheazam [Húshmand Fatḥ-i-A‘ẓam] (1924–2013), member of the Universal House of Justice for 40 years (1963 until he retired in 2003).
Fath, Futuh, Futuhat Fatḥ, pl. Futúḥ, Futúḥát opening; introduction, commencement, beginning;—(pl. futúḥ, futúḥát) conquest; victory, triumph;—pl. futúḥát alms; donations, contributions
Fatha Fatḥa(h or t) the vowel point, the short vowel a (grammar). See ḍamma and kasra
Fathu’llah Fatḥu’lláh (Fatḥ+Alláh) “God’s opening" or “God’s conquest”
Fathu’llah-i-Hakkak Fatḥu’lláh-i-Ḥakkák
Fathu’llah-i-Hakkak-i-Qumi Fatḥu’lláh-i-Ḥakkák-i-Qumí
Fathu’llah-i-Qumi Fatḥu’lláh-i-Qumí
Fatih, Fatiha (Pers. Fatihih), Fawatih Fátiḥ, fem. Fátiḥa[h or t], pl. Fawátiḥ opener; beginner; conqueror, victor; light (colour). Feminine: start, opening, beginning, commencement, inception, incipience; introduction, preface, preamble, proem. al-Fátiḥa (or as-Sab‘a al Mathání (the seven oft-repeated) since the verses of al-Fátiḥa must be read in every prayer) is the first surah (with 7 verses) of the Qur’án. See Qur’án 15:87. According to a ḥádíth and Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, this súra was revealed twice—in Mecca and Medina—as was the Preamble to Lawḥ-i-Ishráqát. Iṣfahání Pers. Fátiḥih. See Ḥurúf Muqaṭṭa‘át.
Fatim, Fatima (Fatimih), Futum Faṭím, fem. Fáṭima[h or t], pl. weaned. Fem. a woman who weans her child; a female proper name.
Fáṭima bint Muḥammad (CE 605 or 15–632), commonly known as Fáṭima az-Zahrá’, was the daughter of Muḥammad and wife of the Imám ‘Alí.
Fáṭimih-Bagum was the mother of the Báb.
Fáṭimih Khánum (b. 1828, m. 1849, d. 1904; referred to as Mahd-i-‘Ulyá), was the second wife of Bahá’u’lláh. Her children were: Ṣamadíyyih (daughter), and sons Muḥammad, Ḍíyá’u’lláh and Badí‘u’lláh.
See umm al-Kitáb.
Fatima-i-Ma’sumih (Fatima Masumeh) Fáṭima-i-Ma‘ṣúma sister of the eighth Imam. Pers. Fáṭimih-i-Ma‘ṣúmih. DB p. 224 is incorrect.
Fatimi, Fatimiya Fáṭimí, pl. Fáṭimíya(h or t) Fatimite, a dynasty that reigned in Egypt from 908 to 1171
Fatimi, Fatimiyun Fáṭimí, pl. Fáṭimíyún Fatimid (adj. and n.); al-Fáṭimíyún, the Fatimids
Fatiq Fatíq unstitched, ripped, ripped open, slit, rent, torn; sharp, shining (dawn), eloquent
Fatir Fáṭir originator or creator. al-Fáṭir, the Creator (God)
Fatra, Fatarat Fatra, Fatarát lassitude, languor, listlessness, slackness, weakness, feebleness, debility; tepidity, indifference, coolness (of a feeling); (pl.) interval of time, intermission, pause; period, spell, while
Fattah Fattáḥ an opener (of the gates of profit, of sustenance; a conqueror; a judge, an arbiter; one of the names of God (al-Fattáḥ)); name of a bird. Derived from Fataḥa.
Fattuh (Fattouh, Fatou, Fatoo) Fattúḥ little conqueror; diminutive of Fattáḥ
Fatwa (Fatva), Fatwin, Fatawa Fatwá, pl. Fatáwin, Fatáwá formal (possibly non-binding) legal opinion (Islamic law), a judgement or sentence made by a recognized authority, a qualified jurist (muftí), in response to a question posed by a private individual, judge or government. The stature of a muftí, and hence of their fatwá, derives from their reputation for scholarly expertise and upright character.
Fawa’id al-Hikmiyyah al-Fawá‘id al-Ḥikmiyyah (written by Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Aḥsá’í) observations in wisdom
Fawj (Fauj, Fouj, Fuj), Afwaj, Afwajan Fawj, pl. Afwáj group, crowd, troop, band; detachment; party; shift (in a mine); battalion; regiment. Afwájan in droves, in crowds.
Fawj-Dar (Fuzdar) Fawj-Dár (“Fúzdár”) Pers. (Fauj-dar, Fouj-dar, Foj-dar, Fuj-dar, Fauz-dar, Fouz-dar, Foz-dar, Fozdar, etc.). A police or military officer; a criminal judge.
Fawq Fawq being above, superior to (one’s fellows); superiority, excellence; the top, upper part; above, more than, beyond; besides, except. az fawq ámadan, Bahá’í expression for “come from on high” (i.e. from Haifa, or Shoghi Effendi, etc.)
Fawwar Fawwár boiling up, ebullient; effervescent, fizzing; bubbling (spring, etc.); foaming, frothy; hot-headed, irascible
Fawz (Fauz, Faouz) Fawz success, triumph, victory; obtainment, attainment, achievement, accomplishment; escape
Fawzi (Fauzi, Faouzi) Fawzí triumphal, triumphant
Fayd (Faid, Faiz), Fayz, Fuyud, Fiyud Fayḍ, Pers. Fayẓ, pl. Fuyúḍ, Fiyúḍ flood, inundation, deluge; emanation; superabundance, plenty, copiousness, abundance;—pl. stream.—pl. Fayúdát (Fayudat) emanations, bounties.
Fayd-i-Aqdas Fayḍ-i-Aqdas (“most holy outpouring”) Signifies revelation in the realm of absolute divine unity itself.
Fayd-i-Muqaddas Fayḍ-i-Muqaddas (“holy outpouring”) and “most holy outpouring” (fayḍ-i-aqdas), as symbols of differential stages of divine revelation (as discussed in The Kitáb-i-Íqán), may also be inferred from the title of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Fayḍ-i-Muqaddas signifies revelation and manifestation of the divine in the realm of creation. See Fayḍ.
Faydi (Faidi, Faizi), Fayzi Fayḍí, Pers. Fayẓí e.g. Afnán Fayḍí
Faydu’llah (Fazu’llah) Fayḍu’lláh abundance from God
Faylasuf (Failasuf), Falasifa Faylasúf, pl. Falásifa philosopher
Fayruz (Fairuz), Fayruzaj (Fairuzaj) Fayrúz and Fayrúzaj turquoise. In Egypt, the Sinai Peninsula (a modern name) is called Arḍ al-Fayrúz (“the land of turquoise”). The ancient Egyptian name was Ta Mefkat (“Land of turquoise”, ‘Ard al-Fayrúz in Arabic)
Fayruzabadi (Fairuzabadi, Firuz Abadi) al-Fayrúzábádí Muḥammad ibn Ya‘qúb al-Fayrúzábádí (1329–1414) was a lexicographer and the compiler of a comprehensive Arabic dictionary, al-Qámús, that was one of the most widely used for nearly 500 years
Faysal (Faizal) Fayṣal decisive criterion; arbitrator, arbiter. Fayṣal bin ‘Abdu’l-Ázíz, King of Saudi Arabia (1964 to 1975).
Fayyad Fayyáḍ overflowing, effusive, exuberant; elaborate, exhaustive (speech); munificent, bountiful, liberal, generous
Fi (preposition) in; at; on; near, by; within, during; among, in the company of, with; about, on; concerning, regarding, with reference to, with regard or respect to, as to dealing with, treating of, consisting in (in book titles); for the sake of, on behalf of, because of, for; according to; in proportion to.
Fi Khalali and Fi Khilali Khalali and Fí Khiláli during; in the course of, within, in a given period of
Fi’l Fi‘l, pl. Af‘ál, Afá‘íl activity, doing, work, action, performance; function;— (pl. af‘ál, fi‘ál) deed, act, action; effect, impact;— (pl. af‘ál) verb (gram.);—pl. afá‘íl great deeds, exploits, feats; machinations
Fi’s-Suluk Fi’s-Sulúk I and II “On the Virtuous Journey” by the Báb [elided form of: fí as-Sulúk]
Fida’ Fidá’ redemption, ransoming; ransom; price (one has to pay for something), sacrifice (one makes for something).
Fida’i, Fida’iyan Fidá’í, pl. Fidá’iyán one who sacrifices himself (especially for his country); especially the plural. Fadá’íyán-i-Islám: “Fedayeen of Islam” or “Devotees of Islam” (literally “Self-Sacrificers of Islam”) is a Shí‘a fundamentalist group in Írán with a strong activist political orientation. An alleged terrorist organization that sought to purify Islám in Írán by assassinating ‘corrupting individuals’.
Fidal Fiḍál grace, favour. Name given to Tuesday in Badí‘ calendar. See Faḍíl
Fidda, Fiddih (Fizza) Fiḍḍa[h or t] (Pers. fem. Fiḍḍih) silver. Name of the maid of the wife of the Báb. Pers. may be written as Fiẓẓa.
Fidya, Fidayat, Fidan Fidya[h or t], pl. Fidayát, Fidan ransom; redemption (from the omission of certain religious duties, by a material donation or a ritual act—Islamic law)
Fihris, Fihrist, Faharis Fihris and Fihrist, pl. Faháris table of contents, index; catalogue; list. al-Fihrist or Kitáb al-Fihrist by Muḥammad ibn Isḥáq. See Isḥáq.
Fikr Fikr meditation or reflection
Fikum Fíkum Fí+kum, on you
Fil, Fiyala, Fuyul, Afyal Fíl, pl. Fiyala, Fuyúl, Afyál (ivory) elephant; bishop (chess)
Fin Fín Pers. city (27.632331, 55.886223) and capital of Fín District in southern Írán. Bagh-i-Fín, a very old recreational garden (33.946123, 51.372367) with many water features fed by a spring, in southwestern Káshán, Írán. To the east is the former village of Fín-i-Buzurg (33.953073, 51.403053).
Findarisk, Galand, Garland Findarisk or Garland Pers. a small village (37.032943, 55.030977) west of the small city of Daland (60 km NE of Gúrgán and 12 km SW of Ázádshahr) in Golestan Province, Írán.
Findariski Findariskí of or from Findirisk. Abu’l-Qásim Findiriskí, known as Mír Findiriskí (b. ~1562–d. ~1640), was a philosopher and a scholar of Iṣfahán in the Safavid period.
Findik Findík Turkish “hazelnut”
Fiqh Fiqh understanding, comprehension; knowledge. Islamic jurisprudence
Fir’awn, Fara’ina Fir‘awn, pl. Fará‘ina[h or t] Pharaoh
Firaydan (Faridan, Feredan) Firaydán (alt. pronunciation Farídán) Pers. county in Iṣfahán Province. The capital of the county is Dárán (or Dárún).
Firaydani (Faridani, Feredani) Firaydání person from Firaydán
Faridun, Firidun, Afridun Farídún, Firídún, Afrídún Pers. also Faraydún, Firaydún (Fereydun, Fereidun, Firaydun, Fraydun, Freydun) an ancient and celebrated Persian king (mythical?), the commencement of whose reign is placed about 750 BCE. His sons were sons Túr (Túraj), Salm and Íraj.
Firayjat Firayját A place where Bahá’u’lláh stayed. It is 5 km north of the Riḍván Garden, Baghdád.
Firdaws-i-A’la Firdaws-i-A‘lá “Supreme Paradise”
Firdaws (Firdaus, Ferdows), Faradis Firdaws fem., pl. Farádís a garden, vineyard, paradise; a fertile valley. (“Ferdos and Ferdous”) Firdaws (formerly Tún), capital city of Firdaws County in the southern part of South Khurásán Province, Írán.
Firdawsi (Firdausi, Ferdowsi) Firdawsí paradisiacal, heavenly. Abu’l-Qásim Firdawsí Ṭúsí (c. 940–1020), or Ferdowsi (“Firdusi, Firdosi”) was a Persian poet and the author of Sháhnámah. Ferdowsi is celebrated as the most influential figure in Persian literature and one of the greatest in the history of literature.
Firishta, Firishtagan Firishta, pl. Firishtagán Pers. an angel; a messenger, apostle. Pers. form Firishtih (Fereshteh). See Ar. Mal’ak/Malak
Firman Firmán Pers. See Farmán
Firq Firq part, portion, division, section, unit; band, company, party, detachment, troop, group; herd, flock
Firqa, Firaq Firqa(h or t), pl. Firaq part, portion, division, section, unit; band, company, party, detachment, troop, group; class; grade, class (in school); pupils or students of a course; troupe, ensemble; team, crew; division (military); sect
Firush (Firosh, Furush) Firúsh (Furúsh) Pers. selling, a seller. Often hyphenated after another word indicating what type of goods are sold.
Firutan (Firotan), Furutan Firútan, Furútan Pers. lowly; humble, depressed; submissive. ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan (1905–2003), educator, author and Hand of the Cause of God.
Firuz Fírúz victorious, triumphant, prosperous, successful; victory; prosperity; the third of the five supplemental days added to the Persian year; name of several Persian kings. See Ẓáfir
Firuz-Kuh, Firuzkuh Fírúz-Kúh or Fírúzkúh village 125 km east of Teheran
Firuzabad (Fayruzabad) Fírúzábád (Fayrúzábád) city (28.845032, 52.571049) 85 km south of Shíráz
Firydunkinar (Fereydunkenar) Firaydúnkinár (Firaydún Kinár) also known as Qaşabih, is a city (36.684245, 52.524089) and capital of Fereydunkenar County, Mazandaran Province. It is a Caspian Sea resort.
Fishar-i-Qabr Fishár-i-Qabr Pers. constriction in the grave. Promised after death tortures leading to a fear of being squeezed in the grave.
Fisq Fisq sinfulness, viciousness, moral depravity, dissolute life
Fitna, Fitan Fitna[h or t], pl. Fitan temptation, trial; charm, attractiveness; enchantment, captivation, fascination, enticement, temptation; infatuation; intrigue; sedition, riot, discord, dissension, civil strife. Occurs when a Manifestation appears. See also Imtiḥán.
Fitr Fiṭr breaking fast, alms giving at ‘Íd al-Fiṭr (a Muslim festival marking the end of Ramaḍán)
Fitr, Aftar Fitr, pl. Aftár small div (the space between the end of the thumb and the end of the index finger when extended); corner
Fitra, Fitar Fiṭra(t), pl. Fiṭar creation; idiosyncrasy; tendency; wisdom, sagacity; deceit, trick; religion; the power of the Creator;—(pl.) nature, (natural) disposition, constitution, temperament, innate character, instinct
Fitrat Fitrat Ar. There are several meanings: original Reality, creating, and gap. Also the interval between two prophets, or the time between the martyrdom of the Báb and the rise of Bahá’u’lláh. (The Bahá’í Proofs, p. 66)
Fizan (Fezan), Fizzan (Fezzan, Fazzan) Fízán (Turkish), Fizzán (Ar.) “rough rocks”, a large south-western region (one of three) of modern Libya. It is largely desert, but broken by mountains, uplands, and dry river valleys (wadis) in the north, where oases enable ancient towns and villages to survive deep in the otherwise inhospitable Sahara Desert. The capital (near the centre) is Sabhá.
Friedberg Friedberg Beyle Friedberg (1864,–1944), a Russian-Jewish novelist, poet, and dramatist; better known by the pen names Isabella and Isabella Arkadevna Grinevskaya. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá sent a Tablet to her.
Fu’ad (Fuad), Fu’ada, Af’ida Fu’ád, fem. Fu’áda[h or t], pl. Af’ida[h or t] heart. Shoghi Effendi described the Shrine of the Báb as being the “Heart” of Mt. Carmel.
Fu’adiya, Fu’adiyya (Fu’adiyyih) Fu’ádíya, Pers. Fu’ádiyya Fu’ádíyyih, daughter (died in infancy) of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Munírih Khánum
Fuhayra Fuhayra(h) ‘Ámir ibn Fuhayra (586–625) (also known by the kunya Abú ‘Amr) was a companion of Muḥammad. Of African ancestry, he was born a slave. He became a Muslim in Mecca and later was bought and manumitted by Abú Bakr. When Abú Bakr and Muḥammad escaped from Mecca in 622, ‘Ámir grazed Abú Bakr’s flocks by day, then brought them at evening to the cave on Mount Thawr (5 km south of Mecca) where Abú Bakr and Muḥammad were hiding, presumably so that the sheep would cover the tracks of Abú-Bakr’s son, ‘Abdu’lláh, who stayed near the cave overnight. When they left the cave to travel to Medina, ‘Ámir accompanied them.
Fujita Fujita Mr Saichirō Fujita (1886–1976), a native of Yamaguchi Prefecture, was the second Japanese to become a Baháʼí. He was also distinguished by serving at the Baháʼí World Centre for ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, Shoghi Effendi, the Custodians, and the Universal House of Justice.
Fulad Maḥallih (Foulad-Mahalleh) Fúlád Maḥallih a village (36.060963, 53.707101) in Semnan Province
Fulad, Fuladi Fúlád, adj. Fúládí and Fuládí steel, of steel, made of steel; steely, steel-like, steel-hard
Fulan, Fulana Fulán, fem. Fulána (substituting for an unnamed or unspecified person or thing) so and so
Fulk Fulk (m. and f.) ship, (also collective) ships; Ark (as in Noah’s)
Funduq, Funduqa (Findik) Funduq, Funduqa Pers. hazelnut of filbert-nut; a nut good against the sting of a scorpion; a ball for cannon, musketry, or cross-bow. Ar. Bunduq, Turk. Findík
Furat Furát Pers. very fine, sweet water or waters; the river Euphrates; the sea
Furqan Furqán proof, evidence, discriminator, distinguishing; whatever discriminates between truth and falsehood, the Qur’án, any sacred book. An important attribute of al-Qur’án (see 2:185) is that of distinction (furqán), for the word Qur’án describes how al-Qur’án is recited, whereas the word Furqán describes the criterion that distinguishes between truth (ḥaqq) and falsehood (báṭil) (see 25:1). Name of sura 25.
Furs Furs Persia; the Persians
Fursi Fursí (Pers. Ar. influence) Persian
Furugh Furúgh Ar. emptiness, vacuity; vacancy; termination, expiration, exhaustion
Furugh Furúgh Pers. splendour, light, brightness, flame. Name given by Bahá’u’lláh to the remote village of Dúghábád. See gh-Ábád
Furughi Furúghí (Forooghy) the erudite Mírzá Maḥmúd Mírzá Maḥmúd Furúghí came from the village of Dúghábád. That is why Mírzá Maḥmúd is known as Furúghí. Faḍíl-i-Furúghí—the Savant of Furúgh—is also an appellation by which he is remembered. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá described him as a leader of the legion of the believers. Eminent Bahá’ís in the Time of Bahá’u’lláh, pp. 157, 164. See jaysh ‘aramram.
Furughiyyih Furúghíyyih name of a daughter of Bahá’u’lláh
Furuhar, Farawahar (Faravahar) Furúhar, Farawahár classical Pers. matter, essence (distinguished from accident). The new Persian reading of Furúhar (FRWHR فروهر) is Farawahár, Faravahár, Forouhar. The Farawahár, also known as Farr-i-Kiyání (فرکیانی) or Ashu Farúhar, is one of the best-known symbols of Írán. It symbolizes Zoroastrianism and Iranian nationalism. The Farawahár is the most worn pendant among Iranians and has become a secular national symbol, rather than a religious symbol. It symbolizes good thoughts (pindár-i-nik), good words (speech) (guftár-i-nik) and good deeds (kirdár-i-nik), which are the basic tenets and principles of Zoroastrianism. The winged-disc symbol (“guardian angel”) of Zoroastrianism is traditionally interpreted as a depiction of a frawashi—the Avestan language term for the Zoroastrian concept of a personal spirit of an individual, whether dead, living and yet-unborn.
Fustat, Fasatit Fusṭáṭ, pl. Fasáṭíṭ (large) tent made of haircloth; tent, pavilion, canopy; al-Fusṭáṭ ancient Islamic city 5 km south of present-day Cairo. It was the first capital of Egypt under Muslim rule. Built by the Muslim general ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aṣ immediately after the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 641, and featured the Mosque of ‘Amr, the first mosque built in Egypt and in Africa.
Fususu’l-Hikam Fuṣúṣu’l-Ḥikam The Bezels of Wisdom by Ibnu’l-‘Arabí. See Faṣṣ and Ḥikma
Futa, Fuwat Fúṭa(t), pl. Fuwat apron, pinafore; napkin, serviette; towel. Wrap-around male skirt worn by men in Yemen.
Futuh ar-Rasul Futúḥ ar-Rasúl “Victories of the Messenger”. It is possible the Báb travelled on a ship of this name from Búshihr to Jiddah in 1844.
Futuhat al-Makkiyah Futúḥát al-Makkiyyah Kitáb al-Futúḥát al-Makkiyyah, “The Book of Meccan Revelations” by Shaykh ibn ‘Arabí. See Fataḥa and Makkí.
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Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
G
Gabr Gabr Pers. (Persian ethnic slur for non-Muslims; also historically equivalent to the Arabic Majús) a guebre (also geubre, gabrak, gawr, gaur, gyaur, gabre) originally an ancient Persian (i.e. a Zoroastrian), one of the Magi of the sect of Zoroaster (a priest of the worshippers of fire); by the 13th century the word denoted a pagan, an infidel; a plant resembling ginger; a vest; a stone. After gabr came to have a pejorative implication, it was superseded in literature by the respectable Zartushtí (“Zoroastrian”). See gawr.
Gach Gach Pers. a kind of white earth of which lime is made of; a plaster of lime and gypsum mixed with sand and pounded marble.
Gaf Gáf Persian letter representing g—a form of the Arabic letter káf
Gah-bar, Gah.Barba, Gahanbarha Gáh-bár, Gáh-bárhá, Gáhanbárhá Pers. “proper season”, the six days or periods in which (according to the cosmogony of the ancient Persians) God created the world.
Gallipoli Gallipoli Italian form of the Greek Kallipolis (“beautiful city”), Turkish Gelibolu. Gallipoli is a coastal city on the Gallipoli peninsula, which was a district of the Rumelia province of the Ottoman Empire, later Turkey, and now Türkiye.
Ganavih (Genaveh) Ganávih Bandar (Port) Ganávih, or Ganávih, formerly Jannáb, is a city in and capital of Genaveh County, Bushehr Province, Írán. It is on the Persian Gulf coast 75 km NNW of Búshihr
Gand Gand Pers. anything fetid, bad smell, stink, funk. Can result from a mispronounciation of qand
Gandum Gandum Pers. wheat
Gandum-Pak-Kun Gandum-Pák-Kun Mullá Muḥammad Ja‘far—the first person in Iṣfahán to accept the Faith of the Báb
Ganj Ganj Pers. a store, hoard, (hidden) treasure; a magazine, granary, grain-market, storehouse; a mart; a case
Ganj Panhan, Ganj Pinhan Ganj Panhán Pers. “hidden treasure”. The Báb called Quddús a Ganj Pinhán Khudá (a “Hidden treasure of God”). Ganj-i-Pinhán by Hooshmand Dehghan.
Ganja, Ganjih, Ganjeh, Ganza, Gandzha Ganja city (40.691348, 46.376470; 3rd largest) in Ádharbayján. It was named Yelizavetpól (Elisabethpol) in the Russian Empire period. Under the Soviet Union (1920), the city regained its original name, then changed to Kirovabád in 1935. In 1989 the city regained its original name. Known as Gyandzha, Gandzak, and Ganjeh in Russian, Armenian and Persian, respectively.
Gar Gár Pers. a suffix that, subjoined to a word, denotes agency or possession
Garb Garb west; occident; vehemence, violence, impetuosity, tempestuousness; al-Garb—the West, the Occident
Garbi Garbí western, westerly; occidental, Western; European; an Occidental, a Westerner;—al-Garbíyún the Western Church (Christian)
Gardan Gardán Pers. turning, winding, changing, inverting, converting; one who turns or goes round; conjugation, inflexion; meat parboiled and roasted with spices
Gardanih-i-Asad-Abad Gardánih-i-Ásad-Ábád (Gardaneh-ye-Asadabad) a stopping place (34.812973, 48.162259) for Bahá’u’lláh during exile between Hamadán and Ásad-Ábád.
Gari Garí Pers. any standard of measure, whether for land, cloth, grain, liquids, or time; a measure of time, twenty-two minutes and thirty seconds; the itch, scab. Practice, trade, craft, office (when used as a suffix).
Garm Rud, Garmrud (Garmroud) Garm Rúd (or Garmrúd) village northern Írán (16 km SSE of Sárí). Pers.: warm or hot (garm) flowing water (rúd)
Garm-Siri Garm-Sírí “warm place”
Gawhar (Gohar, Gauhar, Guhar) Gawhar Pers. a gem, jewel, pearl, precious stone; lustre of a gem or sword; root, origin; of a noble family; essence, substance, form; offspring; any hidden virtue; intellect, wisdom; a substitute. See jawhar
Gawhar Khanum Gawhar Khánum third wife of Bahá’u’lláh (broke Covenant after the passing of Bahá’u’lláh)—her daughter is Furúghíyyih
Gawhar-Maliki Gawhar-Malikí Royal jewel
Gawhar-Shad Gawhar-Shád “joyful or shining jewel”. Name (“Gowharshad Begum”) of the wife of Sháhrukh, and a large congregational mosque in Mashhad (36.287504, 59.614551).
Gawhardasht (Gawhar Dasht) Gawhardasht (Gawhar + Dasht) (“Gohardasht”) formerly Rajá‘í Shahr, a neighbourhood (with prison, Gawhardasht Zindán) on north side of Karaj
Gawr (Gaur), Gawran (Gauran) Gawr, pl. Gawrán Pers. a pagan, infidel, guebre, or worshipper of fire
Gawr (Gavr), Gawur Gáwr, Gáwur Pers. (for gabr?), an infidel
Gaziantep, ‘Ayntab, Antep Gaziantep, ‘Ayntáb Turkish previously and still informally called Aintab or Antep, is a city (37.068339, 37.386658) in the westernmost part of Turkey’s South-eastern Anatolia Region.
Gha’i Ghá’í final
Gha’ib Ghá’ib invisible world; the invisible being, God, the Deity; (in grammar) the third person. See Ghayb.
Ghadanfar Ghaḍanfar lion
Ghadir Khumm Ghadír Khumm is a pool fed by a spring. Muḥammad gave a speech (during which he designated ‘Alí as the leader of the Muslim ummah) on 18th of Dhu’l-Ḥijjah AH 10 (CE 632) at Ghadír Khumm (22.739690, 39.137236), 4.5 km WNW of al-Juḥfah. See Juḥfa.
Ghadir, Ghudur, Ghudran Ghadír, pl. Ghudur, Ghudrán pond, pool, puddle; stream, brook, creek, river
Ghafara, Gafr, Maghfira, Ghufran Ghafara, Ghafr, Maghfira, Ghufrán to forgive (someone something), grant pardon (to someone for something), remit (something)
Ghaffar (“Gaffar”) Ghaffár readily inclined to pardon, much-forgiving (especially of God). ‘Abdu’l-Ghaffár is claimed to be the real name of Noah. See Núḥ.
Ghaffari Ghaffárí Pers. Iranian family name.
Ghafir Gháfir forgiving; merciful, compassionate
Ghafr, Ghufur Ghafr, pl. Ghufúr covering; pardoning (sins); laying up, enclosing in a case or in a repository; rankling, being raw (a wound); relapsing (a sick person); relapse; tingeing, dyeing (grey hair)
Ghafra Ghafrá forgiving. Abí Ghafráy-i-Ṭá’i‘. See SDC 48.
Ghafur Ghafúr readily inclined to pardon, much-forgiving (esp. of God)
Ghali Ghalí Pers. dear, highly-priced
Ghalib Ghálib overcoming, overpowering; prevailing, predominant; triumphant, victorious; a conqueror; Port Ghálib, Red Sea, Egypt.  Mírzá Asadu’lláh Baig Khán (1797–1869), was a prominent Urdu and Persian poet during the last years of the Mughal Empire. His pen names were Ghálib and Asad.  Honourifics: Dabíru’l-Mulk, Najmu’d-Dawla.
Ghalin, Ghula Ghálin, pl. Ghulá[h or t] expensive, high priced; valuable, costly; dear, beloved;—pl. adherent of an extreme sect; extremist; exaggerator, radical; fanatic adherent, fanatic. A Shí‘a term for theological extremists who go beyond what is considered reasonable in what they claim about Muḥammad and the Imams. The Shaykhis and Babis fall into this category.
Ghalwa, Ghalwat Ghalwa[h or t], pl. Ghalwát the shooting of an arrow as far as possible; bow-shot distance (≈230 m); the utmost stretch of a horse. See Manzil.
Ghamam, Ghamamun, Ghama’im Ghamám, pl. Ghamá’im clouds (collective noun Ghamámun)
Ghamim Ghamím milk thickened by boiling; sour, coagulated milk; Kurá‘u’l-Ghamím (Kurá‘ al-Ghamím), a valley NW of Mecca on the main route to Madínah
Ghani Ghaní rich, wealthy; independent, self-sufficient (able to do without, detached). Khájih Ghaní or ‘Abdu’l-Ghaní Baydún
Ghaní ad-Dahr Ghaní ad-Dahr the appreciative
Ghani, Ghunat Ghání, pl. Ghunát rich; able to do without, detached
Ghanim Ghánim Ar. successful
Ghanima, Ghana’im Ghaníma(h), pl. Ghaná’im spoils, booty, loot, prey
Ghannam Ghannám shepherd. House of Sulaymán-i-Ghannám in Baghdád. See Bayt-i-A‘ẓam
Ghar, Aghwar, Ghiran Ghár, pl. Aghwár, Ghírán cave, cavern
Gharb Gharb being hid; going, departing, going to a great distance or to one side; the place where the sun sets; sunset; the West; Africa; being shed (tears); the flowing of tears
Gharbi Gharbí west, western, westerly; exposed to the setting sun; e.g. Gaz-i-Gharbí, western Gaz, village located west of the village of Gaz, and south of Bandar-i-Gaz
Ghariq, Gharqa Gharíq, pl. Gharqá drowned; a drowned person; immersed, engrossed, absorbed (in). Abjad value of 1,310. Nabíl drowned in AH 1310—the year began 26 July 1892.
Ghars, Aghras, Ghiras Ghars, pl. Aghrás, Ghirás planted (abjad 1,260);—pl. plant, layer, cion, nursery plant, seedling
Gharsa (Gharasa, Gharasih) Gharsa[h or t] plant. Abjad value of 1,265
Gharsi Gharsí abjad value of 1,270
Ghashiya, Ghawashin Gháshiya(h or t), pl. Ghawáshin pericardium; misfortune, calamity, disaster; faint, swoon; insensibility, stupor; servants, attendants, retinue; a covering. al Gháshiyah, the overwhelming event, Súra 88.
Ghashiyatun, Ghawash Gháshiyatun fem., pl. Ghawash something that covers or overwhelms; a covering, an overwhelming calamity. Qur’án 12:107.
Ghasil Ghasíl washed; (dirty or washed) clothes, washing
Ghassan, Ghasasinah Ghassán prime; vigour (of youth); the impetuosity of youth. al-Ghasásinah (Ghassanids), also Banú Ghassán (“Sons of Ghassán”), were a pre-Islamic Arab tribe that founded an Arab kingdom. The Christian Ghassanid Dynasty were descendants of the al-Azd tribe from Yemen who migrated in the early 3rd century to the Levant region.
Ghataf Ghaṭaf comforts (of life); bigness of the eye; length of the eye-lashes
Ghatafan Ghaṭafán name of an Arab tribe
Ghawgha’ (Ghaugha’) Ghawghá’ (Pers. also Ghawghá) mob, rabble, riffraff, din, noise, clamour
Ghawr Ghawr place near Tiberias, Israel
Ghawth Ghawth call for help; help, aid, succour
Ghawthiya, Ghawthiyyih Ghawthíya[h or t], Ghawthiyyih The state or quality of a ghauth (ghauth), saintship, sanctity; devoteeism. Garden of Ghawthiyyih—riyáḍ al-ghawthiyya—(loosely) “Garden of Intercessory Sainthood”.
Ghayb (Ghaib) Ghayb, pl. Ghuyúb absence; hidden, concealed, invisible;—(pl.) that which is hidden, the invisible; that which is transcendental, the supernatural; divine secret. (invisible realm)
Ghayba (Ghaiba) Ghayba(t) absence; concealment, invisibility; occultation. State of being hidden from view. See Tablet of Aḥmad
Ghaybat al-Kubra al-Ghaybat al-Kubrá Major Occultation (c. AH 329/941–AH 1260/1844). See appended Occultation note.
Ghaybat as-Sughra al-Ghaybat aṣ-Ṣugh Minor Occultation (AH 260/CE 874–c. 941). The “Deputies” or “Gates” during the Minor Occultation: ‘Uthmán ibn Sa‘íd, his son Muḥammad ibn ‘Uthmán, Ḥusayn ibn Rúḥ and ‘Alí ibn Muḥammad Símarí. See appended Occultation note.
Ghaym (Ghaim), Ghuyum, Ghiyam Ghaym, pl. Ghuyúm, Ghiyám (collective) clouds; mist, fog
Ghaym ar-Raqiq Ghaym ar-Raqíq thin cloud
Ghayn Ghayn Arabic letter transcripted as gh
Ghayr (Ghair) Ghayr other than (with dependent genitive), different from, unlike, no, not, non-, un-, in-, dis-; (preposition) ghayra except, save, but
Ghayr (Ghair), Ghayra (Ghair) Ghayr other than (with dependent genititive), different from, unlike, no, not, non-, un-, in-, dis-; (preposition) ghayra except, save, but
Ghayr Mutashabih Ghayr Mutashábíh unambiguous
Ghayra (Ghaira) Ghayra[h or t] jealously; zeal, fervor, earnest concern, vigilant care, solicitude (for); sense of honour, self-respect. Ghayrah ar-Rabb (“zeal of the Lord”), Isaiah 9:7.
Ghayriya (Ghairiya) Ghayríya[h or t] altruism. Also change, alteration; strangeness, unreality; jealousy.
Ghayur (Ghayoor), Ghuyur, Ghayuran Ghayúr, pl. Ghuyur, Pers. Ghayúrán (very) jealous; zealous, fervid, eager (in, in the pursuit of), keen, eagerly intent (on), earnestly concerned (with), enthusiastic (for). A character, infamous for his moral laxity and indifference to honour and fidelity, mentioned in Ottoman Turkish sources.
Ghaz, Ghazat Gház, pl. Gházát gas; petroleum, oil (north African)
Ghazal Ghazal to sweet-talk, to flirt, to display amorous gestures; a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same metre. See Ghazl.
Ghazal, Ghazala, Ghizla, Ghizlan Ghazál, fem. Ghazála[h] gazelle; a village near or now in Tús (see Ghazálí);—pl. Ghizla, Ghizlán
Ghazali Ghazálí a native of Ghazál. Abú Ḥámid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad aṭ-Ṭúsí al-Ghazálí (c.  1058–1111), Persian, was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mystics of Sunni Islám. His tomb is on the northern edge of Tús. Known in the West as Algazel.
Ghazi Ghází gaseous, gas-like. ghází a conqueror, hero, gallant soldier (especially combating infidels); a general, leader of an expedition; see Gházin.
Ghazin, Ghuzah, Ghazi Gházin, pl. Ghuzáh one who carries out a military expedition or a foray; raider, invader, aggressor, conqueror; al-ghází the war lord, warrior champion, ghazi
Ghazl, Ghuzul Ghazl, pl. Ghuzúl spinning;—pl. spun thread, yarn. Same Arabic letters as Ghazal.
Ghazna Ghazná or Ghazní “jewel”, city (historically known as Ghaznín or Ghazna(h)) in Afghánistán 128 km SW of Kabul
Ghazwa, Ghazawat Ghazwa(h or t), pl. Ghazawát military expedition, foray; raid, incursion, inroad, invasion, attack, aggression; conquest; campaign of conquest. See Mu’ta
Ghazwat al-Khandaq Ghazwat al-Khandaq “Battle of the Trench”, also known as the Battle of Khandaq (Ma‘rakah al-Khandaq) and the Battle of the Confederates (Ghazwat al-Aḥzáb), was a 30-day-long siege of Yathrib (now Medina) by Arab and Jewish tribes, Jan-Feb 627 (AH 5)
Ghazwat Khaybar Ghazwat Khaybar the Battle of Khaybar, fought in 628 between Muslims and the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, 140 km NNW of Medina
Ghazza Ghazza Gaza (seaport in the Gaza strip)
Ghazzi Ghazzí gauze
Ghifar Ghifár a helmet; father of the Banú Ghifár
Ghill, Aghlal Ghill, pl. Aghlál (used by Bahá’u’lláh) rancour, hatred, spite, malice. See ghull and mughill.
Ghina Ghiná being rich, riches, wealth. “Guinea” may be derived from a contraction of Balad al-Ghiná (“land of riches”)
Ghina’ Ghiná’ singing, vocal song without music
Ghirsh, Ghursh, Ghurush Ghirsh, Ghursh, pl. Ghurúsh silver coin, piaster
Ghita’, Aghitiya Ghiṭá’, pl. Aghṭiya(h) cover, covering, integument, wrap, wrapper, wrapping, envelope; covering (= clothing); lid
Ghiyath Ghiyáth help, succour. Abjad 1,511
Ghulam al-Khuld Ghulám al-Khuld Tablet of the Deathless Youth by Bahá’u’lláh
Ghulam-Ahmad Ghulám-Aḥmad Mírzá Ghulám-Aḥmad (1839–1908) of Qádiyán, India. Followers later split into Aḥmadíyyah and Qádiyáníyyah.
Ghulam-Husayn Ghulám-Ḥusayn
Ghulam-Rida Ghulám-Riḍá
Ghulam-Riday-i-Kuchik Ghulám-Riḍáy-i-Kúchik
Ghulam-Riday-i-Yazdi Ghulám-Riḍáy-i-Yazdí
Ghulam, Ghilman, Ghilma Ghulám pl. Ghilmán, Ghilma boy, youth, lad; slave; servant, waiter
Ghulaman, Gholaman, Qulaman Ghulámán, Qulámán is a village (38.057515, 57.141576) in Gholaman Rural District, Raz and Jargalan District, Bojnord County, North Khorasan Province, Írán (on the Turkish-Iranian border)
Ghulamu’llah Ghulámu’lláh servant of God. son of Javáv-i-Qazvíní
Ghull, Aghlal, Ghullun Ghull, pl. Aghlál, Ghullún burning thirst; (—pl. aghlál) iron collar; manacles, handcuffs;—pl. chains, shackles, fetters
Ghuluw Ghulúw exceeding of proper bounds, excess, extravagance; exaggeration
Ghuluww, Ghaliyya Ghuluww, Gháliyya exaggeration, extremism
Ghusl, Aghsal Ghusl, pl. Aghsál washing, ablution; the major ritual ablution, i.e., a washing of the whole body (Islamic Law); wash water
Ghusn-i-A’zam Ghuṣn-i-A‘ẓám Most Great or Greatest Branch, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Ghusn-i-Akbar Ghuṣn-i-Akbar Greater Branch, Mírzá Muḥammad-‘Ali. Later described as the Greater Firewood since his deeds demonstrated that a dead branch is worthy of a fire.
Ghusn-i-Athar Ghusn-i-Aṭhar “Purest Branch” or “Purer Branch”. Title given to Mírzá Mihdí.
Ghusn-i-Mumtaz Ghuṣn-i-Mumtáz The Chosen Branch i.e. Shoghi Effendi
Ghusn, Ghusun, Aghsan Ghuṣn, dual Ghuṣún, pl. Aghṣán twig, bough, limb, branch. Aghṣán (branches) denotes the descendants of Bahá’u’lláh. Only two Aghṣán are mentioned in the Kitáb-i-‘Ahd: Ghuṣn-i-A‘ẓám (‘Abdu’l-Bahá) and Ghuṣn-i-Akbar (Mírzá Muḥammad-‘Ali)
Ghusniyyih Ghuṣniyyih Pers. followers of Mírzá Muḥammad ‘Alí, the “Ghuṣn-i-Akbar”, the half-brother of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Ghusnu’llahu’l-A’zam Ghuṣnu’lláhu’l-A‘ẓam “The Greatest Branch of God” BKG 250, 311, 420, 485
Ghusnu’llahu’l-Athar Ghuṣnu’lláhu’l-Aṭhar “The Purest Branch of God”
Gilan Gílán a northern province of Írán on the Caspian Sea.
Gilani Gílání Pers. a native of Gílán
Gilim (Kilim) Gilím Pers. (Turkish kilim, Azerbaijani kílím) a garment made of goats’ hair or wool; a carpet or rug to lie on; a blanket
Giltughi Giltúghí Ḥájí Káẓim Giltúghí
Giran (Garan) Girán Pers. heavy, weighty, ponderous; slow; great, important, difficult; precious, dear, valuable; gain, profit; penury
Gird Gird Pers. round; a circle, orbit, circumference, circuit; environs, parts adjacent; a collection, assembly; a host; a city; a tent, pavilion; (adverb) around
Girih Girih Pers. a knot, a knur (as in a thread or on wood), a knob, a joint; a button or anything for fastening garments; a gland; a kernel; a purse; an abscess; a knuckle; articulation; three finger-breadths; a difficulty; the seed of a thorny tree used for tanning; the heart
Gisu (Gesu), Gisuwan (Gesuwan) Gísú, pl. Gísúwán Pers. a ringlet of hair, a forelock, a sidelock, curl;—pl. hair, locks. Daughter of Dr Raḥmatu’lláh Muhájir.
Giwah (Givah, Giveh, Giwa) Giwah Pers. a soft, comfortable, durable and hand woven-top shoe common in several parts of Írán especially in rural and mountainous areas of Kirmánsháh Province.
Goumoens Goumoëns city in Switzerland. Austrian Captain Alfred von Goumoëns witnessed and reported on the attempted assassination of Náṣir ad-Dín Sháh on 15 August 1852. His 29 August 1852 letter was first published in German in the Austrian newspaper Oesterreichischer Soldatenfruend (“Austrian Soldier Friend”), 12 October 1852, vol. 123, p. 514.
Guardian Guardian Title given to Shoghi Effendi by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá: “After the passing away of this wronged one, it is incumbent upon the Aghsán, the Afnán of the Sacred Lote-Tree, the Hands of the Cause of God and the loved ones of the Abhá Beauty to turn unto Shoghi Effendi—the youthful branch branched from the two hallowed and sacred Lote-Trees and the fruit grown from the union of the two offshoots of the Tree of Holiness,—as he is the sign of God, the chosen branch, the Guardian of the Cause of God [Walíy-i-Amru’lláh].... He is the Interpreter of the Word of God ....” (The Will and Testament, p. 11)
Guftar Guftár Pers. speech, conversation; a saying; a chapter
Guftgu Guftgú Pers. parley
Gugan (Gavgan (Gav-Gan), Gavkan) Gúgán village 50 km SW of Tabríz. Letters transcribe as “Gawgán”
Guhar (Gohar), Gawhar (Gauhar) Guhar, Gawhar Pers. a gem, jewel, pearl, precious stone; lustre of a gem or sword; root, origin; of a noble family; essence, substance, form; offspring; any hidden virtue; intellect, wisdom
Gul-i-Gulab Gul-i-Guláb red rose, literally, “the flower of the rose-water”. See Ar. Jull and Julláb
Gul-i-Mawla Gul-i-Mawlá “the master’s rose”. name given to Darvish Siḍq-‘Alí
Gul-Muhammad (Gulmuhammad) Gul-Muḥammad GPB p. 200
Gul-Muhammadi (Gulmuhammadi) Gul-Muḥammadí Ar. Dhabíḥu’lláh Gul-Muḥammadí or Pers. Zabíḥu’lláh Gulmuḥammadí
Gul-Saba Gul-Sabá Pers. Sheba rose
Gul, Gulan, Gulha Gul, pl. Gulán (Gulhá) Pers. a rose; a flower; embers; a red colour. See Ar. Jull
Gulab Guláb Pers. rose water. gul (flower) + áb (water).
Guldan, Guldana (Guldanih) Guldán, fem. Guldána[h] Pers. gul (flower) + dán (suffix, holder, pot, vase). Guldánih ‘Alipúr
Gulistan (Golestan) Gulistán Pers. flower garden, rose garden; place where flowers grow. Gulistán-i-Sa‘dí, a celebrated Persian book (CE 1258) in prose and verse, by Abú-Muḥammad Muṣliḥ ad-Dín bin ‘Abdu’lláh Shírází (better known by his pen-name Sa‘dí) (1175–1291).
Book structure: Introduction and 8 chapters, each consisting of a number of stories and poetry:
1. The Manners of Kings;
2. On the Morals of Dervishes;
3. On the Excellence of Contentment;
4. On the Advantages of Silence;
5. On Love and Youth;
6. On Weakness and Old Age;
7. On the Effects of Education;
8. On Rules for Conduct in Life.
Kákh-i-Gulistán (Golestan Palace) is the former royal Qajar complex in Ṭihrán.
Gulistan-i-Javid Gulistán-i-Jávid Pers. “eternal garden”, name given to Bahá’í cemeteries in Írán
Gulmuhammadi Gulmuḥammadí Zabíḥu’lláh (Ar. Dhabíḥu’lláh) Gulmuḥammadí
Gulnar (Golnar) Gulnár (for gul+anár) pomegranate flowers; sour cherry. Gülnar (Azerbaijani, Turkish), pseudonym of Olga Sergeyevna Lebedeva (1854–193?), translator, linguist and Orientalist (first Russian woman) from the Russian Empire.
Gulpayigan, Gulpayagan (Gulpayegan) Gulpáyigán, Gulpáyagán, Gulpáygán Pers. (Bahá’ís use Gulpaygan) “fortress of flowers”, “land of red tulips” or “land of red flowers” (supposedly derived from sar-zamín-i-gul-háy-i-surkh, “land, tulips/flowers, red”). Gulpáyigán is a city (33.457344, 50.288305) in and the capital of Gulpáyigán County, Iṣfahán Province, Írán (about 160 km NW of Iṣfahán). See Abu’l-Faḍl.
Gulpayigani Gulpáyigání from or of Gulpáyigán. Siyyid Muḥammad-i-Gulpáyigání, pen-name Ṭá’ir, styled Fatá’l-Malíḥ by Ṭáhirih. Mullá Ibráhím-i-Gulpáyigání was martyred. See Abu’l-Faḍl and Kashf al-Ghiṭá’.
Gulshan (Golshan) Gulshán Pers. a rose or flower-garden; a bed of roses or flowers; a delightful spot; a place where a person enjoys himself; a pleasure-palace; florid, cheerful, agreeable. Former name of Ṭabas—city in South Khorasan Province, Írán.
Gulshani Gulshaní a Sufi order founded by Ibráhím al-Gulshaní, an influential Sufi shaykh from Azerbaijan
Gumruk, Gamarik Gumruk, pl. Gamárik customs; customhouse
Gunabad (Gonabad) Gunábád city 225 km SW of Mashhad, Khurásán province
Gundishapur, Jund-i-Shapur Gundíshápúr (Ar. Jundaysábúr) (“Gundeshapur”; Jund-i-Shápúr) city ruins (32.286493, 48.514108) of what was once a major city of the Persian empire, 2 km south of the village of Islámábád (Eslamabad, or Sháhábád), which is 12 km SE of Dizfúl (Dezful); in Khuzestan province.
Gunjishk Gunjishk Pers. a sparrow; a chick; any small bird. gáf or káf (kafara, “renounce”) + nún (nazih, “purify”) + jím (jánib, “draw back”) + shín (ush’kur, “thank”, “be grateful”) + káf (kafara)—see The Seven Valleys 1st edn.
Guran Gúrán Pers. the rendezvous of an army; an assembly-room; rice browned in the oven. A village (33.297500, 49.758333) in Lorestan Province, 174 km SW of Káshán.
Gurgin (Gurgan, Gorgan), Jurjan Gurgín or Gurgán, Jurján city near the Caspian Sea (formerly Astrabád or Astarábád), east of Sárí (36.844352, 54.442692)
Gurgin Khan Gurgín Khán Nephew and successor of Governor Manúchihr Khán in Iṣfahán.
Gusha Gushá Pers. opening, loosening, solving
Gusht, Gosht sht Pers. flesh, meat; pulp of fruit
Gushtasb, Gushasb Gushtásb, Gushásb (also Gushtásp) Pers. an ancient king of Persia (Darius Hystaspes)
Guzel (Guzal, Ghuzal) Güzel (Guzal) Turkish “beautiful” (Persian zíbá) Mírzá ‘Ádí-Guzal-i-Marághih’í, the messenger (Sayyáh) for the Báb, hence the title ‘Alíy-i-Sayyáḥ (Mírzá ‘Alíy-i-Sayyáḥ-i-Marághihí).
Gyawur-Kyuy Gyáwur-Kyuy probably the Turkish village of Güneyli Köyü (“Southern Village”), 11 km north of Gallipoli
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Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
H
Ha, Ha’at Há’, pl. Ha’át name of the thirty-first letter (ه) of the Arabic-Persian alphabet, it is a slight aspirate, like the h in “hope”
Ha, Had, Hadihi, Hadi, Ha’ula’i, Hadani look! there! há huwa look, there he is! há antum you there! as a prefix (mostly written defectively): hádá, f. hádihí, hádí,—pl. há’ulá’i, dual m. hádání, f. hátáni this one, this
Ha’ Ḥa’ name of the eighth letter (ح, transcripted as ḥ) of the Arabic-Persian alphabet, is a strong aspirate generated deep in the throat.
Ha’ik, Haka Ḥá’ik, pl. Ḥáka weaver; (Moroccan) an outer garment consisting of a long piece of white material, covering body and head
Ha’it (Hait) Ḥá’iṭ wall, enclosure, fence; a garden. al-Ḥá’iṭ (25.993191, 40.466906) is a city 191 km NNE of Medina and just to the north of the Fadak oasis.
Habash, Ahbash al-Ḥabash, pl. al-Aḥbash Abyssinia, Ethiopia;—pl. the Abyssinians, Ethiopians
Habashi Ḥabashí, pl. Aḥbásh Abyssinian, Ethiopian
Habb, Hubub Ḥabb, pl. Ḥubúb (collective; nomen unitatis ة) grains; seed;—pl. grain, cereals, corn; seed(s); grains, kernels; granules; pellets; pills, pastilles; berries; acne, pustules, pimple
Habba, Habbat Ḥabba(h), pl. Habbát (nomen unitatis; see also ḥabb) grain, granule; seed; kernel; pill, pastille; berry; pustule, pimple; triviality; a square measure
Habba, Hubb Ḥabba, Ḥubb to love, like; to evoke (in someone), love or a liking (for something or someone); to endear (something to someone), make (something) dear, lovable, attractive (for someone), make (something) palatable, acceptable (to someone); to urge (something on someone), suggest (something to someone)
Habib, Ahibba, Ḥabíb, pl. Aḥabbá’, Aḥibba[h or t] beloved, sweetheart, lover; darling; dear one, friend; dear
Habiba (Habibih, Habibeh), Haba’ib Ḥabíba[h or t], pl. Ḥabá’ib (fem. of ḥabíb) sweet-heart, darling, beloved woman
Habibi Ḥabíbi my love
Habibu’llah Ḥabíbu’lláh “beloved of God”
Habibu’llah-i-Afnan Ḥabíbu’lláh-i-Afnán, Ḥájí Mírzá
Habr, Hibr, Ahbar Ḥabr, Ḥibr, pl. Aḥbár a non-Muslim religious authority, learned man, scribe; bishop; rabbi.—ḥabr beautifying, adorning; putting ink into an inkstand; making glad; joy, gladness, cheerfulness;—ḥibr, ink; beauty; a sign; signs of joy.
Habs, Hubus Ḥabs, pl. Ḥubús (act of) holding or keeping back, obstruction, check, repression; blocking off, barring, confinement; damming up, staving off; safekeeping, custody, retention; imprisonment, arrest, detention, jailing;—pl. prison, jail
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi Hádá, fem. Hádihí, Hádí, pl. Há’ulá’i this one, this
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi, cont. Hádání dual m., f. Hátáni
Hada, Hadihi, Hadi, Ha’ula’i, Hadani Hádá (demonstrative pronoun) fem. hádihí, hádí, dual masc. hádáni, dual fem. hátáni (hatani);—pl. há’ulá’i: this one, this
Hadatha, Huduth Ḥadatha (Ḥudúth) to happen, occur, take place, come to pass. Root of ḥadíth
Hadba, Ahdab Ḥadbá’, fem. Aḥdab, pl. Ḥudb hunchbacked, humped. The historic Great Mosque of an-Núrí in Mosul is famous for its leaning minaret which gave the city its nickname “the hunchback” (al-Ḥadbá’). See root word Ḥadiba
Hadd, Hudud Ḥadd, pl. Ḥudúd (cutting) edge (of a knife, of a sword); edge, border, brink, brim, verge; border (of a country), boundary, borderline; limit (fig.), the utmost, extremity, termination, end, terminal point, terminus; a (certain) measure, extent, or degree (attained); (math.) member (of an equation), term (of a fraction, of a proportion); divine ordinance, divine statute (limit, prohibition or penalty fixed by God); legal punishment (Islamic Law)
Haddad Ḥaddád a smith, a worker in iron, ironsmith, blacksmith; a farrier. Anton F. Haddad (1862–1924) was a Lebanese Christian who became a Bahá’í. He emigrated to the United States in 1892 and was the first Bahá’í there. Haddad returned to Lebanon in later life where he reportedly became a Protestant Minister.
Hadha, Hadhihi, hadhi, Ha’ula’i dhá (demonstrative pronoun) fem. hádhihí, hádhí, pl. há’ulá’i, dual m. hádháni, fem. hátáni this one, this
Hadi, Hadiya Hádí, fem. Hádíya[h or t] a director, leader, guide; one who enjoys rest or peace; the neck; head or point of an arrow; an ox in the centre of a threshing-floor, round which the other oxen move when treading out the grain. ‘Alí ibn Muḥammad al-Hádí (829–868) was the tenth Imám. He is commonly referred to by the title al-Hádí (the guide to the right path) and sometimes as ‘Alí an-Naqí (the pure one).
Hadiba, Hadab Ḥadiba, (verbal noun Ḥadab) to be convex, dome-shaped, cambered, bent outward; to be hunchbacked; to be nice, kind, friendly
Hadid, Hada’id Ḥadíd, pl. Ḥadá’id iron;—pl. iron parts (of a structure); forgings, hardware, ironware
Hadid, Hidad, Ahidda Ḥadíd, pl. Ḥidád, Aḥiddá’, Aḥidda sharp (knife, eye, tongue, etc.), keen (mind)
Hadin, Hadinun, Huha Hádin, pl. Hádinún, Hudá(h) leading, guiding; leader, guide
Hadiqat, Hada’iq Ḥadíqa(h or t), pl. Ḥadá’iq an enclosed garden; an orchard, a palm-plantation
Hadiqatu’r-Rahman Ḥadíqatu’r-Raḥmán the “Orchard of the Merciful”. Name given by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá to the burial site (in Ábádah or Abadeh) of the heads (200?) of the martyrs of Nayríz. NW of the city and near the cemetary? Wrecked by a fanatical mob in 1955.
Hadir, Huddar, Hudur, Hadara Ḥáḍir, pl. Ḥuḍḍar, Ḥuḍúr, Ḥaḍara present; attending;—(pl. ḥuḍḍár, ḥaḍara) settled, sedentary, resident, village or town dweller, not nomadic. (pl. ḥuḍúr) presence; visit, participation, attendance. ḥáḍirihim (their present, hadirihim). See ḥáẓir
Hadith, Ahadith Ḥadíth, pl. Aḥádíth, Ḥádithán speech; chat, chitchat, small talk; conversation, talk, discussion; interview; prattle, gossip; report, account, tale, narrative; Prophetic tradition, ḥadíth, narrative relating deeds and utterances of the Prophet and his Companions. Root of ḥadíth is ḥadatha. Aḥádíth are the oral sayings of the Prophet Muḥammad and the Imáms. Two distinct types: al-Ḥadíth an-Nabawí and al-Ḥadíth al-Qudsí. The former (Prophetic or regular) being restricted to the sayings of Muḥammad (a ḥadíth where one of the Companions reports Muḥammad’s statements, his deeds, or things that happened in his presence and he approved of them), while the latter (Divine) pertains to the sayings of the Prophet through the medium of Divine inspiration. Note: الأحاديث is written al-aḥádíth.
Hadith, Hawadith Ḥádith, pl. Ḥawádith, also Ḥáwádithát occurring, happening, taking place; new, recent; fresh;—(pl.) occurrence, incident, event, happening; episode; case (jurisprudence) accident, mishap
Haditha, Hawadith Ḥáditha, pl. Ḥawádith occurrence, event, happening; plot (of a play); incident, episode; accident, mishap
Hadith-i-Jabir Ḥadíth-i-Jábir ḥadíth collection by Jábir ibn ‘Abdu’lláh ibn ‘Amr ibn Ḥarám al-Anṣárí, a companion of Muḥammad
Hadiya Ḥadiya to remain, stay (at a place), stick (to a place)
Hadiya, Hadaya Hadíya[h or t], pl. Hadáyá gift, present, donation; offering, sacrifice. Shaykh Aḥmad al-Aḥsá’í, the leader of the Shaykhís, died near or in Hadíyah (25.534381, 38.749422, about 145 km NW of Medina) while travelling on pilgrimage to Medina.
Hadiy-i-Dawlat-Abadi Hádíy-i-Dawlat-Ábádí
Hadiy-i-Nahri Hádíy-i-Nahrí Mírzá Hádíy-i-Nahrí, uncle of Munírih Khánum, married Shamsu’ḍ-Ḍuḥá (Khurshíd Bagum)
Hadiy-i-Qazvini Hádíy-i-Qazvíní
Hadj Ḥadj loading a camel (particularly with a ḥidj (litter); charging a man with fraud
Hadra (Hadrat), Hazrat Ḥaḍra(t), Pers. Ḥaẓrat presence, threshold; dignity; majesty; dominion, power; an epithet often joined with the names of the Deity; also a title by which kings and great men are addressed, similar to majesty, highness, lordship, worship. Used broadly by mystics as a synonym of ḥuḍúr, “being in the presence [of Alláh]”. Holiness (‘his excellency’ or ‘his honour’). Placed before the name of the Manifestation or other figures with a high spiritual station.
Hadramawt (Hadramaut), Hadhramaut Ḥaḍramawt (Ḥaḍramút) a region in the south of the Arabian peninsula—part of Yemen (claimed burial place of Húd)
Hadrami, Hadarim Ḥaḍramí, pl. Ḥaḍárim man from Hadhramaut; Hadhramautian (adjective)
Hadrat-i-A’la or Hadrat-i-‘Ala Ḥaḍrat-i-A‘lá “His Holiness the Most Exalted One” (a designation of the Báb)
Hadrat-i-Ghusnu’llahu’l-Athar Ḥaḍrat-i-Ghuṣnu’lláhu’l-Aṭhar “His Holiness, the Most Pure Branch of God”. Title by A. H. Ishráq-Khávarí regarding Mírzá Mihdí (“Purest Branch”).
Hadrat-i-Mubashshir Ḥaḍrat-i-Mubashshir “His holiness the Herald”
Hadrat-i-Walidah Ḥaḍrat-i-Wálidah (Ḥaḍrat-i-Válidih) (her eminence, the Mother). Form of address used by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in His letters to His mother, Ásíyih Khánum.
Hadratu’llah (Hazratu’llah) Ḥaḍratu’lláh The Lord God
Hafid, Ahfad, Hafada Ḥafíd, pl. Aḥfád, Ḥafada(h grandson; descendant, offspring, scion.  Qur’án 16:74 sons (banín) and grandsons (ḥafadah) [male only]
Hafiz, Huffaz Ḥáfiẓ, pl. Ḥuffáz a keeper, preserver, guardian; a commander, governor; the Preserver of all things (God); gifted with a good memory; one who has by heart the whole Qur’án; a blind man (because such fall frequently under the preceding category); master of ḥadíth, known for the large quantity of ḥadíth expertly memorized; pen name of the greatest lyric, mystical poet of Persia, Khwája Shams ad-Dín Muḥammad Ḥáfiẓ-i-Shírází (1320–1390), author of odes in the ghazal form. The Tomb of Ḥáfiẓ and its associated memorial hall, the Ḥáfiẓih, are two memorial structures erected in the northern edge of Shíráz, in his memory.
Hafizu’llah Ḥáfiẓu’lláh “Remembrance of God”
Hafizu’s-Sihhih Ḥafiẓu’ṣ-Ṣiḥḥih Mírzá ‘Abdu’l-Rahím Khán Ḥafiẓu’ṣ-Ṣiḥḥih, Bahá’í World, vol. ix, pp. 613–4.
Hafs, Hafsa Ḥafṣ, fem. Ḥafṣa[h or t] collecting, gathering; throwing from the hand; a leathern sack with which they draw earth out of wells; a name given to ‘Umar ibn al-Khaṭṭáb by Muḥammad. Ḥafṣah bint ‘Umar, daughter of ‘Umar, married Muḥammad (625) after her husband was killed at Badr in 624.
Haft-Dast Haft-Dast Pers. seven hands
Haft-Sad (Haftsad) Haft-Ṣad Pers. (Ar. influence) 700
Haft-Vadi Haft-Vádí “Seven Valleys” by Bahá’u’lláh written in anwer to questions from Shaykh Muḥyi’d-Dín, the Qáḍí of Khániqayn
Hahut Háhút The essence of God unmanifested. The “Hidden Mystery” or the “Hidden Treasure”, the Absolute Unknown, the Primal Oneness. Realm of the “Absolute Unknown”, where God’s essence has been hidden from time immemorial and will continue to remain so for eternity.1 See Láhút, Jabarút, Malakút, and Násút.

Haja, Hajat, Hawa’ij Ḥája[h or t], pl. Ḥáját need; necessity, requirement, prerequisite; natural, bodily need; pressing need, neediness, poverty, indigence, destitution; object of need or desire; desire, wish, request; necessary article, requisite; matter, concern, business, job, work; thing, object;—pl. ḥawá’ij needs, necessities, necessaries; everyday objects, effects, belongings, possessions, stuff; clothes, clothing
Hajar Hájar Hagar, wife of Abraham and the mother of Ismá‘íl
Hajar al-Aswad al-Ḥajar al-Aswad Pers. al-Ḥajaru’l-Aswad. the Black Stone in the eastern corner of the Ka‘ba at Mecca. Size about 160 (6.3”) × 200 (7.9”) mm.
Hajar, Hijarat, Ahjar, Hijar Ḥajar, pl. Ḥijára(t), Aḥjár, Ḥijár stone; the philosopher’s stone; weight (placed as an equipoise on the scale of a balance)
Hajara, Hajr, Hijran Hajara, Hajr, Hijrán to emigrate; to dissociate oneself, separate, part, secede, keep away
Haji Abad, Hajiabad, Hajjiabad Ḥájí Ábád Pers. a small village (34.340598, 47.351340) 25 km east of Kirmanshah. This may be the meeting place (Tadj Abad) mentioned by A. L. M. Nicolas, Essai sur le Chéikhisme, I, p. 30, and DB, p. 13.
Haji Baba Afshar Ḥájí Bábá Afshár He was one of the first medical practitioners in Írán who studied modern medicine in Europe. Although he stayed for eight years in England, he did not receive a degree. Upon return to Írán in 1819 he was the court physician under the Crown Prince, who later became Muḥammad Sháh Qájár (r. 1834–1848). He may have been an inspiration for the best-selling novels, The Adventures of Hajji Baba of Ispahan (1824) and The Adventures of Hajji Baba of Ispahan in England (1828), by James Justinian Morier. See Ílchí.
Haji Shah-Muhammad Ḥájí Sháh-Muḥammad Sháh-Muḥammad Manshadí, Amín’l-Bayán (Trustee of Ḥuqúqu’lláh)
Hajib, Hujjab Ḥájib, pl. Ḥujjáb, Ḥajaba concealing, screening, protecting; doorman, gatekeeper; court official, equivalent to a chamberlain. Classical Arabic grammarian ‘Uthmán ibn ‘Umar ibn al-Ḥájib, author of grammars ash-Sháfíya and al-Káfíya.
Hajibu’d-Dawla (Hajibu’d-Dawlih) Ḥájibu’d-Dawla grand usher. Title given to the “bloodthirsty fiend” (GPB p. 83), Ḥájí ‘Alí Khán Muqaddam Marágha’í (1807–1867).
Hajipur Ḥájípúr (Ḥájí + Púr) Pers. Mr. Jamáli’d-Dín Ḥájípúr. Also name of city in Indian state of Bihar. It is to the north of Patna.
Hajir Hájir elegant, excellent (thing); delirious, speaking foolishly or deliriously; emigrating; name of a tribe
Hajiyyat Ḥájíyyát everyday commodities, utensils, utilities, necessaries, necessities
Hajj, Haji (Hajji), Hajja, Hajjaj, Hajij, Hajjat Ḥájj (Pers. Ḥájí), pl. Ḥujjáj, Ḥajíj pilgrim; hadji; Mecca pilgrim, honorific title of one who has performed the “greater” pilgrimage to Mecca. Fem. ḥájja[h or t], pl. ḥájját. Pers. also ḥájiya[h] (“ḥájíyyih”), pl. ḥájiyán.
Hajj, Hijja, Hijaj Ḥajj, fem. Ḥijja[h or t], pl. Ḥijaj the official “greater” pilgrimage to Mecca (performed over 5 days). English hadj. Yawm al-Ḥajj al-Akbar (the day of the greater pilgrimage) understood as being on the 9th (if the evening is considered to be the next day) and 10th of Dhu’l-Ḥijjah. In AH 9 (CE 631) Muḥammad sent Abú Bakr and ‘Alí to perform the first Islamic Ḥajj al-Akbar (see Qur’án 9:3). al-Ḥajj al-Aṣghar is the minor pilgrimage performed at any time of the year. Persians use the term Ḥajj-i-Akbar (“Most Great Hajj”) whenever the ‘Id-al-Adha (10 Dhu’l-Ḥijjah) falls on an Islamic Friday as occurred for the only pilgrimage of Muḥammad in AH 10 (Sunday 8 March 632) and for the Báb in AH 1260 (Friday 20 December 1844). There is an Islamic tradition that the Qá’im will appear in a year of the Ḥajj-i-Akbar. See Yawm, the Báb and ‘umra.
Hajjaj Ḥajjáj a litigious man, a squabbler; name of the celebrated governor of Arabia and Iraq, Abú Muḥammad al-Ḥajjáj ibn Yúsuf ibn al-Ḥakam ibn ʿAqíl ath-Thaqafí
Hajr Hajr abandonment, forsaking, leaving, separation; avoidance, abstention; separation from the beloved one; hottest time of the day. Variation hijr.
Hajr Ḥajr restriction, curb(ing), check(ing), obstruction, impeding, limitation, curtailing (of something); barring, closing, debarment, preclusion; detention; blocking, confinement, containment, suppression (as a protective measure); interdiction, prohibition, ban. Pre-Islamic name of modern Riyadh (ar-Riyáḍ), capital of Saudi Arabia.
Hakam, Hukkam Ḥakam, pl. Ḥukkám arbitrator, arbiter; umpire, referee
Ḥakamanish Ḥakámanish (Ḥaká + manish) Pers. Írándukht Ḥakámanish
Haka, Hikaya, Hikayat Ḥaká, fem. Ḥikáya[h or t], pl. Ḥikáyát to tell, relate (something), report, give an account (of); to speak, talk (Syr., Leb.); to imitate, copy (something); to resemble (someone, something). Fem. story, tale, narrative, account; (grammar) literal quotation (of the words of others).
Hakim Abu’l-Qasim Firdawsi Tusi Ḥakím Abu’l-Qásim Firdawsí Ṭúsí commonly referred to as Ferdowsi, is a revered Persian poet, the author of the epic of Shahnameh (Book of Kings)
Hakim-Bashi Ḥakím-Báshí Chief physician
Hakim-Ilahi Ḥakím-Iláhí the Divine Philosopher
Hakim, Hakimun, Hukkam Ḥákim, pl. Ḥákimún, Ḥukkam ruling, governing; decisive;—pl. ruIer, sovereign; governor; judge
Hakim, Hukama’ Ḥakím, pl. Ḥukamá’ wise, judicious; wise man, sage; philosopher; physician, doctor. al-Ḥakím, the divine name for the All-Wise.
Hakiman Ḥakímán Raḥmatu’lláh Ḥakímán
Hakkak Ḥakkák a jeweller; a polisher of precious stones; a borer of pearls; a lapidary
Hal, Ahwal Ḥál m. and f., pl. Aḥwál condition, state; situation; position, status; circumstance; case; present, actuality (as opposed to future); circumstantial expression or phrase (grammar);—pl. conditions, circumstances; matters, affairs, concerns; cases; ḥála (preposition) during; immediately upon, right after; just at; in case of ..., in the event of ..., ḥálan presently, immediately, at once, right away, without delay; now, actually, at present. Pers. Ḥal-i-Shumá, (pl.) Aḥwál-i-Shumá (How are you?)
Hala, Halat Ḥála[h or t] (fem. of Ḥál), pl. Ḥálát condition, state; situation; (possible, actual) case; ḥálata (preposition) during.—pl. states, fleeting and ephemeral, of the Ṣúfí spiritual journey
Hala, Halat Hála, pl. Hálát halo (around moon or sun, also, e.g., of a saint); ring around the eye; nimbus, aureole, glory; fem. name
Halab Ḥalab milk; milking; Aleppo in Syria
Halabi Ḥalabí belonging to a milch cow; native of Aleppo; white iron, tin-plate
Halaku, Hulagu Halákú, Pers. Hulágú Hulagu Khán (c. 1217–1265). Hülegü or Hulegu (Mongolian). Grandson of Genghis Khán, conquered Baghdád (1258) and Syria (1260)
Halal Ḥalál that which is allowed, permitted or permissible; allowed, permitted, permissible, allowable, admissible, lawful, legal, licit, legitimate; lawful possession
Halawa Ḥaláwa sweetness; candies, confectionery, sweetmeats; grace, gracefulness, charm, refinement, wittiness, wit; present of money; ransom
Halawi Ḥaláwí Ḥusayn-i-Ḥaláwí
Halih Halih Ya Bisharat Halih Halih Yá Bishárát “Hallelujah, Hallelujah, O Glad-Tidings” by Bahá’u’lláh (hallilúyá, hallelujah)
Halim, Halima, Hulama Ḥalím, fem. Ḥalíma(h), pl. Ḥulamá mild, mild-tempered, gentle; patient; forbearing. Ḥalímah was Muḥammad’s foster-mother until aged 6.
Hallaj Ḥalláj cotton ginner. Manṣúr al-Ḥalláj (Abú’l-Mughíth al-Ḥusayn bin Manṣúr al-Ḥalláj) (c. 858–922) was a Persian mystic, poet and teacher of Sufism. See Ṭáwásín.
Halliluya Hallilúyá hallelujah (from Hebrew) or alleluia, praise (God). Hallilúyá (praise) ash-shukr (returning thanks (to God) Alláh (God)
Halqa, Halaqa, Halaq, Halaqat Ḥalqa(t), Ḥalaqa pl. Ḥalaq, Ḥalaqát ring (also earring, etc.); link (of a chain); circle (also of people); group of students studying under a professor, hence: lecture, course (e.g., at al-Azhar University); part of a sequence or series; ringlet; disk; decade; market
Halqat adh-Dhahabiyya al-Ḥalqat adh-Dhahabiyya the golden circle
Ham Ḥám Ham, son of Noah
Hama, Hamw Hamá, Hamw to flow; to pour forth
Hamad Ḥamád Pers. a village in Mahshahr County, Khúzistán Province, Írán (may no loner exist)
Hamadan Hamadán “quelled or subsided”. Hamadán city in Írán, 144 km NE Kirmánsháh. Originally Ecbatana of the ancient Medes.
Hamadani Hamadání Badí‘ az-Zamán (“The Wonder of the Age”) al-Hamadání (969–1007) was a medieval Arabo-Persian man of letters.
Hamam, Hamama, Hamamat, Hama’im Ḥamám, pl. Ḥamámát, Ḥamá’im Ar. dove, pigeon. nomen unitatis ḥamáma(h)
Haman Hamán Pers. only, solely; self-same, all one, one and the same, even that, that very; in this manner, exactly so, thus, equally; always, continually. Name of Abraham's brother; name of Pharaoh’s vizier; name of a place in Kirmán where Sháh Ni‘matu’lláh Walí is buried
Hamaza, Hamz Ḥamaza, Ḥamz to bite, or burn, the tongue (taste)
Hamaza, Hamz Hamaza, Hamz to prick; to drive, urge on, prod, goad on (someone, something); to spur (one’s horse); (gram.) to provide with hamza (a letter or word)
Hamd Ḥamd commendation, praise, laudation
Hamdan Ḥamdán praise, one who praises (God)
Hamdaniyun Ḥamdáníyún al-Ḥamdáníyún, the Hamdanid dynasty, was a Shí‘a Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Mesopotamia and Syria (890–1004); was founded by Ḥamdán ibn Ḥamdún ibn al-Ḥárith at-Taghlibí (flourished 868–895).
Hamdi al-Ḥamdí “praise be” to God
Hamdu lillah, al- al-Ḥamdu Lilláh thank God!, praise be to God! or praised be the Lord! “Alhamdulillah”. A longer variant is al-ḥamdu lilláhi rabbi al-‘álamín, meaning “all praise is due to God, Lord of all the worlds” (Qur’án 1:2)
Hamdu’llah Ḥamdu’lláh Praise of God
Hami Ḥámí a son or descendant of Ham, Hamitic
Hamid Ḥámid one who praises, a praiser
Hamid, Hamida (Hamidih, Hamideh) Ḥamíd, fem. Ḥamída(t) (Pers. Ḥamídih) praiseworthy, laudable, commendable; benign, harmless (disease)
Hamida Ḥamida to praise, commend, laud, extol (someone for something) Form II to praise highly (someone)
Hamidu’llah Ḥamídu’lláh praised by God
Hamma, Hammayat Ḥamma[h or t], pl. Ḥammayát fever or hot spring. al-Ḥamma was a Palestinian Arab village 12 km SE of Tiberias, famous for its hot springs (on the south side of the village), which are considered therapeutic due to their high sulphur content. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá visited the springs in 1914. The village was depopulated in July 1949. In 1977 the health resort of Hamat Gader, “hot springs of (the ancient city of) Gadara”, opened on the site of al-Ḥamma as-Súriyá (“the Syrian ḥamma”) hot springs (32.683087, 35.662995).
Hamma, Humma Ḥamma heat, make hot (something); passive ḥumma to be feverish, have a fever. Root of Ḥamma[h or t], Ḥumma[h or t].
Hammad (Hamad) Ḥammád much praising (God)
Hammal, Hammala Ḥammál, fem. Ḥammála[h or t] (pl. ḥammálún) a porter, carrier of burdens. Fem. (carrier) beam, girder, support, base, post, pier, pillar; suspenders.
Hammam Hammám careworn, worried; anxious, solicitous; eager, active, energetic
Hammam, Hammamat Ḥammám, pl. Ḥammámát (vulgate ḥamám) (warm or hot) bath; a Turkish bath; swimming pool; spa, watering place (public baths). Error: Bahá’í writings may omit the underdot.
Hamsaya (Hamsayih), Hamsayagan Hamsáya (Hamsáyih), pl. Hamsáyagán Pers. under the same shade, i.e. neighbouring, neighbour
Hamza, Hamazat Hamza(h or t), pl. Hamazát Arabic glottal stop consonant that is pronounced as an a. Since a hamza is not actually a letter, it is sometimes counted as an a, and sometimes it is disregarded. Thus, the abjad value of Bahá’ (the hamza is usually dropped) can be read as either eight or nine.
Hamza (Hamzeh) Ḥamza(h or t) the herb rocket. Muḥammad’s uncle, Ḥamzah ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muṭṭalib.
Hana Ḥaná to bend, curve, twist, turn; to lean, incline (toward someone); to feel for someone, sympathize (with someone), commiserate, pity (someone), feel compassion, feel pity (for someone)
Hana-Sab Ḥaná-Sáb Muḥammad-i-Ḥaná-Sáb
Hanbali, Hanabilat Ḥanbalí, pl. Ḥanábila(t) Hanbalitic, of or pertaining to the madhab of Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal; puritanical, strict in religious matters. A system of traditional Sunní jurisprudence—smallest of the four (the Ḥanafí, the Ḥanbalí, the Málikí and the Sháfi‘í)
Hanafi, Hanafyun Ḥanafí, pl. Hanafyún, Ḥunafá’ orthodox. One of the four (the Ḥanafí, the Ḥanbalí, the Málikí and the Sháfi‘í) religious Sunní Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh). It is named after the scholar Abú Ḥanífa an-Nu‘man ibn Thábit.
Hanafiya, Hanafiyya Ḥanafíya(t), Ḥanafiyya(t) true religion, orthodoxy
Hanbal Ḥanbal Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal
Hani, Hani’a Háni’, fem. Háni’a(h) happy, delighted, glad; servant; fem. servant girl, maid
Hani’ Haní’ healthful, salutary, salubrious, wholesome, beneficial; pleasant, agreeable; easy, smooth, comfortable
Hanif, Hunafa’ Ḥaníf, pl. Ḥunafá’ true believer, orthodox; one who scorns the false creeds surrounding him and professes the true religion; true (religion)
Hanifa Ḥanífa(h) al-ḥanífa as-samḥá’ the true and tolerant (religion, i.e., Islám). Ḥanífih (Pers. form)
Hanifiya al-Ḥanífíya(h) the true (i.e., Islamic) religion
Hanza Hanzá village in Kirman Province, Írán (also known as Hamzá). About 110 km south of Kirmán.
Hanzal (Handal), Hanzala Ḥanẓal, fem. Ḥanẓala[h or t] (collective noun; nomen unitatis ة) colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis). Also called a wild gourd, bitter apple and bitter cucumber. Ḥanḍal and ḥanḍala are dialect variations. Ḥanḍala is the name given to a Palestinian cartoon defiance symbol. Pre-Islamic Christian, Ḥanẓala ibn Abí Ghafráy-i-Ṭá’i‘ (SDC pp. 48–51). Ḥanẓala ibn Abí ‘Ámir (c. 601–625), son of Abú Amír al-Asharí), a companion of Muḥammad, entitled Ghasíl al-Malá’ika (“the one cleansed by the angels”); father of ‘Abdu’lláh ibn Ḥanẓala. In the Lawḥ-i-Sarráj, Mírzá Yaḥyá, the “one time ‘Blessed Fruit’” (thamara ṭúba), whose rejection of Bahá’u’lláh is said have transformed him into a mere ḥanẓal.
HaParsim HaParsim Hebrew. Rechov HaParsim “Street of the Persians”. House of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá is 7 Rechov HaParsim.
Haqiq, Ahiqqa’ Ḥaqíq, pl. Aḥiqqá’ worthy, deserving (of something), fit, competent, qualified; entitled (to)
Haqiqa, Haqa’iq, Haqiqatan Ḥaqíqa(h or t), pl. Ḥaqá’iq truth, reality (also philosophy); fact; the true state of affairs, the facts; true nature, essence; real meaning, true sense; the object of the mystic searcher (ṣúfí). ḥaqíqatan really, in reality, in effect, actually, in fact, indeed, truly, in truth
Haqiqatu’l-Haqa’iq Ḥaqíqatu’l-Ḥaqá’iq reality of realities or truth of truths
Haqiqi Ḥaqíqí real, true; actual; proper, intrinsic, essential; genuine; authentic; positive
Haqq (Haq, Hagh), Huquq Ḥaqq, Pers. also Ḥaq, pl. Ḥuqúq truth; correctness, rightness; rightful possession; property; ones due; duty; proper manner; true, authentic, real; right, fair and reasonable; correct, sound, valid; al-Ḥaqq an attribute of God;—pl. right, title, claim, legal claim. Persian: name of a bird said to suspend itself by the claws at night and continually to cry ḥaq ḥaq.
Haq-guy (Haq-goy, Haqguy) Ḥaq-gúy (Ḥaqgúy) Pers. (Ar. influence) speaking truth (“truth speaker”); the essence of a thing; name of a bird that hangs by a tree and vociferates all night
Haq-shinas (Haqshinas) Ḥaq-shinás (Ḥaqshinás) Pers. knowing and performing one’s duty; rendering to everyone his due; able to appreciate; grateful (“truth-knower”)
Haqqa (Haqqah or Haqqat) Ḥáqqa[h] or Ḥáqqa[t] that which sorts out truth from falsehood; that which is inevitable (an epithet of the Day of Judgement). Qur’án 69. The Sure Reality or the Reality
Haqqan Ḥaqqan really, in reality, in effect, actually, in fact, indeed, truly, in truth; justly, rightly, by rights
Haqqani Ḥaqqání correct, right, proper, sound, valid, legitimate, legal
Haqqu’llah, Huququ’llah Ḥaqqu’lláh, pl. Ḥuqúqu’lláh “Right of God”
Hara Hará[h or t] Herat (city in NW Afghánistán)
Haraka, Harakat Ḥaraka[h or t], pl. Harakát movement, motion; commotion; physical exercise; stirring, impulse; proceeding, procedure, policy; action, undertaking, enterprise; military operation; continuation, progress; traffic (rail, shipping, street); movement (as a social phenomenon); vowel (grammar)
Haram ash-Sharif al-Ḥaram ash-Sharíf “the Noble Sanctuary” or Temple Mount in Jerusalem
Haram-i-Aqdas Ḥaram-i-Aqdas Most Holy Sanctuary or Precincts, i.e. the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in the Jannat-i-Abhá (Abhá paradise) (according to Shoghi Effendi) and the surrounding gardens at Bahjí.
Haram-i-Fatimih-i-Ma’sumih Ḥaram-i-Fáṭimih-i-Ma‘ṣúmih Pers. form of Ḥaram (Shrine of) Fáṭima al-Ma‘ṣúma (34.641822, 50.879045), sister of Imám ‘Alí ar-Riḍá (8th Imám), in Qum, Írán. See Ma‘ṣúm.
Haram, Ahram Ḥaram, dual Ḥaramayn, pl. Aḥrám forbidden, prohibited, interdicted; taboo; holy, sacred, sacrosanct; something sacred, sacred object; sacred possession; wife; sanctum, sanctuary, sacred precinct; the two Holy Places, Mecca and Medina, and thálith al-ḥaramayn the third Holy Place, i.e., Jerusalem. The sacred sanctuary at Mecca where no blood may be spilled, and the four months with the same sanction in the Arabic calendar. Fort Antonia or “Temple Mount” in Jerusalem is also known by Muslims (in the belief that it is the site of the Jewish Temples) as al-Ḥaram ash-Sharíf, “the Noble Sanctuary”, or al-Ḥaram al-Qudsí ash-Sharíf, “the Noble Sanctuary of Jerusalem”. Compare with Ḥill.
Haram, Ahram Haram, pl. Ahrám, Ahrámát pyramid. al-Ahrám (“The Pyramids”) (5 August 1875–) is the most widely circulating Egyptian daily newspaper, and the second oldest after al-Waqá’i‘ al-Maṣriyyah. It is majority owned by the Egyptian government.
Haram, Hurum Ḥarám, pl. Ḥurum forbidden, interdicted, prohibited, unlawful; something forbidden, offense, sin; inviolable, taboo; sacred, sacrosanct; cursed, accursed. Ḥarám is a variation of Ḥaram.
Haramayn (Haramain) al-Ḥaramayn (dual pl. form of Ḥaram, sanctuary) “The Two Holy Places” or “The Two Sanctuaries”, traditional Islamic appellations of the two holy cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina. The “Twin Sacred Shrines” now refers to the places in Shíráz where the Báb was born (house of His uncle, Ḥájí Mírzá Siyyid ‘Alí) and where He made His public declaration (House of the Báb).
Harat (Herat) Harát city (30.055184, 54.372201) in Írán, 180 km ENE Shíráz. Also the third largest city in Afghánistán.
Harati Harátí from Harát (Herat), Írán
Harawi, Hirawi Harawí from Herat, Afghánistán
Harb, Hurub Ḥarb fem., pl. Ḥurúb war, warfare; fight, combat, battle; enemy, enemies
Harf-i-Baqa Ḥarf-i-Baqá “Letter of Eternity”
Harf, Hiraf, Huruf, Ahruf Ḥarf, pl. Ḥiraf, Ḥurúf, Aḥruf (cutting) edge (of a knife, of a sword); sharp edge; border, edge, rim, brink, verge;—(pl. ḥurúf, aḥruf) letter; consonant; particle (grammar); type (typography)
Harfi Ḥarfí literal
Hargah (Har-gah) Hargáh Pers. whenever, wherever; constantly
Harir, Hara’ir Ḥarír, pl. Ḥará’ir silk;—pl. silken wares, silks
Hariri Ḥarírí silken, silky, of silk. Abú Muḥammad al-Qásim ibn ‘Alí ibn Muḥammad ibn Uthmán al-Ḥarírí, popularly known as al-Hariri of Basra (1054–1122) was an Arab poet, scholar of the Arabic language and a high government official of the Seljuk Empire.
Harith, Haritha, Hurrath Ḥárith, fem. Ḥáritha[h], pl. Ḥurráth ploughman, cultivator, farmer. Banú al-Ḥárith Jewish tribe of Arabia. Naḍr-ibn-i-Ḥárith : religious leader during the time of Muḥammad. Ubaydah ibn al-Ḥárith (c. 562–624) was a cousin and a companion of Muḥammad. Zayd ibn Ḥárithah (c. 581–629) a companion of Muḥammad and adopted as his son. He is the only Muslim apart from Muḥammad who is mentioned by name (as Zayd) in the Qur’án (33:37).
Harj Harj excitement, agitation, commotion; disorder, muddle, confusion. Harj can be interpreted as “killing”.
Harra, Harrat Ḥarra[h or t], pl. Ḥarrát stony area; volcanic country, lava field. The Battle of al-Ḥarra (Yawm al-Ḥarra, “the day of al-Harra”) was fought between the Syrian army of the Umayyad caliph Yazíd I (r. 680–683) led by Muslim ibn ‘Uqba and the local defenders of Medina who had rebelled against the caliph. The battle occurred at the lava field of Ḥarrat Wáqim (Black stone land of Waqim to the east of Medina) in the northeastern outskirts of Medina on 26 August 683. Ḥarrat Raháṭ is a large volcanic lava field located south of Medina and extending 300 km south. It has a number of volcanic cones. In CE 1256 a lava flow travelled to within 4 km of Medina.
Harran, Harra, Hirar, Harara Ḥarrán, fem. Ḥarrá, pl. Ḥirár, Ḥarárá thirsty; passionate, fervent, hot (figurative). Ḥarrán (once the major ancient Parthian Empire city of Carrhae in Upper Mesopotamia; now Türkiye), 40 km SE of Urfa (officially Şanlıurfa, ancient Edessa) and 100 km north of ar-Raqqah (Syria). See Battání.
Harun, Arina (Arna) Hárún, fem. Arnína Aaron (Hebrew אהרון, Ahrwn); chief, leader; a messenger, courier; helplessness, indigence; astonishment; amazement. Fem. Arnína (ארנינה, Arnính), can be shortened to Arna.
Harun-Abad Hárún-Ábád now Islám-Ábád-i-Gharb, Írán
Harunu’r-Rashid Hárúnu’r-Rashíd Aaron the Just. Fifth Abbasid Caliph. See Zubayda.
Harut Hárút name of an angel, who, together with another named Márút (Qur’án 2:102), having severely censured mankind before the throne of God, was sent with him down to earth in human shapes to judge of the temptations to which man is subject. They could not withstand them: they were seduced by women, and committed every kind of iniquity; for which they were suspended by the feet in a well in Babylon, where they are to remain in great torment till the day of judgement. They are said to be teachers of magic to man. See Márút
Hasan-‘Ali Ḥasan-‘Alí Siyyid Mírzá Ḥasan-‘Alí, youngest maternal uncle of the Báb
Hasan-‘Amu Murtada Ḥasan-‘Amú Murtaḍá (MF)
Hasan-Abad (Hasanabad) Ḥasan Ábád an old and historical area (District 3) to the north side of Ṭihrán (35.769492, 51.432398). A town (also known as Ḥasanábád-i-Fasháfúyih) in Rayy County, Tehran Province (3rd stop from Ṭihrán for Bahá’u’lláh’s exile to Baghdád)
Hasan-i-‘Ammu Ḥasan-i-‘Ammú
Hasan-i-Hakim-Bashi Ḥasan-i-Ḥakím-Báshí
Hasan-i-Khurasani Ḥasan-i-Khurásání
Hasan-i-Mazindarani Ḥasan-i-Mázindarání
Hasan-i-Niku Ḥasan-i-Níkú
Hasan-i-Safa Ḥasan-i-Ṣafá
Hasan-i-Vazir Ḥasan-i-Vazír
Hasan-i-Zunuzi Ḥasan-i-Zunúzí
Hisan Ḥasan (حسان), pl. Ḥisán (masculine) beautiful, handsome, lovely; pretty, nice; good, agreeable; excellent, superior, exquisite. Ḥasan is the name of the second Imám. Compare Ḥassán.
Hasana, Hasanat Ḥasana[h or t] (حسنة), pl. Ḥasanát (feminine of Ḥasan) good deed, benefaction; charity, alms; pl. advantages, merits.
Hasani Ḥasaní of Ḥasaní, descendant of Ḥasan
Hasanzadih-Shakiri Ḥasanzádih-Shákirí (Ḥasan-i-Zádih-Shákirí)
Hashara, Hashr Ḥashara, Ḥashr 1. to gather, assemble, rally (people), raising from the dead; to cram, crowd, pack, jam (together); to squeeze, press, force, stuff. 2. migration, evacuation, exile.
Hashim shim breaker of bread into a broth; surname of an ancestor (Háshim ibn ‘Abd Manáf al-Mughírah, great grandfather) of Muḥammad, on account of his providing broth to the poor at the time of a great famine. The Banú-Háshim were Muḥammad’s ancestors, a tribal group in southern Arabia. From ‘hashama’, “to destroy or smash to pieces”.
Hashimi shimí, pl. Háshimíyún Hashemite, member of the Banú-Háshim
Hashish, Hasha’ish Ḥashísh, pl. Ḥashá’ish herbs, grasses; weeds; hay; hemp (Cannabis sativa), hashish, cannabis; stillborn child. Known by many names in Persia: ‘Parrot of all mysteries’, plain ‘Mysteries’; ‘Secrets’ or ‘Master Sayyid’—it being green, and the Sayyids, descendants of the Prophet, wear a turban as green as parrot feathers. An ode of Ḥáfiẓ which must have puzzled translators is addressed to hashish and begins, ‘O thou parrot, speaker of secrets, may thy beak never lack for sugar!’ Summon up remembrance, p. 87.
Hashishi, Hashishiyya, Hashishiyyin Ḥashíshí (e.g.) sap-green, reseda green (RGB 108, 124, 89; CMYK 13, 0, 28, 51)—a standard colour whose name derives from the colour of the leaves of Reseda odorata, commonly known as mignonette;—pl. Ḥashíshiyya or Ḥashíshiyyín (Pers. Ḥashashiyan) known in English (due to a mispronunciation) as the Assassins, and applied to a Nizárí Ismá‘ílí sect who lived in the mountains of Persia and Syria (1090–1275). See Asás.
Hashiya, Hawashin Ḥashiya, pl. Ḥawashin border; seam, hem; edge; margin (of a book); marginal gives; marginal notes; commentary on certain words and passages of a book, supercommentary; footnote; postscript; retinue, entourage, suite, servants; dependents;—pl. critical apparatus
Hashshash, Hashshashun, Hashshashin Ḥashshásh, pl. Ḥashsháshún smoker or chewer of hashish. hashish addict. Plural also Ḥashsháshín. See Asás.
Hasht Hasht eight
Hasht Bihisht Hasht Bihisht The eight paradises by Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Rúḥí
Hashtjird, Hashtgird (Savujbulagh) Hashtjird, Hashtgird city and capital of Sávujbulagh County in Alborz Province, Írán. 27 km NW of Karaj
Hashtrud (Hashtrood) Hashtrúd (also known as Ádharán, Saráskand, Sar Eskand, Sar Eskandar, and Sar Eskand Khan) is a city (93 km SE Tabríz) and capital of Hashtrud County, East Azerbaijan Province, Írán
Hasib, Husaba’ Ḥasíb, pl. Ḥusabá respected, esteemed; noble, of noble birth, highborn. Also a revenger or resenter of an injury; a reckoner (al-Ḥasíb a name of God).
Hassan Ḥassán (حسَّان) beautifier, doer of good, benefactor. Ḥassán ibn Thábit (c. 563–674) was an Arabian poet and a Ṣaḥába, hence he was best known for his poems in defence of Muḥammad. Compare Ḥasan.
Hast Hast Pers. is, exists, remains; existence, being. hastam (I am), hastí (you are), hast (he, she, it is), hastím (we are), hastíd (you are), hastand (they are)
Hasur Ḥaṣúr close, confinement, avaricious; chaste
Hasuri Ḥaṣúrí Rúḥu’lláh Ḥaṣúrí
Hatib Ḥátib wood cutter. Ḥáṭib ibn Abí-Balta‘ah was a ṣaḥábí (companion), a veteran of the Battle of Badr, who carried a letter to Muqawqis, an Egyptian Coptic Christian official. He returned (CE 628) with gifts, including two slaves, Máríah al-Qibṭíyah (see Qibṭí) and her sister Shírín. Muhammad married Máríah. The Maqawqis also sent a white mule, named Duldul, and a donkey named Ya‘fúr.
Hatif, Hawatif Hátif, pl. Hawátif shouting, calling loudly; (in earlier Sufism) invisible caller, voice;—pl. telephone; loudspeaker; exclamations, shouts, cries, calls. Siyyid Aḥmad Hátif Iṣfahání (d. 1783), a famous Iranian poet of the 18th century. He wrote: Split the atom’s heart, and lo! Within it thou wilt find a sun. Quoted by Bahá’u’lláh, The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys in Call of the Divine Beloved, p. 8.
Hatim at-Ta’i, Hatim-i-Ta’i Ḥátim aṭ-Ṭá’í, Pers. Ḥátim-i-Ṭá’í Arab poet known for his generosity/liberality. Also transcripted as Ḥátim aṭ-Ṭáyy (“Hatim al-Tai” or “Hatim al-Taaey”), Ḥátim of the Ṭáyy or Ṭá’í tribe, but formally Ḥátim bin ‘Abdu’lláh bin Sa‘d aṭ-Ṭá’iyy. The nisba (patronymic) of Ṭayy is aṭ-Ṭá’í.
Hatim, Hatam Ḥátim, Pers. Ḥátam Arab poet known for his generosity/liberality. Also transcripted as Ḥátim aṭ-Ṭáyy (“Hatim at-Tai” or “Hatim at-Taaey”), Ḥátim of the Ṭáyy or Ṭá’í tribe, but formally Ḥátim bin ‘Abdu’lláh bin Sa‘d aṭ-Ṭá’iyy. The nisba (patronymic) of Ṭayy is aṭ-Ṭá’í.
Hatta Ḥattá (preposition) until, till, up to, as far as; (conjugated with perfect) until, so that; (with subjunctive) until, that, so that, in order that
Hattab Ḥaṭṭáb wood gatherer; wood-cutter, lumberjack; vendor of firewood
Hattin Haṭṭín Qurún Haṭṭín “The Horns of Hattin” (7 km west of Tiberias) is an extinct volcano with twin peaks overlooking the plains of Hattin, Israel. It is the “supposed” site of the Mount of Beatitudes, where Jesus delivered his Sermon on the Mount. The Battle of Hattin (Ma‘rakah Haṭṭín or the Battle of the Horns of Hattin) on 4 July 1187, was between the Crusader states of the Levant and the forces of the Ayyubid Sulṭán Ṣaláḥ ad-Dín. The Muslim armies captured or killed the vast majority of the Crusader forces. As a result, Muslims again became the eminent military power in the Holy Land, re-conquering Jerusalem and many other Crusader-held cities. Two years later these Christian defeats prompted the Third Crusade.
Hawari, Hawariyyun (“Hawariyun”) Ḥawárí, pl. Ḥawáriyyún disciple, apostle (but not a Rasúl) (of Jesus Christ); disciple, follower. الْحَوَارِيُّونَ—the disciples in Qur’án 3:52.
Hawd (Haud), Ahwad, Hiyad Ḥawḍ, pl. Aḥwáḍ, Ḥiyáḍ basin; water basin; trough, tank, cistern, reservoir, container; basin of a river or sea; pool; (in the Egyptian irrigation system) a patch of land surrounded by dikes, flooded by high water of the Nile; pond; (garden) bed; dock; pl. (ḥiyāḍ) ground, area, domain (to be protected), sanctum
Hawda (Hauda) Ḥawḍa Pers. basin, a basin-shaped litter to ride in upon an elephant
Hawdaj (Haudaj, Houdaj) Hawdaj, pl. Hawádij camel litter or bed, howdah (from Hindi); sedan chair, litter. Carried by a camel, mule, horse or elephant for travelling purposes.
Hawl (Haul), Ahwal, Hu’ul Hawl, pl. Ahwál, Hu’úl terror, fright, alarm, shook, horror, dismay; power
Hawran, Hauran, Houran Ḥawrán the Hauran, a mountainous plateau in SW Syria and N Jordan. The Druze of the area.
Hawz (Hauz), Ahwaz (Ahvaz) Ḥawz, pl. Aḥwáz, Pers. also Aḥváz possession, holding, tenure; obtainment, attainment, acquisition; taking possession, occupation, occupancy; (jurisprudence) tenancy;—pl. enclosed area, enclosure; precinct(s), boundary, city limits. al-Aḥwáz, city in south-west Írán, 460 km SE of Baghdád.
Hawza (Hauza) Ḥauza(h or t) possession, holding, tenure; property; area, territory
Hawzah ‘Ilmiyah Ḥawzah ‘Ilmíyah is a seminary where Shí‘a Muslim scholars are educated
Haya, Hayawat Ḥayá(h or t), pl. Ḥayawát life, existence; life-blood; liveliness animation
Hayat-i-Bagh Ḥayát-i-Bágh land was purchased in ‘Udláján district 12 of Ṭihrán (35.680768, 51.429470; east of the Gulistan Palace) in 1800 by Mírzá Buzurg-i-Núrí. A house completed in 1802 was called Saráy-i-Naw Sákht (“The newly built House”). It was later known as Ḥayát-i-Bágh (“Garden life”) and the House of Bahá’u’lláh. Bahá’u’lláh’s father later added six more houses. He was forced to sell them about 1835. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá later purchased an enclave of Bahá’í homes around a large garden (same?) and it was named Ḥayát-i-Bágh.
Hayat-Quli Khan Ḥayát-Qulí Khán Governor of Karand and a member of the ‘Alíyu’lláhís, a sect that equates Imám ‘Alí with God.
Hayawan, Hayawanat Ḥayawán, pl. Ḥayawánát animal, beast; (collectively) animals, living creatures. Alternative spelling: ḥaywán (haiwan), etc.
Hayawaniya Ḥayawáníya(h or t) bestiality; animality, animal nature. Alternative spelling ḥayawán (haiawan).
Haydar (Haidar) Ḥaydar Pers. a lion; a proper name
Haydar-‘Ali Ḥaydar-‘Alí, Ḥájí Mírzá noted early Bahá’í, born into Shaykhí family of Iṣfahán. Known as the “Angel of Carmel”.
Haydari Ḥaydarí Pers. of or belonging to Ḥaydar; an adherent of Quṭb ad-Dín Ḥaydar, the founder of the Ḥaydaríya mystic sect.
Haydariya (Haydariyya) Ḥaydaríya Persian Sufi mendicant, mystical order known for their celibacy and mortification of the flesh through piercing their bodies with iron rings (cannabis was used to deaden the pain). Compare with the Ni‘matu’lláhí sufi order.
Hayf (Haif) Ḥayf (pun on the name Haifa) Pers. practising injustice; injustice, violence, oppression; revenge; a pity; alas! what a pity
Hayfa’ (Haifa’) Ḥayfá’ Haifa. Heb. Hefa or Hepha
Hayiya, Hayya, Yahya Hayiya, Ḥayya, Yaḥyá (Ḥayáh) to live; ḥayya to live to see, experience, witness (something), live (through a time)
Haykal (Haikal), Hayakil Haykal, pl. Hayákil temple; large building, edifice; altar; skeleton; framework (of a structure), frame; chassis (of an automobile); colossal, gigantic, huge. Broader definition from: a figure, image, face, form, stature or shape of the body; a long or tall horse; anything large-sized; a giant; a tall plant; a temple of idolaters; a palace, stately edifice; a Christian church; a monastery; an amulet or talisman inscribed with magic figures, hung round the body, as a defence against fascination or misfortune. The haykal (as used by the Báb) represents the temple of a human being, the Perfect Man (the Manifestation of the names and attributes of God). Hence, men are called the “possessors of the pentagram (haykal)” because the Manifestation of the names and attributes of God is enshrined within the heart of each individual. See dá’ira.
Haykalu’t-tawhid Haykalu’t-tawḥíd “posture of unity”, or freely translated as cross-legged
Hayra (Haira) Ḥayra(h or t) confusion, perplexity, bewilderment, embarrassment, helplessness, embarrassed, at a loss, helpless
Hayran (Hairan), Hayara, Huyara Ḥayrán, f. Ḥayrá, pl. Ḥayárá, Ḥuyárá confused, perplexed, startled, dismayed, disconcerted, baffled, Nonplused, bewildered, appalled, taken aback, stunned; embarrassed, at a loss, at one’s wit’s end; uncertain, helpless, sheepish (smile, etc.), confused, incoherent (words, and the like)
Haytham (Haitham) Haytham young eagle. Abú ‘Alí al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham (c.  965–c.  1040), Muslim Arab scientist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher. Known in the West as Alhazen or Alhacen. Author of Kitáb al-Manáẓir (The Book of Optics).
Hayy Ḥayy, pl. Aḥyá’ living, live, alive; lively, lusty, animated, active, energetic, unbroken, undaunted, undismayed; living being, organism; tribe, tribal community; block of apartment houses; section, quarter or neighbourhood (of a city). al-Ḥayy, divine name the Ever-Living. e.g. al-Ḥayy al-Manyal (El Manial district) of Cairo.
Hayyan Ḥayyán lively, energetic. Abú Músá Jábir ibn Hayyán (Geber)
Hazar (Hizar), Hazaran Hazár, pl. Hazárán Pers. a thousand; a bird called the thousand voices, having an uncommon variety of melodious notes, a species of nightingale; a term employed in the game of nard. Hazár dara (“thousand valleys”), a barren area of conical hillocks to the east of Iṣfahán.
Hazara (Hizara, Hizarih) Hazára Pers. a double flower; a divided stream or water jet; name of a tribe of Afghans.
Hazir, Haziran Ḥáẓir, pl. Ḥáẓirán present, at hand, ready, prepared; at the service of, willing, content; (in grammar) the present tense; the second person; a large tribe;—pl. the people present, the audience. See ḥáḍir
Hazira, Haza’ir Ḥaẓíra[h or t], pl. Ḥaẓá’ir enclosure, railing, fence, palisade, hedge; compound, yard, pound, pinfold; corral, pen, paddock, coop; hangar, shed; field, domain, realm (figurative). Pers. a city, a fixed residence.
Haziratu’l-Quds, Haza’iru’l-Quds Ḥaẓíratu’l-Quds, pl. Ḥaẓá’iru’l-Quds Sacred Fold or Paradise. al- used in transcription, but not in Persian script. Title (sometimes shortened to Ḥaẓíra) given to Bahá’í administrative headquarters owned by the Bahá’ís—local, regional and national. If rented it is a Bahá’í Centre.
Hiba, Hibat Hiba(t), pl. Hibát gift, present, donation, grant
Hibatu’llah Hibatu’lláh gift from God
Hibb, Ahbab Ḥibb, pl. Aḥbáb, Ḥababa[h or t] darling, dear, dearest (one), lover, friend
Hidayat (Hedayat) Hidáya[t] guidance, showing the way and guiding in the right path to the goal of perfection. Riḍá Qulí Khán Hidáyat (1800–1871), Persian literary historian, administrator, and poet of the Qájár period.
Hidayatu’llah Hidáyatu’lláh Guidance of God
Hidayatu’t-Taliban (Hidayatu’t-Talibin) Hidáyatu’ṭ-Ṭálibán Pers. “Guidance for students”, by Ḥájí Mírzá Muḥammad Karím Khán Kirmání
Hidj, Huduj, Ahday Ḥidj, pl. Ḥudúj, Aḥdáj load, burden, encumbrance; a camel’s litter in which women ride
Hifz Ḥifẓ preservation; maintenance, sustentation, conservation, upholding; protection, defense, guarding; custody, safekeeping, keeping, storage; retention; observance, compliance (with); memorizing, memorization; memory; (jurisprudence) discontinuance, stay, suspension (of legal action, of a judicial investigation); expert mastery of ḥadíth (including expert memorization of a large number thereof. See ḥáfiẓ.
Hija’i Hijá’í alphabetical; satiric. Modern dictionaries and other reference books use the hijá’í order wherein the Arabic letters are partially grouped together by similarity of shape.
Hijab Ḥijáb, pl. Ḥujub, Aḥjiba cover, wrap, drape; curtain; woman’s veil, head scarf; screen, partition, folding screen; barrier, bar; diaphragm. A veil that covers the head and chest.
Hijaz Ḥijáz prohibiting, keeping asunder; a barrier, or anything similar, by which two things are separated; a rope; one of the principal musical modes or styles of the Persians. al-Ḥijáz (Hejaz, “the barrier”) is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia. It is bordered on the west by the Red Sea, on the north by Jordan, on the east by Najd, and on the south by Asir.
Hijazi, Hijazun Ḥijází, pl. Ḥijázūn of or pertaining to Hejaz; an inhabitant of Hejaz; the 7th century dialect of Arabic of the Hejaz was selected as the basis of classical or Qur’anic Arabic. The mother tongue of the Prophet Muḥammad was Arabic, and He spoke using the dialect of the Quraysh tribe, the people of Makkah in the Ḥijáz region.
Hijr Ḥijr forbidden, interdicted, prohibited; northern wall of the Ka‘ba; lap; mare. Name of chapter 15 of the Qur’án (from 15:80, which refers to the rocky country of the Thamúd tribe to the north of al-Madínah) and translated as “rocky tract”. For al-Ḥijr, see Madá’in Ṣáliḥ
Hijra Hijra(h) departure, exit; emigration, exodus; immigration to; al-Hijra (the Hegira), the emigration of the Prophet Muḥammad from Mecca to Medina in AD 622 and start of Islamic calendar (assumed to be 15 July 622).
Hijri Hijrí of the Hegira pertaining to Muḥammad’s emigration in CE 622. A year (sana) of the Hegira, a year of the Muslim era (beginning with Muḥammad’s emigration. Muslim lunar calendar.
Hijriya Hijríya Muslim era, after the Hegira, until the end of the time of the Imams in CE 873 (AH 260), i.e. 260 years
Hikaya, Hikayat Ḥikáya, pl. Ḥikáyát story, tale, narrative, account; (grammar) literal quotation (of the words of others)
Hikma, Hikam Ḥikma[h or t], pl. Ḥikam prudence and wisdom, philosophy
Hikmat-i-Ishraqi Ḥikmat-i-Ishráqí (Hekmat-i-Eshrakieh)—a system of old philosophies
Hila, Hiyal, Ahayil Ḥíla, pl. Ḥiyal, Aḥáyíl artifice, ruse, stratagem, manoeuver, subterfuge, wile, trick; device, shift; a means to accomplish an end; expedient, makeshift, dodge, way-out; legal stratagem (for the purpose of in fraudem legis agere (in circumvention of the rules of law)
Hilal, Ahilla, Ahalil Hilál, pl. Ahilla(h), Ahálíl new moon; half-moon, crescent; parenthesis; any crescent-shaped object
Hilali Hilálí lunar; crescent-shaped, lunate, sickle-shaped
Hill Ḥill Pers. being lawful; a lawful thing; the dissolution of an oath; doffing the pilgrim’s garb; a butt or mark for archers
Hill, Hillin Ḥill, Ḥillin he was free to ..., he was at liberty to ...; he had free disposal of .... The unprotected area (outside the Sanctuary) and the unprotected months. Compare with Ḥaram.
Hilla, Hillih Ḥilla(h), Pers. also Ḥillih way station, stopping place, stop, stopover; encampment; absolution (Christian); dispensation (Christian). A city in central ‘Iráq on the river Euphrates, 100 km south of Baghdád
Hilm, Hulum, Ahlam Ḥilm, pl. Ḥulúm, Aḥlám gentleness, clemency, mildness; forbearance, indulgence; patience; insight, discernment, understanding, intelligence, reason
Hilmi Ḥilmí
Hiltit, Haltit, Hiltith, Angizha Ḥiltít, Ḥaltít, Ḥiltíth, Pers. Anguzha asafoetida (assafoetida, asafoetida) hard, aromatic, resinous gum that is extruded from the rhizome or tap root of several species of Ferula, large perennial herbs of the Apiaceae or umbelliferae family. The pungent odour of this resin-based spice dissipates upon cooking, where it delivers a smooth flavour reminiscent of leeks or other onion relatives. The Báb banned its use.
Himar, Hamir, Humur, Ahmira Ḥimár, pl. Ḥamír, Ḥumur, Aḥmira donkey, ass
Himma, Himam Himma, pl. Himam endeavor, ambition
Himmat-Abad Himmat-Ábád city in Raḍawí Khurásán Ústán Province, Írán
Himmis, Hammas, Hummus, Nukhud Ḥimmiṣ, Ḥimmaṣ, Pers. Nukhúd (ḥummuṣ (collective; nomen unitatis ة)) chickpea; dried pea unit of weight ≈ 0.2 gm, Pers. a vetch [a legume], pulse [e.g. dried beans, chick peas and lentils].
Hims Ḥimṣ Homs, city in Syria 140 km north of Damascus. Previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek).
Himyar Ḥimyar place and tribe of Yemen (Himyartes)
Himyari Ḥimyarí of Ḥimyar. Ḥarbí al-Ḥimyarí was an Arab scholar from Yemen
Hin, Ahyan, Ahayin Ḥín, pl. Aḥyán, Aḥáyín time, an age; propitious time, good time, opportunity; the day of judgement. Abjad value of ḥín is 68. Hence, Shaykh Aḥmad’s “year of Ḥín” refers to AH 1268 or CE 1851–1852. Hin is an ancient Hebrew liquid measurement (mentioned in the Bible) of 3.8 to 6 litres.
Hind, Hindat Hind, pl. Hindát India; the (East) Indians; fem. name (in particular Hind bint ‘Utbah, a wife of Abú Sufyán, and the mother of Mu‘áwiyah I)
Hindi, Hunud Hindí, pl. Hunúd Ar. Indian
Hindiya (Hindiyyih) al-Hindiya(h) (Pers. Hindíyyih 1. city (on the Euphrates River, 20 km se Karbilá) and district in the Karbilá Governorate. The city used to be known as Ṭuwaíríj. 2. Saddat al-Hindíya(h) is a city on the Euphrates River in Iraq, 25 km NE of Karbilá and 8 km south of Musayyib (المسيب). Name derived from the Arabic word for “Indian”, in reference to the dozens of Indian manual labourers imported to the area by the British post World War I, to work on the cities vast agricultural lands.
Hindiyan (Hindian, Hinijan) Hindíyán (Hindíján) (Hendijan, Hendian) a city in and the capital of Hendijan County, Khuzestan Province, SW Írán
Hindu, Hinduwan Hindú, pl. Hinduwán Pers. Indian; black; servant; slave; robber; infidel; watch-man
Hindustan Hindústán Pers. India
Hinna’ (Hina) Ḥinná’ (vulgate Ḥiná) henna, a reddish-orange dye contained in the leaves. The leaves are crushed (to release the chemical lawsone) and sold as a powder. The skin and hair is dyed by the application of freshly soaked powder. Muḥammad Ḥiná-Sáz. Pers. ṣifat-i-ḥiná-i-sáz is a manufacturer of henna (a job done by a “mázár”).
Hiqf, Ahqaf Ḥiqf, pl. Aḥqáf wavy heap of sand;—pl. hills of sand extending a great way; name of a large district in Arabia formerly inhabited by the people of ‘Ád. Qur’án 46: al-Aḥqáf “The Wind-curved Sand Hills” or “The Winding Sand-tracts”
Hira Ḥirá’ Ghár Ḥirá’ (the Cave of Hira, 21.457561, 39.859395) is located at the western end (6.3 km from the centre of Mecca) of Jabal Ḥirá’ (Mount Hira). The “mountain” was renamed Jabal an-Núr after Muḥammad’s revelation in the cave. See Jabal an-Núr.
Hirah, Hirih Ḥíra(h), Ḥíri(h) al-Ḥírah was an ancient city (31.887078, 44.4804) in Mesopotamia. Located in the modern city of al-Ḥírah, it is 18 km SSE of al-Kúfah.
Hirat Hirát Pers. good fortune; a man of good fortune. Herat, Afghánistán, was once in Greater Khurásán, a historical eastern region in the Iranian Plateau between Western and Central Asia.
Hirawi Hirawí Pers. a native of Herat
Hirbud Hirbúd [Herbod or Herbud]—the mystics and holy people
Hirman Ḥirmán deprivation, bereavement, dispossession (of someone, of something) debarment, exclusion, preclusion (from); excommunication (Christian); privation
Hirz (Harz), Ahraz Ḥirz (Ḥarz), pl. Aḥráz a fortification; garrison town, castle; an amulet or charm against fascination or enchantment. Ḥirz Alláh, protection of God.
Hisa’, Ahsa’ Ḥisá’, pl. Aḥsá’ aaccumulated sand with an impermeable layer underneath. Rain will soak through the sand, be protected from evaporation by the upper sand, and be retained by the base layer, forming an aquifer. Wáḥat al-Aḥsá’ (25.429444, 49.621944) is largest oasis (also known as Wáḥat al-Ḥasá’ or Ḥadjár (locally Wáḥat al-Aḥasá)) in the world, largest date production, and birthplace of Shaykh Aḥmad al-Aḥsá’í. al-Hufúf (al-Hufuf) is the major urban centre in the oasis. It is in eastern Saudi Arabia, about 125 km SW of Bahrain. See Qurayn.
Hisab, Hisabat Ḥisáb, pl. Ḥisábát arithmetic, reckoning, calculus; computation; calculation, estimation, appraisal; accounting, settlement; consideration; caution;— (pl.) bill, invoice; statement of costs (bank) account
Hisan, Husan, Ahsina Ḥiṣán, pl. Ḥuṣun, Aḥsina horse; stallion; Ḥiṣán al-baḥr: hippopotamus (Ancient Greek, Hippos, Aramaic, Sussita, names of ancient city east side Sea of Galilee)
Hisar Ḥiṣár block, blockage, barrier; blockade; siege. A town in Khurásán province.
Hisham Hishám Pers. beneficence, liberality. Hishám ibn ‘Abdu’l-Malik, 10th Umayyad Caliph
Hishma Ḥishma[h or t] (fem.) shame, bashfulness, timidity, diffidence; modesty; decency, decorum
Hishmat Ḥishmat decorum, chastity, bashful, modesty (fem.)
Hishmatu’d-Dawlih Ḥishmatu’d-Dawlih
Hishmatu’llah Ḥishmatu’lláh “chaste one of God”
Hisn, Husun Ḥiṣn, pl. Ḥuṣún fortress, fort, castle, citadel, stronghold; fortification, entrenchment; protection
Hitta Ḥiṭṭa(t) remission of sins (pardon), taxes, or burdens; a prayer for a remission (of sins); alleviation, relief, mitigation; abasement, debasement, demotion, degradation (in rank, dignity, prestige); humiliation, insult, indignity
Hizam, Hizamat, Ahzima, Huzum Ḥizám, pl. Ḥizámát, Aḥzima, Ḥuzum belt, girth; girdle; cummerbund, waistband (worn over the caftan to fasten it); sword belt
Hizar (Hezar) Hizár joking, jesting, fun-making. Used in Persian with the same meaning as Hazár. A village (29.886533, 52.518113) in Fars Province.
Hizar Dastan Hizár Dastán Pers. “thousand songs”
Hizavih Hizávih (Hazaveh, Hazareh, Hizaveh, and Hizawah) village 17 km NW of Arák (Sulṭán Ábád), Markazi Province, Írán
Hizb ash-Shaytan Ḥizb ash-Shayṭán “Party of Satan” Qur’án 58:19
Hizb, Ahzab Ḥizb, pl. Aḥzab group, troop, band, cohort, gang; associates, auxiliaries, confederates; arms, armour; party (politics); a 60th part of the Qur’án
Hizbu’llah (Hezbollah, Hizbullah) Ḥizbu’lláh “Party of Allah” or “Party of God”. Name of a Shí‘a Islamist political party and militant group based in Lebanon.
Hizqil Ḥizqíl Pers. Ezekiel
Hubal (Hobal) Hubal a god worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia, notably by Quraysh at the Ka‘bah in Mecca. His idol was a human figure, believed to control acts of divination, which was in the form of tossing arrows before the statue. The direction in which the arrows pointed answered questions asked of the idol.
Hubb Ḥubb love; affection, attachment. ḥubbu’l-waṭan, love of one’s country, patriotism. ḥubbu’l-waṭani mina’l-i’mán, love of country (is an article) of religion (a Muslim saying) (cited by Bahá’u’lláh, Gleanings, p. 95).
Hubbu’llah Ḥubbu’lláh Love of God
Hubur Ḥubúr joy. Ḥubúr (Hobour) Khánum
Hud Húd a prophet sent to the tribe of ‘Ád. He is a descendant of Noah.
Huda Hudá guiding, showing the right way, right guidance
Hudaybiyyah (Hudaibiyyah, Hudaybiyah) Ḥudaybiyya(h) Treaty of Ḥudaybiyyah (Ṣalaḥ al-Ḥadaybiyyah), in 628 (AH 6), at al-Ḥudaybiyyah spring 20 km WNW of Mecca on the Old Mecca-Jiddah Road. This was a pivotal treaty between Muḥammad, representing the state of Medina, and the Quraysh tribe of Mecca. The ruins of an old mosque marking the site is at 21.441960, 39.625601. Sometimes written as Ḥudaybiya and Ḥudaybíyya.
Huduri Ḥuḍúrí ḥuḍúrí (presence of) aḥkám (judgements)—judgements delivered in the presence of the litigant parties after oral proceedings. Imám’s knowledge is inspired since it is obtained “in the presence of” (ḥuḍúrí) God.
Huduth Ḥudúth setting in (of a state or condition), occurrence, incidence (of a phenomenon); occurrence, incident, happening; appearing; being new, fresh, young; novelty, originality, invention (creation). “originated nature”—contrast with Imkán (Gate of the heart, p. 189)
Hujaja’l Bahiya al-Ḥújaja’l-Bahíya (Pers. al-Ḥújaja’l-Bahiyyih) beautiful proofs, translated as The Bahá’í Proofs, by Mírzá Abu’l-Faḍl
Hujja, Hujaj Ḥujja(h or t), pl. Ḥújaj argument; pretense, pretext, plea; proof, evidence; document, writ, deed, record; authority. A term used in Shí‘í terminology meaning “proof [implied: proof of God]”. It is usually used to refer to a single individual in any given human era who represents God’s “proof” to humanity. The ḥujja is a prophet or an Imám who possess a relationship with God that is greater than anyone else. “Ḥujahs” in The Promised Day is Come, p. 97 should be Ḥújaj.
Hujja ala al-kull ḥujja alá al-kull “proof for all”. The Báb’s praise for Qurratu’l-‘Ayn
Hujjat’u’llah Ḥujjat’u’lláh the proof of God. The last Imám is known as the Proof of God. Title given to an aspiring mujtahid.
Hujjatiya (Hojjatieh) Ḥujjatíya(h) Ḥujjatíyya Society, Írán, was started by Shaykh Maḥmúd Ḥalabí to persecute and harass the Bahá’ís. Ánjuman Khayríya Ḥujjatíyah Mahdíyah (“Charitable Society of Allah’s Proof Over Creation”). The Hojjatieh Society (1953–1983), Írán, was a traditionalist Iranian Shi’a lay religious organization that promoted orthodoxy through non-violent evangelism. Both groups aimed to counter the proofs offered by the Bahá’í Faith.
Hujjatu’l-Islam Ḥujjatu’l-Islám Proof of Islám. Mullá Muḥammad-‘Alí of Zanján was called Ḥujjatu’l-Islám. The Báb called him Ḥujjatu’l-Zanjání.
Hujr, Hajara, Hijr, Hujr, Hijran, Hujran Ḥujr, Ḥajara to deny access (Ḥajr, Ḥijr, Ḥujr, Ḥijrán, Ḥujrán)
Hujra, Hujarat, Hujar Ḥujra, pl. Ḥujarát, Ḥujar Ar. room; cell; (railroad) compartment; chamber
Hujrat (Hujrih), Hujra, Hujarat Ḥujrat, Ḥujra, pl. Ḥujarát Pers. a chamber, closet, cell; a box in a theatre, circus
Hukm, Ahkam Ḥukm, pl. Aḥkám (logic) judgement, valuation, opinion; decision, (legal) judgement, verdict, sentence; condemnation, conviction; administration of justice; jurisdiction, legal consequence of the facts of a case (Islamic Law); regulation, rule, provision, order, ordinance, decree; judiciousness, wisdom, judgeship, command, authority, control, dominion, power; government, regime;—pl. statutes, by-laws, regulations, rules, provisions, stipulations, principles, precepts
Hukuma, Hukumat Ḥukúma(t), pl. Ḥukúmát government
Hulayfa Ḥulayfa(h) a name of a medicinal seed. Dhu’l-Ḥulayfah (now a suburb), 5 km SW of the centre of Medina one of several Mawáqí (places where the iḥrám is put on) for Muslims on pilgrimage to Mecca for ‘Umrah or Ḥajj. Ritual established by Muḥammad in 628, when He and about sixteen hundred men set out on pilgrimage to Mecca.
Hulul Ḥulúl stopping, putting up, staying; descending, coming on, befalling, overtaking; incarnation; setting in, advent, arrival (of a time, of a deadline), beginning, dawn; substitution (for someone). In the sense of incarnation: the descent of God or the spirit of God into a person.
Huma (Homa) Humá Pers. a bird of Eastern fable, supposed to fly constantly in the air without touching the ground, and looked upon as a bird of happy omen, prognosticating a crown to every head it overshades; a bird of paradise, phoenix, large royal eagle, or pelican. Fem. name.
Humay Humáy Pers. a queen of Persia, grandmother to Dáráb II; name of a sister of Isfandyár; name of a daughter of Bahman; name of a daughter of the Emperor of Constantinople married to Bahrám Gúr; name of the lover of Humáyún; a standard bearing a figure of the bird humá.
Humayun Humáyún Pers. blessed, sacred, fortunate, august, royal, imperial; name of several kings; name of the mistress of Humáy
Humaza Humaza(h or t) one who defames or reproaches (especially a person present)
Humazatun Humazatun one given to backbiting, defamer, slander-monger
Humma, Hummayat Ḥumma[h or t] fem., Ḥummayát blackness, swarthiness, dark colouration; fever.
Hums Ḥums al-Ḥums is the name traditionally given to the inhabitants of the ḥaram of Mecca at the time of Muḥammad’s appearance, in so far as they were distinguished by special customs during the iḥrám from the other tribes who were together known as al-Ḥilla.
Hunar Hunar Pers. skill, science, knowledge, ingenuity, art, industry, excellence, virtue; profession; a bill of exchange
Hunayn (Hunain) Ḥunayn Battle of Ḥunayn (Qur’án 9:25) in a valley (21.523122, 40.141720) between Mecca and the city of Ṭá’if to the east of Mecca
Huquq Ḥuqúq rights
Hur-i-‘Ujab Ḥúr-i-‘Ujáb “The Wondrous Maiden” by Bahá’u’lláh
Hurayra (Huraira), Hurayrih Hurayra(h), Pers. also Hurayrih a little cat or kitten. Spelling variations of i or y, and endings of “ah” or “ih”. Surname given to Abú Hurayrih ‘Abdu’r-Raḥmán bin Sakhr (a companion of Muḥammad) because he carried a kitten with him. A village (33.669543, 36.120067) 24 km NW of central Damascus, Syria.
Huriy, Huri, Hur (“Huris”), Huran Ḥúríy (Pers. Ḥúrí), pl. Ḥúr Pers and Turkish short form for houri (“huri”). Plural ḥúr also used as sing. with plural ḥúrán. See ḥúríya.
Huriya, Huriyat, Hur Ḥúríya[h or t] (fem.), pl. Ḥúríyát, Ḥúr houri (a beautriful young woman), virgin of paradise; nymph; young locust. Adjective, literally, “white one”. Assumed meaning attached to a number of verses in the Qur’án where “Companions” in Paradise, those with “with large and beautiful eyes” or biḥúrin (“fair ones (with) large eyes”) are mentioned. “Most Great Spirit” symbolized by the “Maiden” (Bahá’u’lláh); formerly the “Sacred Fire” (Zoroastrian), “Burning Bush” (Mosaic), “Dove” (Christian) and “Angel Gabriel” (Islam). See aḥwár.
Hurmuduk (Hurmuzak) Húrmudúk Hormodok, small village 55 km SW of Yazd. 5.5 km by road from the village of Sakhvíd (Sakhoid) (to the NW)
Hurmuz (Hormuz), Hurmuzd (Hormuzd) Hurmúz, Hurmúzd Pers. name of an angel; the first day of the solar month; the planet Jupiter; name of the grandson of Isfandíyár; Strait of Hurmúz (Tang-i-Hurmúz) between Írán and Oman
Hurmuzan (Hormuzan, Hormazdan) Hurmuzán was an Iranian aristocrat who served as the governor of Khúzistán, and was one of the Sasanian military officers at the Battle of al-Qádisiyyah. He was later taken prisoner by the Muslims after the fall of Shúshtar in 642.
Hurqalya, Havarqalya Húrqalyá, Havarqalyá (speculative Pers.) intermediary world between the physical and spiritual worlds. Everything in the physical world has its counterpart in the world of Húrqalyá. Each individual human being has two bodies, one of which exists in the physical world and one in Húrqalyá. The occulted but living twelfth Imám and the cities of Jábulsá and Jábulqá, where he is supposed to live, all exist in the realm of Húrqalyá. Introduction to Shi‘i Islam, Moojan Momen, p. 227. From Hebrew רָקִיעַ (firmament, sky, ductile, heaven, expanse, canopy).[1]

1See www.scribd.com/document/ 21263244/HURQALYA-HAVARQALYA and The development of Shaykhí thought in Shí‘í Islam, pp. 106–7
Hurr, Ahrar, Hara’ir Ḥurr, pl. m. Aḥrár, f. Ḥará’ir noble, free-born; genuine (jewels, etc.), pure, unadulterated; free; living in freedom; freeman; independent; free unrestrained; liberal. al-Ḥurr ibn Yazíd bin an-Nájiyah at-Tamímí al-Yarbú‘í ar-Riyáḥí was the general of the Umayyad army dispatched from Kúfa, ‘Iráq to intercept al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alí ibn Abú Ṭálib.
Hurriya al-‘Ibada Ḥurriya al-‘Ibada freedom of worship
Hurriya al-Fikr Ḥurriya al-Fikr freedom of thought
Hurriya al-Kalam Ḥurriya al-Kalam freedom of speech
Hurriya an-Naṣr Ḥurriya an-Naṣr liberty of the press
Hurriya, Huriyat Ḥurriya, Pers. Ḥurriyyah, pl. Ḥurriyát freedom, liberty; independence, unrestraint, licence (e.g., poetic)
Huruf al-Hayy, Huruf-i-Hayy Ḥurúf al-Ḥayy, Pers. Ḥurúf-i-Ḥayy Letters of the Living. Supposedly 18 in Islam: Muḥammad, Fáṭimah, 12 Imams, and 4 gates. The 18 Bábí “Letters of the Living” (see the table towards the end of this document), were the “first Letters generated from the Primal Point” (the Báb, who is not a “Letter of the Living”). The abjad value of Ḥayy is 18, hence Ḥurúf al-Ḥayy refers to the number 18. See Muḥammad Afnán, “Number of the Letters of the Living”. Lights of Irfán, Vol. 5, p. 217. https://bahai-library.com/afnan_number_letters_living. See Ḥarf and Sábiq.
Huruf Muqatta’at Ḥurúf Muqaṭṭa‘át (or just Muqaṭṭa‘át) “disjoined letters”, “disconnected letters”, and also “mysterious letters” are combinations of one to five Arabic letters following the Bismi’lláh at the beginning of 29 suras of the Qur’án. The Arabic text of the Qur’án is written with full diacritical marks. However, the disconnected letters are written together without diacritical marks and are pronounced individually. The letters are also known as fawátiḥ or “openers” as they form the opening verse of their respective suras. Four suras are named for their muqaṭṭa‘át: Ṭá’ Há’, Yá-Sín, Ṣád and Qáf. See Muqaṭṭa‘ and Fátiḥa.
Huruf Qamariya al-Ḥurúf al-Qamaríya(h) (Pers. Ḥurúfi Qamaríyya(h)) the moon letters (grammar) (to which the l of the definite article “al” does not assimilate
Huruf Shamsiya al-Ḥurúf ash-Shamsíya(h) (Pers. Ḥurúfi Shamsíyya(h)) the solar (sun) letters (grammar) which assimilate the l of the definite article “al”
Hurufat-i-‘Alin Ḥurúfát-i-‘Álín The Exalted letters by Bahá’u’lláh. See Ḥarf
Hurufi Ḥurúfí (Pers. with Ar. influence) a relator of traditions, a traditionist. See singular Ḥarf
Hurufiyyya Ḥurúfiyyya Hurufism, Sufi doctrine. Not ḥurúfís (MCI , p. 403)
Husam (Hisam) Ḥusám (Ḥisám) (sharp) sword, sword edge
Husam-i-Din, Hisam-i-Din Ḥusám-i-Dín (Ḥisám-i-Dín) sword of faith
Husamu’s-Sultana, Hisamu’s-Saltanih Ḥusámu’s-Sulṭana (Ḥisámu’s-Salṭanih) “Sword of the sovereign”. Title of Prince Sulṭán Murád Mírzá, son of ‘Abbás Mírzá and grandson of Fatḥ-‘Alí Sháh.
Husayn Ḥusayn (diminutive form of Haṣan “Good”) Name of the third Imám, Ḥusayn. Khawlí bin Yazíd al-Aṣbaḥí al-Iyádí ad-Dárimí and Ḥumayd bin Muslim az-Azdí took Ḥusayn’s head to Ibn Ziyád
Husayn-‘Ali Ḥusayn-‘Alí
Husayn-‘Aliy-i-Isfahani Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Iṣfahání
Husayn-‘Aliy-i-Jahrumi Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Jahrúmí
Husayn-‘Aliy-i-Nur Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Núr (GPB p. 338)
Husayn-‘Aliy-i-Nuri Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Núrí Ḥusayn-‘Alíy-i-Núrí, Mírzá Bahá’u’lláh
Husayn-Abad Ḥusayn-Ábád
Husayn-Aqa Ḥusayn-Áqá (MF)
Husayn-Aqay-i-Tabrizi Ḥusayn-Áqáy-i-Tabrízí (MF)
Husayn-i-Ashchi Ḥusayn-i-Áshchí
Husayn-i-Bushru’i Ḥusayn-i-Bushrú’í Muḥammad-Ḥusayn-i-Bushrú’í, Mullá From Bushrúyih, Khurásán
Husayn-i-Kashani Ḥusayn-i-Káshání
Husayn-i-Kashi Ḥusayn-i-Káshí
Husayn-i-Shiraziy-i-Khurtumi Ḥusayn-i-Shírázíy-i-Khurṭúmí
Husayn-i-Turshizi Ḥusayn-i-Turshízí
Husayn-i-Yazdi Ḥusayn-i-Yazdí
Husayn-ibn-Ruh Ḥusayn-ibn-Rúḥ (one of “Four Gates”)
Husayn-Khan Ḥusayn-Khán (the Mushiru’d-Dawlih)
Husayni Ḥusayní of Ḥusayn
Husayniya, Husayniyyih Ḥusayníya, Pers. Ḥusayniyyih a congregation hall for Shí‘a Muslims to hold commemoration ceremonies to mourn the death of Imám Ḥusayn
Husaynzada Ḥusaynzáda Pers. (Ḥusayn+záda), a surname
Husban Ḥusbán calculation, reckoning, accounting; computation. bi-Ḥuṣbán “By final calculation”
Hushang (Hoshang) Húshang Pers. name of the second king of Persia, of the Peshdadian dynasty; wisdom, prudence, intellect. “The first emanation, intelligence”
Hushidar (Hoshidar) Hushidár Pers. (or Úshídar) attend, be careful, warning. One who increases holiness or promotes righteousness; name of a future saviour (the Báb). Zoroastrian origin. See Úshídar-Máh.
Hushmand shmand Pers. wise
Husn Ḥusn beauty, handsomeness, prettiness, loveliness; excellence, superiority, perfection
Husn al-Madkhal Ḥusn al-Madkhal good manners, good conduct
Husni-Farang Ḥusní-Farang Pers. white, as the complexion of Europeans
Husniya, Husniyyih Ḥusniya[h or t] fem., Pers. Ḥusníyyih possessing beauty
Huss Ḥuṡṣ saffron. See za‘farán
Huwa (Pers. Huva), Hum Huwa, pl. Hum he; it (3rd pers. m. sing. of the pers. pronoun); God (or “the Most Great Name of God” according to the Báb). Huwa (“he” or “he is”) in the context of “‘He is’ God” is often incorrectly understood (as in the definition) to be the name of God. In the Bible it is represented in Hebrew by the tetragrammaton “YHWH”, sometimes pronounced as Yahweh. However, the Jews were forbidden to utter the name of God, and as ancient Hebrew script did not use vowels, it is not known how YHWH would have been pronounced, if it was permitted. If we say “yá huwa” in Arabic in reference to God, it means “O He is ...”. Since Hebrew and Arabic are sister languages, it is not surprising that “yá huwa” sounds like Yahweh, which has commonly been represented by Jehovah. (In some European languages the “J” is pronounced as “Y”, “V” as “U”, and “W” as “UU”.) See note under Bahá’.
Huwa’llah Huwa’lláh “He is God” (Huwa + Alláh). Replacement phrase for the Islamic “There is none other God but God” in this dispensation (removal of the negation) (see Lawḥ-i-Salmán I). The command confirming the removal of the letter of negation, as described in the Tablet of Salmán I, is believed to be in the Kitáb-i-‘Ahd, the Will and Testament of Bahá’u’lláh, that established the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh and appointed its Centre, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
Huwayda (Huwaida, Hoveida) Huwaydá Pers. clear, evident, open, manifest, conspicuous; pale; clearly, publicly. Amír ‘Abbás Hoveyda (1919–1979) was an Iranian economist and politician. He was tried by the new (1979) Revolutionary Court and executed.
Huwaydar, Huvaydar Huwaydar, Pers. Huvaydar village north of the city Ba‘qúba, which is 60 km NE of Baghdád
Huwiya (Pers. Huviyya) Huwíya[h or t], Pers. Huwiyya[h or t] essence, nature; coessentiality, consubstantiality; identity; identity card. “Essence of Divinity”. Pers, also Huviyyih. Name given by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá to Inez Cook (later Greeven) (1889–1983). Also name of one of four daughters of Ibn-i Aṣdaq and Ḍiyá’u’l-Ḥájiyyih.
Huzn, Hazan, Ahzan Ḥuzn, Pers. Ḥazan, pl. Aḥzán grief, sadness, affliction, sorrow
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Plain text Transcripted text Word meanings & comments
I
I‘tidal I‘tidál moderation
I’jam I‘jám marking a consonant (Arabic) with diacritical points
I’jaz I‘jáz inimitability, wondrous nature (of the Qur’án—I‘jáz al-Qur’án). See ahdá
I’qilhá wa tawakkal I‘qilhá wa tawakkal Tie up (your camel) and trust (in God)—in Tirmidhi’s collection of traditions
I’rab (“a’rab”, “A’rabs”) I‘ráb manifestation, declaration, proclamation, pronouncement, utterance; expression (of a sentiment); desinential inflection (grammar: inflectional endings (nom., accus. and gen,). However, also more broadly defined as speaking or reasoning in Arabic; inflecting, declining in an Arabic noun or verb; the vowels and diacritical points in Arabic.
I’rab (A’rab) I‘ráb manifestation, declaration, proclamation, pronouncement, utterance; speaking, reasoning in Arabic; inflecting, declining in an Arabic noun or verb; the vowels and diacritical points in Arabic. An Arabic term for the system of nominal, adjectival, or verbal suffixes of Classical Arabic. Literally means “making [the word] Arabic”, “making a thing expressed, disclosed or eloquent” (variation IV of ‘Arab). Grammatical cases: the nominative (al-marfú‘); the accusative (al-manṣúb); the genitive case (al-majrúr). For fully declined nouns the case endings are -u, -a, -i (nominative, accusative, and genitive case respectively), with the addition of a final “n” (nunnation, or tanwín) when the word is indefinite. Also applies to feminine nouns ending in ة “-a” or “-at) (tá’ marbúṭah) and ء hamzah, but for these, ا alif is not written in the accusative case. When the noun is made definite, such as by adding the definite article (al-) to it, then there is no nunation, that is, without the “n” at the end of the suffix. The masculine plural endings are: -ún, -án and -ín. Feminine plural endings are generally -át.
I’tidad (I’tizad, E’tezad) I‘tiḍád begging assistance; taking or putting under the arm
I’tidad as-Saltana (E’tezadol-Saltaneh) I‘tiḍád as-Salṭana honorary title, one given to ‘Alí Qulí Mírzá Qájár (1822-1880), a son of Fatḥ-‘Alí Sháh. Chancellor of the Dár’u’l-Funún (“polytechnic”) school, he established the Iranian Ministry of Science in 1855 and he was first minister of Science for its first 22 years. He was also the Minister of Telegraphic Industries and served as head of Persia’s printing office a number of times.
I’tikaf I‘tikáf continuing in prayer, remaining constantly in the mosque; retirement, seclusion (in a place of worship); restraining one’s passions from religious motives; constant devotions.
I’timad, I’timadat I‘timád, pl. I‘timádát reliance, dependence (on), confidence, trust (in); confirmation; sanction, approbation, authorization; accreditation (of diplomats);—(pl.) credit, loan
I’timadu’d-Dawlih I‘timádu’d-Dawlih “Trusted of the state”. Mírzá Áqá Khán-i-Núrí, the I‘timádu’d-Dawlih, chief minister of state at time of the attempt on the Sháh’s life by a crazed Bábi, August 1852.
I’timadu’t-Tujjar I‘timádu’t-Tujjár
I’tiqad, I’taqadat I‘tiqád, pl. I‘tiqádát (firm) belief, faith, trust, confidence, conviction;—pl. (religious) creed, faith; article of faith; principle of faith, tenet; doctrine; dogma
I’tiraf, I’tirafat I‘tiráf, pl. I‘tiráfát recognition, acceptance; acknowledgment, avowal, admission, confession; (Christian) confession
I’tisam (E’tisam) I‘tiṣám clinging, adherence (to), maintenance, preservation, guarding, safeguarding
Ibada, ‘Ibadat ‘Ibáda(t), pl. ‘Ibádát worship, adoration, veneration; devotional service, divine service (Christian);—pl. acts of devotion, religious observances (Islamic Law)
Ibadu’llah ‘Ibádu’lláh worshippers of God
Ibaha, Ibahih Ibáḥa(h), Pers. Ibáḥih divulgence, disclosure (of a secret); permission, authorization; licentiousness. “Permission” or abrogation of Islamic law on return of the Hidden Imám.
Ibda‘ Ibdá‘ creation, fashioning, shaping; a marvellous, unique achievement; uniqueness, singularity, originality; creative ability
Ibda’i Ibdá‘í romantic (literally)
Ibda’iya Ibdá‘íya romanticism (literally)
Ibdal Ibdál exchange, interchange, replacement (by), substitution (of); change; phonetic change.
Iblis (Eblis), Abalisa Iblís, pl. Abálisa devil, Satan. A figure often occurring in the Qur’án, regarded by many classical scholars as an angel, but as a jinn in most contemporary scholarship.
Ibn ‘Arabi Ibn ‘Arabí ʻAbd Alláh Muḥammad ibn al-ʻArabí aṭ-Ṭá’í al-Ḥátimí (1165–1240), nicknamed al-Qushayrí and Sulṭán al-‘Árifín (‘Sultan of the Knowers’), was an Arab Andalusian Muslim scholar, mystic, poet, and philosopher. He was extremely influential within Islamic thought.
Ibn, Abna’, Banun, Bani, Banin, Banu Ibn, (colloquial bin), pl. Abná’, Banún son; descendant, scion; offspring, son (of a nation or people). Use ibn at the start of a name, not bin. Other plurals: baní, banín and banú. Sometimes bin is contracted as “b.”. Usually lowercase used in names. Turkish oğlu (son (of), ughlú, “oghlu”, “oghlou”, is also used as a suffix). In Persian also púr (“pur”), e.g. púri Síná. See ‘Amm.
Ibna, Bint, Banat Ibna(t) (colloquial bint), pl. Banát feminine of ibn. daughter; bint girl. Usually lowercase used in names. See ‘Amm.
Ibnu’l-, Ibn-i- Ibnu’l-, Pers. Ibn-i- elided forms of ibn
Ibnu’l-Alusi Ibnu’l-Álúsí the chief jurisconsult [muftí] of Baghdád—one of the five sons of the famous Shaykh Maḥmúd al-Álúsí. Probably one of the three eldest: ‘Abdu’lláh, Bahá’u’d-Dín; ‘Abdu’l-Baqí‘; and Siyyid Na‘mán, Khayru’d-Dín.
Ibrahim Ibráhím (Abraham) Patriarch of the people of Israel. Variations: ibráhim, ibráhum, ibráham, or ibráhúm.
Ibrahim-i-Isfahani Ibráhím-i-Iṣfahání
Ibrahim-i-Khalil Ibráhím-i-Khalíl
Ibrahim-i-Khayru’llah Ibráhím-i-Khayru’lláh Syrian doctor, the first Bahá’í teacher in America, and later joined forces with Muḥammad-‘Ali, the half-brother of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. His English wife, Miriam, remained loyal to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and later they were divorced. Refer to Balyuzi: Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá’í Faith, pp. 114–117.
Ibrani Ibrání Hebrew, Hebraic; a Hebrew
Ibtihaj Ibtiháj joy, rejoicing, delight (at)
Ibtihaju’l-Mulk Ibtiháju’l-Mulk Ibtiháju’l-Mulk of Gílán
Id (Eid), ‘Ayad ‘Íd, pl. ‘Ayád anything which returns (of care, grief, or sickness); a solemnity, feast, festival, holiday;—pl. manners, customs, habits
Id al-Adha ‘Íd al-Aḍḥá the Feast of Immolation (see Aḍḥan), or Greater Bayrám, on the 10th of Dhu’l-Ḥijjah
Id al-Fitr ‘Íd al-Fiṭr Feast of Breaking the Ramaḍán Feast, or Lesser Bayrám, celebrated on the 1st of Shawwál
Id al-Mab’ath ‘Íd al-Mab‘ath Feast of Resurgence commemorating revelation of first verses to Muḥammad in 10 August CE 610, celebrated on 27 Rajab
Idafa (Izafa, Izafe, Ezafe, Izofa) Iḍáfa[h or t] Arabic (إِضَافَة): addition, apposition; annexation, appending, attachment, augmentation, supplementation; assignment, allocation; ascription, attribution (to); genitive construction (grammar) mostly used to indicate possession. In Persian (اضافه, literal meaning “extra” or “added”), it is a grammatical particle (also Persian influenced languages, e.g. Turkish), that links two words together. In Persian it consists of the unstressed short vowel -e or -i- (y-e or y-i- after long vowels) between the words it connects and often approximately corresponds to the English preposition “of”. The iḍáfah is generally not indicated in Persian script, which is also normally written without short vowels. Possessive: barádar-i-Maryam “Maryam’s brother” (it can also apply to pronominal possession, barádar-i-man “my brother”. Adjective-noun: barádar-i-buzurg “the big brother”. Given name/title-of family name: Muḥammad-i-Muṣaddiq, ágháy-i-Muṣaddiq “Mr Mosaddeq”. Linking two nouns: khiyábán-i-Tiḥrán “Tehran Street” or “Road to Tehran”.
Idafiya (Idafiyyah) Iḍáfíya(h) relativity or correlational (philosophical)
Idal ‘Idál justice. See ‘adl
Idbar Idbár flight, retreat; “turn around”
Idda (‘Iddah, ‘Iddat) ‘Idda number; several, numerous, many. ‘iddat, legally prescribed period of waiting during which a woman may not remarry after being widowed or divorced (Islamic Law)